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XLVI. No alteration can be made in a law, if such has not been proposed or agreed to by the King, and if it has not been sent to and discussed by the sections.--Suppressed
XLVII. The Chamber of Deputies receives all proposals for taxes; it is not until they have been passed that they can be carried to the Chamber of Peers.--Suppressed.
XLVIII. No tax can be imposed or enforced without the consent of both the Chambers and the sanction of the King.
XLIX. The manorial tax is to be granted only for a year. Indirect taxes can be imposed for several years.
L. The King convokes the Chanibers every year; he prorogues them, and can dissolve the Chamber of Deputies; but in such a case he must call another within the space of three months.
LI. A member of the Chamber cannot be arrested during the sittings, or six weeks before and after the sittings.
LII. A member of the Chamber cannot be arrested for any criminal offence during the sittings, unless it be of a flagrant nature, and then only with the consent of the Chamber.
LIIT Any petition to either of the Chambers must be made in and presented in writing; the law forbids any petition being presented personally at the bar of the Chamber.
LIV. Ministers can be members of either Chamber; they have the right to enter both the Chambers, and be heard when they demand it.
LV. The Chamber of Deputies has the right to impeach the ministers, and to have them tried by the Chamber of Peers, which alone has the privilege of judging.
LVI. They can only be impeached for high-treason or embezzlement. Special laws are provided for the prosecution of such crimes.-Suppressed.
Articles LVII. to LXII. the same as Articles XLVIII. to LIII. LXIII.
LIV There cannot,
There cannot, in conse quently, be appointed any quence, be appointed any commissions and “tribu- special commissions naux extraordinaire.” But special sittings of Courts the naming of the provost's of Law, under any title or jurisdiction is not included pretence whatever. under this denomination if their re-establishment is deemed necessary.
Articles LXIV. to LXXII. the same as Articles LV. to LXIII.
LXXIII. The Colonies to be governed by special laws and regulations.
LXV. The King and his suc- The King and his successors at their coronation
cessors on their accession shall swear faithfully to shall swear before the observe the present con- united Chambers to faithstitutional Charter.
fully observe the constitutional Charter.
LXXV. The Deputies of France, after a dissolution, to retain their seats until they are replaced.-Suppressed.
LXXVI. The first renewal of a fifteenth of the Chamber to date not earlier than the year 1816.-Suppressed.
The following belong to the New Charta only.
LXVI. The present Charta and its privileges are confided to the patriotism and courage of the national guards, and the citizens of France.
LXVII France reassumes her colours, and for the future no other cockade shall be worn than the tri-coloured cockade.
LXVIII. All appointments and creation of Peers made during the reign of Charles X. declared to be null and void.
LXIX. Separate laws, to be provided for the following objects with as little delay as possible :
1. Use of Jury to crimes of the press, and political offences.
2. The responsibility of ministers and other agents of power.
3. The re-election of Deputies and public functionaries who receive salaries.
4. Annual vote for the contingencies of the army.
5. Organization of the national guards, with the intervention of the said guards in the choice of their officers.
6. Arrangements which shall establish by law the state of officers of all ranks in the army and the navy.
7. Municipal provincial institutions founded on an elective system.
8. Public instruction, and liberty to teach.
9. Abolition of the double vote, and fixing conditions as to election and eligibility.
LXX. All laws and ordonnances contrary to the present reform of the Charter are from the present declared null and void.
Vol. II. page 131. Mr. T. Detray, in his list of cities and towns in France (those of the department of the Seine excepted), gives-195 cities and towns possessing public libraries,
containing between two to three millions of volumes, which, on a population of 32,000,000 souls, gives a proportion of one volume to every fifteen inhabitants. Paris, on the contrary, as I have said, has five public libraries, containing 1,378,000 volumes, or three volumes to every two inhabitants, the capital containing 774,000 souls.
The number of works published in 1833 may be thus divided, i. e.
Poems, songs, incidental pieces, and irregular verse, 275.
Science, medicine, law, natural history in all its varieties, political economy, 532.
Novels, tales, translated novels, fabulous legends, and traditions, works of imagination, 355.
History, facts, private and local narratives, disputations, sketches of history, 213.
Philosophy, metaphysics, morals, theories, 102.
Theatre : pieces in verse and prose, performed or not performed, 179.
Lastly, pamphlets, libels, prospectuses, legal claims, pleadings, speeches, flights of fancy, unstaniped publications, 4346. Total number of works published, 7011.
There are in Paris seventy-six newspapers and periodicals connected with literature ; and in this number are not included the manuals published by the different professions. LIST OF THE VARIOUS LITERARY ESTABLISHMENTS IN PARIS,
HAVING FOR THEIR OBJECT THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE OF SEVERAL KINDS AMONG THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SOCIETY.
Bibliothèques.-Royale; de l'Arsenal; Mazarine; Saint Geneviève.
Muséum, d'Histoire naturelles Jardin des plantes, Composition des Tableaux et dessin ; au Louvre pour les auteurs decédés; au Luxembourg pour les auteurs vivans.
Musées, des Antiques ; de l'Artillerie; cours d'Archiologie ; Conservatoire de musique ; Société des amis des · Arts.
Ecoles, des langues Orientales vivantes, annexée au
college par Louis le Grand des Chartes; Polytechnique; Militaire ; speciale de Pharmacie des Longitudes; de Theologie ; de Droit ; de Medicine, des sciences et des lettres; Normale (for the instruction of professors) des Mines-des Ponts et chaussées; de Peinture; de Dessin, de Architecture ; Nation; de l'Equitation; Trois spéciales du Commerce; centrale des Arts et Manufacture; de Commerce et des arts industriels ; Academie Royale de Médécine.
Colleges.-Britanniques, Irlandaisse, Ecossaise, et Anglaise (founded in Paris for young Catholics, of the three kingdoms, who wished to be educated in France); de France; Bourbon, 700 in-door pupils; Charlemagne, 8 to 900 out-door pupils; Henry IV., 772 in and outdoor pupils ; Louis le Grand, 924 in and out-door pupils; Saint Louis, 850 in and out-door pupils; de l'Industrie ; Stanislas et Rollin, 550 in-door pupils (both of these are private); Concours d'Agregation (no one can be appointed a professor to any Royal College without having first obtained the title of " Agrégé” at the Concours); cours Normal.
Societies.--Universelle de la civilissation; libre des beaux Arts ; Géologique de France; Nationelle pour l’Emancipation intellectuelle ; des Sciences Physique, Chimique, et Arts; Agricole et industriele de Medicine pratique ; de Medicine de Paris; de Pharmacie ; de Géographie ; pour l'Instruction élémentaire, Grammaticale ; des Bons livres ; de Statistique Universelle ; de la Morale Chrétienne; Medico Philantropique ; Médicale d'Emulation; de Chimie Médicale ; d’Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale ; des Antiquaires de France; Phrénologique; Athénée des Arts ; de Medicine de Paris; l'Athenée; Conservatoire ; des Arts et des Métiers; Exposition des produites de l'Industrie ; Association libre pour l'Education du Peuple.