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ique de la population est moindre que celui de toutes les forces matérielles, que celui de tous les produits du travail; et que l'accroissement des publications, qui représente l'activité progressive de l'esprit, est le plus grand de tous."* In three years (from 1817 to 1820), the elementary schools from 856,212, advanced to have 1,063,919 scholars; and the number of persons receiving instruction at these institutions within the period contained between 1816 and 1826, has been computed at five millions and a half. Schools of arts, agriculture, and the sciences, were formed throughout the kingdom; and, borne along on this mighty rush of new opinions, came a new and more noble philosophy —a new, a more rich, a more glowing, a more masculine, a more stirring, and energetic literature. The spirit and intellect of the country received a fresh birth, and at the same time a fresh race was born,—a race that had neither the ideas, the wants, nor the history of its predecessors.
This was the real revolution.
Within the last thirteen years a population of twelve millions and a half had been added to "Young France;" a population of ten millions belonging to "Old France" had gone down to the tomb. In 1828, the electors belonging to the new "régime” were 25,089, to the ancient régime 15,021. Thus the two generations were in presence; the one published the ordonnances, and the other raised the barricades.
* The effect of which may be seen in the subjoined calculation. Printed sheets on matters of science-In 1814-232,314; in 1820369,862; in 1826-1,177,780.
Not violent enough for their purpose, Charles X. would have acted more wisely in throwing himself entirely upon the army-The people did not look to the mere act of the Government, but its object They saw that if these means failed to effect that object, another would be tried.
On July 26th* appeared the Ordonnances, accompanied by that famous report, not less remarkable for the eloquence than for the history it contains. As a matter of history, that document stands forth as the most singular and public protest against constitutional liberty that ever appeared in a constitutional country; as a display of eloquence, that document convinces us that arbitrary power, even in the worst times, and under the least favourable circumstances, will never want able, perhaps conscientious defenders. The Ordonnances totally put down the liberty of the press,t and altered the system of election in a manner favoura ble to the aristocratical interests of the country.
Their violence has been reproached, and in some degree exaggerated: I have no hesitation in saying they were not sufficiently violent for the object they had in view. Such was the state of feeling, that I deem it more than doubtful whether a Chamber elected according to the new prescription would not have returned a majority against the ministry of Polignac, And this was the folly of the proceeding: for if the government had met with no immediate resistance, the difficulties of the government would only have been in their commencement. Charles X. most assuredly
* Signed the 25th.
Supposed to be written by M. de Chaunteleuze,
The press is put down because it points out certain members as unpopular, and advises, contrary to the royal wish, the re-election of the two hundred and twenty-one liberal deputies.
would have done a wiser thing had he declared that "finding by experience that his subjects were unfit for the Charta which had been given to them, he withdrew it, and threw himself entirely upon the army for support"-he would have done a wiser thing for himself had he done this, for he might have rallied his partisans around him by an appearance of force; it is just possible too, that he might have pleased the soldiery by a plausible address; while it is certain that he could not have made more enemies, or separated himself more entirely from the great body of his subjects than he really did.
People looked not to the mere act itself, they looked to the object the sovereign had in view who resorted to it. They saw that his object was to govern as he pleased that he altered the form of government in order to effect that object; and that it was quite clear, if the present experiment were unsuccessful, he would be perfectly willing, and was perfectly ready, to try any other.
REVOLUTION OF 1830.
The conduct of the Newspapers and the Journalists-27, Struggle commenced in Palais Royal-28, Troops concentred and the People's courage rose-The Duc de Raguse's plans-How far succes. ful-Night of 28th-The great charge of the Parisian populace Retreat of the troops from the Tuileries to the Champs ElyséesCommand taken from Duc de Raguse and given to Duc de Angoulême-Order to march to St. Cloud.
It was the energetic conduct of the press, which had at once to choose between ruin and resistance, that first aroused the Parisians from the boding stillness by which the royal decree had been succeeded.
The editors of the liberal newspapers, fortified by the opinion of M. Dupin, and the ordonnance of M. Debelleyme, published their protestation. Believing that the government would have a temporary triumph
for it was impossible to imagine that a government which deliberately invited insurrection was not prepared to resist it,-M. Thiers, M. Carrel, and their colleagues displayed a spirit worthy of their position, The proper guardians of public liberty, they placed themselves in the van as its defenders, for they knew that the freedom of a state is only momentarily in peril as long as it possesses citizens ready to give the example of suffering for freedom's sake, "Le régime légal," said they, "est interrompu, celui de la force est commencé," words which should be remembered now, for they would have been remembered if the revolt to which they invited had not proved a revolution. It was on the 27th that the struggle commenced. "Aux armes, aux armes !" shouted the students, jumping on the chairs of the Palais Royal.
The cavalry cleared the square, the gendarmerie charged in the streets; a man was killed in the "Rue du Lycée." "Vive la Charte !" cried the mob, as, careless of the danger, furious at the fire, they attacked the troops on every side with sticks, with stones; and now the barricades began in the Rue St. Honoré; the "Bourgeoisie" shut their shops; the soldiers (fifth of the line) refused to fire, and the consciousness of a cause that was invincible breathed an iron energy into the insurrection.
On the 28th, the troops concentrated in large bands at the more important places, left many of the streets free which they had occupied the day before, and flattered the people with the idea that their resistance had been hitherto successful. The popular courage rose. The views of the people expanded. The cry of" Vive
* M. Debelleyme, president of the tribunal of première instance, declaring that the ordonnance relative to the press was illegal in its form, and unjust in its immediate provisions, recognised the right of the journalists to continue their publications.
la Charte!" was dropped; the cry of "à bas les Bourbons" was raised. The Duc de Raguse urged concessions.* The ministers declared Paris to be " en état de siége," and amid conflicting counsels and useless edicts, high above the voice of authority swelled the popular tempest, sweeping at every instant with a more terrible wrath over the minds of men, and scattering far and wide the feelings which shook the foundations of the throne. The commandant hesitated. Should he take a position and be counselled by events? Should he evacuate Paris and establish himself without the walls? Should he march forward at once into the heart of the city against the insurgents?
The last plan was the boldest, perhaps the best. Along the Boulevards, along the Quais, to the Bastille, to the Place de Grêve, to the Marché des Innocens, advanced the troops-and the clatter of the cavalry and the heavy rattling of the cannon, and the shouts and the musket-shots of the populace, announced in this direction the recommencement of the contest; and now from every door, from every corner, from every passage, from every window, an invisible and invulnerable enemy poured forth their fire; and paving stones, and tiles, and bottles, and bricks, and logs of wood, and masses of lead, tossed from the tops of the houses, hurled across the streets, bruised and beat down the soldier, who, incapable of defence, disapproving of his cause, marched on, undesirous of victory, and forbidden by honour from submitting to defeat.
Felled trees, overturned carriages, barrels filled with stones, formed new ramparts at every step against the harassed cavalry; and on all sides you might have seen the veterans of Napoleon and the schoolboys of the "Ecole Polytechnique" leading, exhorting, instructing, fighting. The "garde nationale" appeared in their uniform; the whole city engaged in the struggle; while the tri-coloured flag was hoisted on the towers of Notre Dame !
* "The honour of the Crown," said he to Charles the Tenth, "may yet be saved. To-morrow, perhaps, this will be impossible."