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High o'er his back th' insulting billow rides,
By wanton man usurp'd, and itain'd with blood.' There is harmony, and lively colouring, in the foregoing description; but those who have been present at a stag hunting, at this most romantic place, assure us, that it is not in the power of pen, or pencil, to do justice to the wonderful and delightful scene. There is no possibility of painting the enchanting faunds that are heard, on such occasions; the repercussive echo and clangor of the French horns, mingled with the cry of the hounds, and the shouts of the sportsmen : all reverberated from the rocks and mountains, in a manner that at once astonishes the spectator, and fills him with rapture un. known before, and uiterly inexpreslible !
ART. VIII. Genuine Letters from a Gentleman to a young Lady bis Pupil. Calculated to form the Tale, regulate the Judgment, and improve the Mirals. Written fome rears fince. Now firit revised and published with Notes and Illustrations, by Thomas Hull, of the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden.
2 Vols. 6 s. sewed.
HESE Letters are published with a view to their being
useful in the education of young people of both sexes ; and thry are in many respects well calculated to answer that laudable intention. They breathe a strain of the purest moraJity ; anil, while they tend to form the heart to virtue, they open the und:s!'anding, and improve the taste. It were to be wifed huwever, that ihe Editor had omitted a number of frivo'ou c inmunications, which serve only to lwell them into a superfluous lize, and that he had given an higher polith to their ft le and m nier. Their Author appears to be a man of good tense and probity, and in every respect well qualified to act in the capacity of rutor.
The following Letter on Allegory and Fable will afford no unfavourable specimen of the merit of the whole :
• Allegory is faid' :o be a string of metaphors; but I think this description dele&tive; for unless that series of metaphors depends on some one particular point, it is either a faulty allegory, or, rather, no allegory at all. To explain what I mean, I will quote a passage from Shakespeare's Hamlet:
“ Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
And, by oppofing, end them." « This has been much censured as a faulty allegory, because the writer fies from one allufion to another, from flings to taking up of arms—againft what?- fea—and then opposmg a fea, &c. Now if Shakespeare meant this for an allegory, it is doubtless very faulty ; but I verily believe that was not his meaning. I am of opinion that he only took the first ftrong metaphor which came into his head, to express himself forcibly and pathetically, and then another, and another, as the subject role upon thein, but had no idea of making them connected with, or dependent on each other. I will not venture to affirm I am right, but I am certain that one of the most judicious and correct authors that ever wrote comedy, does the folf-fame thing; I mean Terence. He makes one of his characters say,
“ I am walled about with fo many and so great difficulties, that I cannot swim out."
· This, you see, is liable to the very fame exception with the former, the metaphor not being continued in the fusne kind; but I believe neither author had even the most diftant notion of an allegory.
. In the Passion of Biblis, in Ovid's Metamorphosis, you have a perfect allegory drawn from fea-faring:
“ I should have watch'd whence the black storm might rise,
And with extended fails on the blind theives am lot." Here you see the images are perfect and uniform. I will quote another from Prior’s Henry and Emma, which is very beautiful;
“ Did I but purpose to embark with thee
When the winds whistle, and the tempelts roar ?” • Here also you find the allegory finely pursued throughout; yet not so scrupulously, as not to depart a little from it in the fourth line,
“ And fortune's favour fills, &c.” • From allegory there is an easy transition to little proverbial sayings, and to tables, which are but allegories worked up into a story. Our Saviour's parables are of this kind, exactly in
character, and obvious to every understanding. Æfop, it is true, takes the liberty to make birds and beasts speak, but, barring that, he always adheres to character. There ought to be a moral couched in all fables, or to no purpose are they spoke or written
« Comparisons, proverbial speeches, parables, and fables, may be easily converted, the one into the other.
• Sometimes the moral is expressed, sometimes understood. By fome writers it is set in front, as by Fontaine ; by fome, at the end, as by Afop; and occasionally it is placed in the middle of the wo:k.
• Those moral sentences which we find so frequently interspersed in Homer, Virgil, Milton, &c. before, in the middle, or at the cloic of some interesting narration, are entirely in the nature of morals to a fable.
« I fall throw a little illuftration on these points, particuJarly relative to proverbial fentences and phrases, and then releafe my dear fcholar. • We have a proverb in Scotland,
" Cocks are free of horse-coro ;' meaning to in:ply that people are liberal or profuse of what belongs to another.
• Again, we have,
" Ule a cat to the churn, and she will call it custom ;" fignifying, if you accufiom your servants, or other folks, to make frcquent use of what is yours, they will think, at last, that they have acquired a right to it.
