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and bafilicas innumerable, beside a great number of aqueducts,
the expence of which alone is sufficient to give us the highest • ideas of the grandeur and riches of the Commonwealth, at this period.'
Our Author proceeds, in a very entertaining manner, to trace the progress of the architeclure in Rome, till it gained the summit of perfection; and observes, that after the empire began to decline from the high pitch of wealth and dignity to which it had arisen, Severus was the last emperor who distinguished himfelf by repairing, in any manner worthy of them, the magnificent buildings of his predecessors.
The works of architecture, as well as sculpture, executed in the times of Dioclefian and Conftantine, may, our Author apprehends, in the strongeit manner convince us how insufficient the power of the greateit monarchs will prove towards preserving the taste of a declining age. “We find indeed in their buildings, says he, great strength and solidity; and, in the general plan of them, the remains of those great and magnificent ideas which abounded in the preceding times; but on examining each separate part, in the midst of the utmost profusion of ornament and expence, we discover a poverty of design, and meannels of execution, which evince to how low a state the artists of that time, both Greeks and Romans, were reduced.'
· The destruction of the ancient Roman architecture was completed by the establishment of a new religion, of a genius unfavourable to the arts. The emperors who first embraced . Chriftianity were led, says Mr. Cameron, by their zeal, to remove from the eyes of the multitude every object which might recal to their minds the pomp and glory of their former facri-, fices, the beauty and rich workmanship of their idols, and the constant success which attended their arms while under the inAuence of these their imaginary deities. By virtue of the edicts issued for this purpose, many temples were destroyed, g:hers fhut up, or purified and converted to the use of Christian worship.
• We have seen, continues this Writer, the city of Rome, from humble beginnings, attain the summit of glory, nourished and supported through a long succession of time, by princes whose utmost ambition was to render her name illustrious. We must now turn our eyes to a very different prospect, and behold this great city the seat of desolation and misery, neglected by her sovereigns, and almost abandoned by her inhabitants ; by turns a prey to the fury of barbarians, and the rage of enthusiasm ; yet, notwithstanding this great reverse of fortune, venerable cven in her ruins.'
The Author concludes this dissertation on the rise, progress, ard declension of the Roman grandeur, with an account of the
revival of literature and the polite arts, which took place in the fourteenth century : but it is time for us to bring our extracts to a period.
Mr. Cameron now proceeds to his account and description of the baths * of ancient Rome; but for this capital part of his work, consisting of nine chapters, we must refer our Readers to the book itself; in which they will meet with great entertainment indeed! As for the numerous and splendid engravings by which the work is enriched, we can only say, that they have afforded us all the satisfaction that could possibly be expected from a work of this kind. The descriptions and references are also given in French, for the accommodation of foreigners.
We must not omit to mention another very curious part of noble work, viz. the fine collection of Roman cielings, engraved on twenty-two large copper-plates, and containing views of the various admirable cielings in the palace of Auguftus ; those in the palace and baths of Titus, and Adrian's villa; with a beautiful imitation at the Villa Madama. The number of all the plates amounts to no fewer than seventy-five; beside the many elegant vignettes, &c.
ART. VII. Di&tionarium Saxonico et Gothico-Latinum. Auctore Eo.
VARDO LYE, A. M. Rectore de Yardley Hastings in Agro Northantoniens. Accedunt Fragmenta Verfionis Ulphilanæ, necnon Opuscule quædam Anglo-Saxonica.- Edidit, Nonnullis Vocabulis auxit, piufimis Exemplis illuftravit, et Grammaticam utriusque Lingua premisit, Owen MANNING, S. T. B. Canon. Lincoln. Vicarius de Godelming, et Rector de Peperharow in Agro Surrienfi ; necnon Reg. Societ. et Reg. Societ, Antiqu. Lond. Socius. Fol. 2 Vols. 31. 3 S. in Sheets. White, &c. 1772. N the preface to this valuable work we are told, that the
Author had finished it, and that about thirty theets of it were printed under his own inspection. On his death-bed he left it in strict charge with his friend Mr. Manning, the learned Editor, to publish the whole. This Mr. Manning cheerfully undertook, but soon found it a much more difficult task than at first he apprehended. Knowing the learning, abilities, and diligence of the Author, he expected to find the work omnibus suis numeris et partibus expletum. Upon examining it, however, with care and attention, he saw many imperfections and inaccuracies in it, owing, no doubt, to the Author's age and in
* The particular baths here described are those of Agrippa, Nero, Titus, Domitian, Trajan, Caracalla, Dioclefian, and Conftantine ; of all which, together with all those of Antoninus, the Author has given very magnificent representations, on copper-plates, of their plans, elevations, scctions, views, ornaments, &c.
firmiries, and an earnest desire of finishing the whole in his life time.
The Editor, in a manner that does him no small honour, has carefully revised and corrected the whole, enriched it with very considerable additions *, and rendered it a much more use, ful and valuable work than it would have been had he published it as the Author left it.-His own words will best express what he has done; they are as follows: Deerat in nonnullis locis ipsa vocabulorum interpretatio. Deerant quæ fenfum aliis alsignatum confirmarent exempla.--His itaque, quæ auctorem ipsum, vixiffet modo, ad unguem castigaturum fuisse nullus dubito, ut potui, prospexi. Alia mutanda, alia detrahenda, alia denique addenda curavi. Quæ vero prorsus omissa, vel fusiùs explicanda videbantur, in schedis dudum impreslis, conjeci in SUPPLEMENTUM ad calcem operis. Autographum cætera pene retexui. Adjeci, ubi res poftulare videbatur, atque ut hodierni etiam sermonis etymon exhiberetur, interpretationem Anglicanam. Adhibui exempla pene innumera ; præsertim verò in variis præpofitionum fenfibus explicandis ; quo facilius innotesceret antiquæ istius lingua idiotismus.--Præmifi denique Grammaticam, tum Gothicam, tum Anglo-Saxonicam : pergratum ratus fore iis, qui delubra Musarum Saxonicarum subituri essent, si nacti fuerint in vestibulo per quem facilis ad arcana penetralium pateret aditus.'
