The Philosophy of Manufactures: Or, An Exposition of the Scientific, Moral, and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain

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C. Knight, 1835 - 480 pagina's
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Pagina 21 - It is, in fact, the constant aim and tendency of every improvement in machinery to supersede human labour altogether, or to diminish its cost, by substituting the industry of women and children for that of men; or that of ordinary labourers, for trained artisans.
Pagina 1 - MANUFACTURE is a word, which, in the vicissitude of language, has come to signify the reverse of its intrinsicmeaning, for it now denotes every extensive product of art, which is made by machinery, with little or no aid of the human hand ; so that the most perfect manufacture is that which dispenses entirely with manual labour.
Pagina 356 - ... or before seven o'clock in the morning or after ten o'clock in the evening of any day.
Pagina 299 - I have visited many factories, both in Manchester and in the surrounding districts, during a period of several months, entering the spinning rooms, unexpectedly, and often alone, at different times of the day, and I never saw a single instance of corporal chastisement inflicted on a child, nor indeed did I ever see children in ill-humour. They seemed to be always cheerful and alert, taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles, enjoying the mobility natural to their age.
Pagina 281 - They said they had no fault to find with their wages, their work, or their masters, but the Union obliged them to turn out. The same week three delegates from the Spinners' Union waited upon us at our mill, and dictated certain advances in wages, and other regulations, to which, if we would not adhere, they said neither our own spinners nor any other should work for us again.
Pagina 13 - To devise and administer a successful code of factory discipline, suited to the necessities of factory diligence, was the Herculean enterprise, the noble achievement of Arkwright.
Pagina 18 - By the infirmity of human nature it happens, that the more skilful the workman, the more self-willed and intractable he is apt to become, and, of course, the less fit a component of a mechanical system, in which, by occasional irregularities, he may do great damage to the whole. The grand object therefore of the modern manufacturer is, through the union of capital and science, to reduce the task of his work-people to the exercise of vigilance and dexterity, — faculties, when concentred to one process,...
Pagina 13 - Arkwright alone had the sagacity to discern, and the boldness to predict, in glowing language, how vastly productive human industry would become, when no longer proportioned in its results to muscular effort, which is by its nature fitful and capricious, but when made to consist in the task of guiding the work of mechanical fingers and arms, regularly impelled, with great velocity, by some indefatigable physical power.
Pagina 365 - He produced in the course of a few months a machine apparently instinct with the thought, feeling, and tact of the experienced workman — which even in its infancy displayed a new principle of regulation, ready in its mature state to fulfil the functions of a finished spinner. Thus the Iron Man, as the operatives fitly call it, sprung out of the hands of our modern Prometheus at the bidding of Minerva — a creation destined to restore order among the industrious classes, and to confirm to Great...
Pagina 257 - There is hardly any considerable house in Lyons, in which there is not a partner who owes his place in it to his success as an artist. The town of Lyons is so conscious of the value of such studies, that it contributes 20,000 francs per annum to the government establishment of the School of Arts, which takes charge of every youth who shows an aptitude for drawing, or imitative design of any kind, applicable to manufactures. Hence all the eminent, painters, sculptors, even botanists and florists of...

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