• How easily now may there be changed into a comparison ! for instance, “ As a cat that has been allowed,” &c.As a cock, that fits in a manger,” &c.-or into a fable, as, widow had a favourite cat, whom the indulged,” and so on. These simple examples clearly shew how closely the figures are allied.
A fable or story may be either true or false, it matters not which, to that a moral accompanies it, and flows naturally from it.
" Here follows a quotation from Spenser, where a fable, comparison, and moral, are finely wrought up together,
“ As when a weary traveller, that strays
By muddy ihore of broad sev’n-mouthed Nile,
Doth meet a cruel, crafty crocodile,
Doth weep full fore, and meddeth tender tears,
His mournful plight, is swallow'd unawares,
• In the foregoing part of this Letter, I observed that Æsop, though he makes his feigned persons, that is, h's birds and beasts, converse and reason, yet he always preserves ch racier. One minute's patience more, while I illustrate this. His first fable affords me the means.
“ A dog, with a piece of meat in his mouth, looking into a pool of water, imagines he there fees another dog, with a piece of meat in his mouth; he snatches at that, and thereby loses his own."
• This is all very natural to a dor, and a plain moral is to be deduced ; namely, that we give up certainty for hope, when we greedily grasp at having too much.
i The reverse of this rule of preserving character is Dryden's fable of the Hind and Panther. He has wholly departed from it. His Hind and Panther set forth at first in kind, I allow; but in the sequel, he makes them reason and dispute about Fathers and Councils, the Church, and the Pope, School-divinity, Infallibility, and the Lord knows what. He then introduces a whole flock of birds, and characterizes them all as men. The Buzzard was the famous Dr. Burnet, who was Bishop of Salifbury.
Dryden has been justly censured for this inconsistency; for say the critics, in support of their accusation, “ Suppose a colonel of horse had thrown up his regiment in foolith hope of getting a higher command, and was disappointed,” Ælop's fabie might aptly be applied to him ; but it would be absurd to fay, " The dog seeing another dog in the water, with a piece of meat in his mouth, dropped the piece in his own mouth, and inatched at the other, and so lost his regiment of horse.” Tois were to confound the allusion with the story alluded to, the moral with the fable.
• I question whether I need trouble you with the catachresis or no ; however I will be brief.
· Catachrefis is the abuse or over-straining a figure. One species of it is, when, through the want of proper, we use improper terms; for example, a glass-inthorn, or a silver smoothing
Parricide is properly the murderer of one's father, but in default of better powers of expression, we apply the name to one who has murdered, either his mother, brother, or fifter. Longinus censures fome writer for calling a hillock a wart. Quintilian has given many instances of this, and even from Virgil; some of them very beautiful; but when the image is beautiful, I think it cannot with propriety be called a catachretis. Blackwell pronounces the following pallage from Milton to be
“ Down thither prone in flight He speeds, and through the vait ætherial ky Sails between worlds and worlds."
• This is when he describes the descent from heaven of the arch-angel Raphael. I am not of his opinion; the idea is fupremely fublime, but not overstrained. • Statius, describing a general silence and quiet, says,
“ The weary mountains nodded their headis ;
And the feas reited or llept, leaning againt the shore." « I forgot to mention the 29th ode of Horace, in his third book; it is finely imitated by Dryden; there he begins with Fortune as a goddess, then allegorizes her into a bird, and lastly runs into another long allegory of failing in a storm.'
In concluding our short notice of this publication, we cannor but express our regret, that there are so few elementary books of any considerable value in our language. While the avenues to knowledge continue so obscure, and embarrassed, one might conclude that men of capacity and discernment were alhamed to ascertain and mark the steps which have conducted them to science.
Art. IX. A Sentimental Journey through Greece. In a Series of
Letters, written from Contantinople; by M. De Guys of the
ment, the morality, and the customs of nations, that we are enabled to form an adequate idea of their genius and spirit. Speculations of this kind are of the very highest importance; and no people in the ancient or modern world, pretent to our obfervation such a multitude of interesting particulars, as the Greeks. But, though M. De Guys has been fortunate in the choice of his subject, he has not, in general, been fuccessful in treating it. His classical knowledge is, indeed, confiderable; and a long residence at Conttantinople, under the protection of the king of France, allowed him frequent opporių. nities of making excursions into Greece. The most extenfive erudition, however, joined to a fituation, the most favourable for turning it to advantage, are but a poor compensation for the want of philofophy, and acuteness of mind. A writer may collect facts without knowing their value ; he may entertain by his vivacity, while he wants ability to reason, and he may be various in his matter, without poffeffing the talent of arrangement. Such we should conceive is the Author of the Literary
• So he intitles his work; and not a sentimental Journey. The English title has no propriety; and muit be therefore considered,