here, he says, four days, and it is so agreeable a place, that it is with regret I leave it to-morrow; the play-house, especially when the actors are good, which they are here, is to me a great entertainment. There is likewise vast comfort in meeting agreeable people at the Table d'Hote, which we always make a point to dine at, wherever we are; for the sake of improvement in the French language, and to wear off by variety of company, that mauvaise Hunte, which so strongly marks the English.---The fite of the city, we are told, resembles Guilford, being built upon the brow of a bill. Its figure is oval, about four miles in circumference; the low town has the benefit of canals, which admit boats of considerable burthen. It is well supplied with fountains; the streets well paved and spacious, the houses in general large and modern; the country round it most delightful to the eye, and extremely profitable to the poffeffor; but the churches are both in structure and elegance far inferior to those of Antwerp.'

Lisle, the capital of French Flanders, is spoken of as a place most worthy the attention of a foreigner, whether in respect to the strength and extent of the fortifications, or to the beauty and regularity of the buildings. When he arrived at Senlis, we are told; · The King was hunting in the neighbourhood, and was to return through the town, so Versailles in the evening. So careful were the inhabitants of their Grand Monarque, that all the signs were removed, least peradventure they might fall on his royal pate.'

Our Author now reaches Paris, concerning the size of which, after having walked round it, and viewed it from the top of Notre Dame, he says, he cannot be induced to think, that it is more than half as large as London and Westminster, including the suburbs : the streets, he observes are contemptibly narrow, few equal to Drury-lane, the generality inferior to the narrow part of the Strand : the houses are six or seven stories high, and many of them inhabited by as many different families, which will account for the populousness of this metropolis.'

He proceeds to give an account of the churches, palaces, paintings, statues, gardens, &c. in this city, which aiford him great opportunities for amusing his readers. We shall take notice of the church of the Carmelites, esteemed the most curious in Paris. • It is a little gaudy chapel, fays our Author, decorated with a profusion of gilding, and pillars painted in imitation of marble. The files are almost totally covered with pictures of the greatest masters; on the roof is a picture of Christ in perspective, which attracts the attention of the curious.—Le Brun's master-piece is the picture of the Dute chefs de la Valiere, mistress to Louis XIV. who had the virtue, at thirty years of age, to prefer, to the arms of a monarch, this little convent, where the retired when in the miðst of all her glory, and continued in it 'till her death, which happened thirty-six years after.


after. Neither entreaties nor threats could prea vail on her to return to the King, and when he menaced iq kurn the convent to the ground, the replied, It would be a means of setting the other nuns at liberty; but that for berself, the would perish in the flames.

In the same street, it is added, is a miserable convent of English Benedictines, consisting of eighteen members. In this chapel lies in state that filly fellow James, not yet buried; for his followers, as weak as their master, think that the time will come when his family shall reign again in Britain, he therefore lies ready to be fhipped off for England, to be buried with his ancestors in Westminster Abby.'

The description of the city of Paris is followed by that of several palaces in the country, we shall only select what is related of the last of them, and this principally on account of what is added of the French King, whom the Author law at this place. It is called Choisi, ' a neat little hunting box, about fix miles from Paris, situated on the banks of the Seine. The gardens are agreeable, not magnificent; the apartments convenient, but neither rich nor elegant: there is one dining room, in which no fervants are admitied to attend, the table being so contrived, as to render their presence unnecessary; when the first course is over, the King ftamps his foot, the table disappears, and another immediately rises through the foor, covered with dishes. There are four dumb waiters loaded with wines, on cach of which is a piece of paper and a pencil to write for what is wanted; a fignal is given, the dumb waiter descends, and again makes its appearance with the article required.-On the road we met the King's attendants, who told us, he was to shoot there that day; we waited 'till he came, which was about noon, in a coach with four of his nobles. He has a manly countenance, a penetrating eye and fine features, rather corpulent, and so helpless, that matter of state, in being assisted to get out of his carriage and upon his horse, was in fact, I be. lieve, a matter of neceffity. His dress was

a green waistcoat with sleeves, a large gold laced hat, and his own hair tied nego ligently toge her; he was attended by about two hundred horse. men, and forty or fifty chasseurs on foot, with. guns in theig bands. - The moment the King had fired, another gun was put into his hand, which was inft.ntly discharged. I had the cu. riofity to observe bis first thirty thots, in which number, he m.fied only twice. He is proud of being elieemed the best shot in the kingdon; a most royal accomplishinent! Nature certainly intended hic, for a game-keeper, bui as a satire on mankind, let him be a King. lie constantly goes to mais at eleven o'clock,



and as constantly hunts or thoots from that time, 'till five in the evening; the remainder of the day is spent at table, and in gaming with his nobility, 'till his favourite sultana seduces him to her bed. This is the life of the sovereign of a great people, who has acquired the title of Louis the Well-beloved.'

We shall conclude this article with some general remarks of this Author's upon the French nation : ' I believe, says he, the climate of France to be the most healthy, the foil the most fruitful, and the face of the country the most pleasing in the universe, and I hope for the honour of human nature, that its inhabitants are the vainest and moft illiterate. Can


believe that this all-fufficient people, who look on the rest of Europe with contempt, are in most of the mechanic arts at least a cen