The Editor concludes his preface with a short account of the Author and his works t, to which we must refer our Readers.
ART. VIII. A methodical Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Phy
fic. By David Macbride, M. D. 4to. il. is. in Boards. Cadel!, &c. 1772. HE great and deserved reputation which the Author of
this performance has acquired in the medical and philofophical world, by his ingenious and original experiments and observations on digestion, and by his detection of many of the properties of fixed air, together with his important practical deductions from them, will
not, we apprehend, suffer any diminution by the publication of the work before us; in which he appears indeed in the humbler, but useful walk of a compiler of a general and methodical system of physic. Although the medical libraries seem already to be sufficiently full, such an
And this, too, without enhancing the terms of the subscription, as originally proposed by Mr. Lye; so that considering the peculiar difficulty and expence of the undertaking, the price of the book, which is, moreover, very handsomely printed, will certainly be deemed very moderate. + His edition of Junii Etymologicon is sufficiently known.
undertaking, undertaking, executed by the hand of a mafter, may ftill properly demand an admittance, and juftly occupy the room of fome of the numerous performances under similar titles: the greater part of which, put together with very little regard to method, or selection, are little more than crude and injudicious compilations ; in which the heterogeneous and discordant opinions and practices of different writers, with respect to the history and treatment of diseases, are jumbled together in the same page, frequently without any remark made by the compiler on their manifest incongruity; and the whole executed in such a manner, as can only tend to perplex or mislead the bewildered Reader who consults them.
Although the present work is in a great measure a compila. tion likewise, yet it is both with regard to its form, and the matter contained in it, in many respects, original. As to its form in particular, a method of distribution, resembling the botanical arrangement, into classes, orders, genera, and species, is here attempted with regard to diseases; which, not. withstanding the imperfections necessarily attending the execution of fo new a scheme, mult tend greatly to facilitate the study of medicine, and reduce ihe practice of that complicated art to a greater degree of fimplicity : as by this systematic me. thod, a great variety of diseases, differing very much in their nomenclature, are properly brought together, and classed under one particular order or genus, because they agree in the greatest number of circumstances, are proluced by similar caules, and are accordingly capable of being relieved by fimilar remedies.
Our illustrious countryman, Sydenham, foresaw the benefits that would result to the art of physic from an arrangement of this kind. In the preface to his works, after remarking that the writing of a true and scientific history of distempers is a work of very great difficulty; he observes that -- all diseases ought to be reduced to certain and determinate species, with the same exactness that we see it done by botanic writers in their histories of plants: for there are diseases, he adds, that come under the same genus, bear the same name, and have fome symptoms in common, which, notwithstanding, being of a different nature, require a different treatment." The industrious and accurate M. Sauvages however was the first who carried into execution a compleat claffification of this kind; which was published about the time of his death, in the year 1767, in several volumes under the title of Nofologia Methodica. In this elaborate work he has enumerated about 2400 species of known diseases, that are arranged under 295 genera, which are referred to 10 general classes. It is not to be denied, however, that he has sometimes multiplied distinctions without necessity (at least with regard to praclice) and that he has accordingly, in
some cases, through his extreme precision, introduced obscu. rity and confusion into a plan the design of which is to produce perspicuity and order.
Linnæus and Vogel have likewise published different schemes of arrangement, and have been fucceeded in the same task by our ingenious countryman Dr. Cullen; who has published ali the preceding schemes, with the addition of a fourth formed by himself, in his Synopsis Nofolegia Methodicæ. So far as a method of arranging diseases only is concerned, the Author of the
present work, at the same time that he has availed himself of the Jabours of his predecessors, has endeavoured to correct the errors or imperfections of their respective systems, and has at the fame time added a general but comprehensive and satisfactory view of the theory and practice of phyfic.
After this necessary historical sketch of the labours of preceding writers, in the execution of this new attempt to raise medicine from the rank of an art to that of a science, we shall proceed to give some of the principal outlines of the present Author's mode of distribution in the work before us. A very particular analysis of so large and complicated an undertaking, or a minute detail of the grounds on which his arrangement is founded, will not be expected from us.
Dr. Macbride first divides all the distempers to which the human body is liable, into four claffes ; under the denominations of Universal, Local, Sexual, and Infantile diseases. Though, the two last classes might naturally be comprehended, and are actually included, in the two first, by the Author's four predecessors; yet many peculiar circumstances attending the diseases which come under these two last denominations have deter. mined him to separate them ; as, for the most part, they demand peculiar methods of treatment. The nature of the subjects comprehended within these two claffes is too obvious to require explanation. It may be requisite, however, to explain the nature of the Author's two other divisions of diseases, the Universal and Local, and to dwell somewhat particularly on the first and most important of them.
Every disease is an assemblage or combination of different kinds of complaint, including either certain degrees of distress, or of inability; each of which, considered singly, is termed, in the medical language, a symptom. Symptoms are accordingly the component parts of a disease, and 'may naturally be divided into Universal or General, and Local : the first comprehending those different species of painful sensation, and those inabilities, which affect the whole frame, and disturb the general regularity of the animal functions, and the latter, those species of inability or distress, which, being confined to particular organs or parts of the body, do not interrupt or disturb the general