Alternate Route: Toward Efficient Urban Transportation (Google eBoek)
Urban transportation problems abound across America, including jammed highways during rush-hours, deteriorating bus service, and strong pressures to build new rail systems. Most solutions attempt either to increase transportation capacity (by building more roads and expanding mass transit) or to manage existing capacity (through HOV restrictions, exclusive bus lanes, and employer-based policies such as flexible work hours). This book develops an alternative solution to urban transportation problems based on economic analysis, but well aware of the political constraints on policymakers. The authors estimate that efficient pricing and service policies could save more than $10 billion in annual net benefits over current practices, but argue that powerful, entrenched political and institutional forces will continue to thwart efficient economic solutions to improve urban transportation. They believe, however, that some form of privatization would likely improve social welfare more than an efficient public sector system. Facing fewer operating restrictions, greater economic incentives, and stronger competitive pressures, private suppliers could substantially improve the efficiency of urban operations and offer services that are more responsive to the needs of all types of travelers. The authors conclude that policymakers have bestowed huge benefits on the public by allowing the private sector to play a leading and unencumbered role in the provision of intercity transportation. Public officials should take the next step and allow the private sector to play a leading role in the provision of urban transportation.
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Travelers Preferences for Urban Transportation
The Economic Effects of NetBenefit Maximization
Sources of Inefficiencies
An Alternative Route Privatization
attribute equations auto Automobile Travel Average fare average load factors billion bus and rail bus fares Bus frequency bus operations bus service bus systems carpool cities Clifford Winston commute distance commuters as percent competition congestion pricing congestion tolls deficits Department of Transportation deregulation dollars effect estimated Federal Highway Administration Governor-appointed transit authorities grant money greater heavy rail improve increases inefficiencies influence light rail load factors marginal costs mass transit miles in planning mode and departure mode choice mode share net-benefit maximization older than 16 passenger mile percent of persons persons older policymaking entities political Population density prices and frequencies prices and service private bus public transit rail operations rail systems reduced road road pricing route coverage route decisions sector service frequency Table taxi traffic Transit Operating transit systems Transport Economics travel behavior urban transit urban transportation policy urban transportation system urbanized area variables Washington welfare loss
Pagina 3 - An electric railway with the capacity for a "heavy volume" of traffic and characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multi-car trains, high speed and rapid acceleration, sophisticated signaling, and high platform loading.
Pagina v - Institution, is ó to make possible the conduct of scientific research and publication, under the most favorable conditions, and to safeguard the independence of the research staff in the pursuit of their studies and in the publication of the result of such studies. It is not a part of their function to determine, control, or influence the conduct of particular investigations or the conclusions reached.
Pagina 14 - Kenneth A. Small, Clifford Winston, and Carol A. Evans, Road Work: A New Highway Pricing and Investment Policy (Brookings, 1989).
Pagina 18 - ... Generalizing from this example, the trillion dollars spent over the next 20 years might result in expanded transportation capacity that eventually faces the same problems as before. This is an illustration of Downs's (1962) law: On urban commuter expressways, peak-hour traffic congestion rises to meet maximum capacity, because commuters shift from less preferred modes and times of day. This cycle can be broken only if infrastructure is priced and invested in more efficiently. If the pothole-laden...