behind the savage English as they affect to terin us. In their tapestry, looking-glailes, and coach-varnish, they are confesledly our superiors, but their carriages are more clumsy than our dung carts; their inns inferior to an English ale-house; their floors, both above and below, of brick, or a kind of plaifter, without carpets ; their joists unceiled, the windows without pullies, and the houses totally destitute of every kind of elegance, I had almost said convenience; I do not mean to in-clude the houses of the opulent great, as money will purchase the elegant superfluities of every country. But in this situation you will find the inns and the houses of the gentry and tradesmen.-Their conversation confifts in compliments and observations on the weather; no flattery is too gross for them either to offer or receive: they will talk for ever, but never pay the least attention to what you say.- Nothing is more common than to see gentlemen ornamented with ear-rings, while their thirts are sacking, and their heads a dung-hill. In some inItances they are as neat, as filthy in others. At table you have a clean napkin and clean plates, but your knife is never changed nor wiped. A common bourgeois will not drink out of the same Cup with you, though a nobleman will spit over your room with the greatest unconcern. I have seen a lady, through excess of delicacy, hide her mouth while the used a tooth-pick, and to preserve the character entire, she has the next moment scratched her head with the sharp pointed knife she was eating with.-In every branch of agriculture the farmers are incredibly deficient; but can it be wondered at, when you consider, that there are no inducements for improvement? I have often seen an half Barved cow and an ass ploughing in the same yoke; and I have heard it asserted as a fact, that a pig and an ass are sometimes ploughing together : but I can scarce believe, that two such opinionated animals could be induced to work together with any degree of society. In the whole city of Paris there is not a dat stone to walk on, nor a post to guard you from the carRev. July 1772



siages.-The lamps hang in the centre of the streets on cords which are fixed to the opposite houses: if the cord breaks, the lamp is destroyed as well as the unfortunate person who is palling under at the time. To light a lamp is twa mens business, the one lowers it, while the other lights it, which forms a tem, porary barrier across the streets, a method as awkward as inconvenient.-The whole kingdom (warms with beggars, an evidence of poverty, as well as defect in the laws.--The good qualities of the French are confined in very narrow compass; they are lively, temperate, sober, and good-humoured; but in general are strangers to the manly virtues: though I know two or three individuals, who are not only an honour to their country, but an ornament to human nature.'

We shall only farther observe. that at the end of the volume is an account of foreign coins and their worth in Englilh money; also of the manner and expence of travelling from place to place in the countries to which this Writer confines his relacion.

N. B. If we are not mistaken, we have seen some advertisements in which this piece is ascribed to Philip Thicknesse, Esq;

Art. X. Observations on Dr. Cadogan's Dissertation on the Gout and

all Chronic Diseases. By William Falconer, of Bath, M. D. Edit. 2.

with Corrections and Additions. 8vo, is. 6d. Lowndes. 1772. THIS is a critical, but at the same time very temperate and

candid analysis of Dr. Cadogan's celebrated differtation; which undoubtedly contains a sufficient fund of matter both for praise and censure. The observer contraverts, with great justice, many of the Doctor's fingular and decisive allertions relative to the gout, and particularly those in which he denies that dirtemper to be either hereditary or periodical:-pofitions in which Dr. C. certainly contradi&ts not only the unanimous testimony of physicians in all ages, but likewise the general opinion of mankind, founded on matters obvious to every one; without producing either facts or arguments sufficient to counterbalance such weighty testimony.

To give only one instance of the Doctor's inaccuracy, at least, on the first of these articles :-He declares that if the gout were hereditary, it would be necesiarily transmitted from father to son, and no man whose father had it could poflibly be free from it.”- To this Dr. Falconer properly replies that

to say that the gout is not hereditary, because it does not always descend to posterity, would be equally absurd, as to affert, that the succession to the crown of these realms was not hereditary, because its regularity had been sometimes interrupted.' Another of the Doctor's aniwerers views this matter in the same light, drawing his instance from the case of a private fucceffion; which we may further illustrate by supposing that a father leaves


his son a landed eftate and the gout; the firft in possession, and the latter in reversion. By one and the same kind of conduct poffibly, he finally loses poffeffion of the acres, and enters into full enjoyment of the difternper: whereas by a different mode of life, he might have kept and improved the eftate, and might never have entered upon the very undesirable gouty reverfion; general experience nevertheless Thewing that he may juftly be confidered as having been heir to it.

After discusing these and other preliminary points, the obferver attends the Doctor in the confideration of his three grand and fole causes of the gout and all other chronic diseases ; intemperance, indolence, and vexation. Though no advocate for the first, he cannot agree with the Doctor in his tremendous reprefentation of the bad effects of a little fage and onion, with the addition of a few grains of falt, or of the common condiments used with our food; or that they can lay the foundation of the dreadful train of evils he ascribes to them, when used with moderation. He next criticises the Doctor's ideas concerning “ the acid crudities,” supposed to be introduced by our common diet “ into our Auids; producing coagulations, concretions, and obstructions of various kinds,” and laying the foundation of the gout, rheumatism, stone, and most nervous diseases: observing that experiment does not thew that either the blood, or any of the secreted juices, exhibit signs of any such acid acrimony * ; though some degree of acetous fermenta: tion sometimes takes place in the stomach. He defends the moderate use of wine, likewise, from various confiderations; particularly as an antiseptic, and consequently a proper and often times necessary corrector of the putrescent quality of animal food; but principally from the universal practice of mankind, who have in every part of the world made use of fermented liquors of one kind or other in their diet. As Dr. Cadogan, through an inattention to, or his unacquaintedness with some of the modern chemical discoveries, does not appear to us to have done justice to his own argument on one part of this subject, and seems to have extended it too far on the other, we may, perhaps with some advantage, offer a kind of trimming fyftem, equally remote from the extreme rigour of his precepts, and the relaxation of general practice, and which, from theory at leaft, seems the most confistent with health, and is not incom patible with enjoyment,

All the world must agree with Dr. Cadogan, that men, we mean those in the upper and idle ranks of life, eat much more,

' In Dr. Macbride's alimentary mixtures, the acidity even of a large portion of the juice of lemons is complete destroyed, by the new combinations that take place in the digestive process. See his Experimental Effays, page 39, 2d edit.

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