pronounced by the deputies at Paris, and that the force which the crown arrayed against the nation should be met by such force as the national representatives could bring against the crown! Monsieur Périer was for more moderate councils :-he considered the Chamber legally dissolved; the ordonnances themselves he looked upon as unwise and imprudent edicts, though justified by the letter of the charta. • Even,” said he, “ if they be not so, the power to decide between the sovereign and the people cannot be assumed by any set of individuals.”

“Let us,” he continued, “ as the guardians of the public peace, confine ourselves to presenting a respectful address to the monarch, requesting the repeal of measures by which that peace seems likely to be disturbed.”

M. C. Périer spoke reasonably. A resistance improvised against a government which has had the means of preparing for its defence-is in most cases a hazardous expedient. An unsuccessful recourse to arms is more fatal to the popular cause than the most passive submission; and it is only in very rare and very extreme cases that a sound policy will justify the more violent instead of the more moderate course ; which, if it promise less than the former, also risks less. Moreover, it is idle to disguise the fact.

The right assumed by Charles the Tenth would, if left to the calm decision of lawyers, have involved a doubtful claim. But there are cases which lawyers can never be called upon calmly to decide. If we can fancy a people with eyes bent on the ground, and arms folded, lost in the most peaceable and profound meditation, coming to an eminent jurisconsult, and requesting mildly to know whether they have a right to resist their government, whatever might be their right, it would be their wisdom and their policy not to do so. But when a whole people feel at once, as by inspiration--feel without pause, or without reflection--that their government is changed--that their liberties are VOL. IL--C


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violated, that their laws are broken through-they do not err, they cannot err, if all the lawyers in the universe, consulting all the laws that ever were written, declared the contrary—they have a right to resist, nay, more—they are certain to resist with success.

Monsieur Périer, and those who adopted M. Périer's opinions, spoke and thought then like reasonable men; but in all great crises, that part of our minds which is the most passionate and imaginative rises above our ordinary reason. It has a more powerful and comprehensive judgment; a clearer and more sympathetic prescience. In great emergencies, your man of feelng is right, your man of calculation is wrong. sionate words of Mirabeau judged and decided the revolution of 1789.

The meeting at M. Laborde's was without result. On the 27th a similar meeting took place at M. Périer's. Here Messrs. Mauguin, Bertin de Vaux, De Puyraveau, were of the opinion expressed the day before by M. de Laborde ; Messrs. Sébastiani and M. Dupin adopted the previous opinion of M. Périer.* After some debate on the propriety of a letter to Charles the Tenth, this meeting ended like the former with an appointment for the morrow.

On the 28th, M. de Puyraveau, M. Mauguin, M. Lafitte, and General Lafayette (who had then arrived) pronounced all reconciliation impossible, and were for inviting the Chamber to place itself behind the barricades of the people. Messrs. Dupin, Sébastiani, and Guizot still protested against any act contrary to the law, and declared that the Chamber should remain as a mediator in the conflict, and pronounce itself merely the advocate of public order. A proclamation, much in this sense, containing a compromise between the two parties, although opposed by M. Lafitte as beneath the exigencies of the occasion, was at last agreed to : it was moreover resolved to send a deputation to the Duc de Raguse with an order, delivered in the name of the law, to stay, on his own personal responsibility, the fury of the troops. This first meeting on the 28th separated at two o'clock to meet at four. *

* An assemblage of electors at M. G. Gassicourt's produced more important results. It was there agreed to form twelve committees to correspond with the twelve arondissements of Paris ; twelve commit. tees sitting permanently, and organizing and exciting resistance in their several districts.

These boards were to have a common centre, and communicate through M. Schonen with the liberal deputies.

Such was the existing difference of opinion, even at this time, in respect to active resistance, that M. Périer said to M. Schonen, who was exciting the people-Vous nous rendez en sortant de la legalitévous nous faites quitter une position superbe. On the same evening, M. Odillon Barrot said that war was declared, that force alone could decide the contest, and that it was the duty of every one to take arms

Its result had been the proclamation,t which, however, was not to be published till the following day, the deputation to the Duc de Raguse, and a declaration from General Lafayette, expressing, as I have stated, the resolution he had adopted on his arrival at Paris, to place himself, at all hazards, at the head of the insurrection.

In the short interval which took place between the first and the second meeting of the deputies, the prospects of the people had appeared rather on the decline. Neither was the answer of Marmont, “ that he would only accept unqualified submission as a basis of treaty," well calculated to restore the courage of any whose spirit had begun to fail.

Messrs. Villemain, Bertin de Vaux, and Sébastiani, although the two former had been hitherto sufficiently energetic, now refused to sign the proclamation of the morning, and retired in spite of the remonstrances of their colleagues. More favourable advices, however, arrived before the meeting had broken up, and M. Guizot, who, though willing to make an easy compromise with the crown at a more fortunate moment, showed both courage and presence of mind at this important crisis, proposed at once to affix to the proclamation the names of all the deputies of the liberal party known to be at

* To meet at M. Bérard's.

+ This proclamation, given to M. Coste, the editor of the “ Temps," for insertion, was rendered by him more popular and more energetic than it was originally conceived.



Paris. This measure, after some dispute, was adopted at the suggestion of M. Lafitte, who rather happily observed, " That if the people were defeated, there was no fear but that the deputies whose signatures had been used without their consent would deny their connection with the

paper it was affixed to ; while if things turned out otherwise, few would notice their absence or express any disapprobation at the liberty taken with their

Another meeting took place at eight o'clock, at M. Puyraveau's, when Lafayette, Mauguin, Laborde, were still for adopting a decided part,-for even publicly appearing in their uniform of deputies, and with the tricolour in their hats ; while General Sébastiani, on the other hand, was still anxious that some power should remain capable of mediation, and not committed by any decided act of hostility against Charles X. Those who were of the former opinion agreed to meet at five o'clock the following morning at M. Lafitte's.

On the 29th, at eleven o'clock, and not at five, the meeting took place; and instead of ten deputies who had met the night before at M. de Puyraveau's, between thirty and forty were collected. The disposition that prevailed, even among the more moderate, was different from that of the preceding day.t

At this time it will be remembered that the Swiss and Royal Guards, still fighting, fought retreatingly; and, driven successively from each post they had occupied, were concentrating themselves for å last stand upon the Tuileries and the Place Louis XV. But it was not merely the retreat of the troops which inspired that extraordinary confidence which begets extraordinary success into the popular cause. To M. Bérard, I believe, was owing the bold and ingenious conceplion of a fictitious government, consisting of Generals Gérard and Lafayette and the Duc de Choiseul. No such government existed ; but it was cleverly and plausibly announced to exist, and a sentinel placed at the Hôtel de Ville repulsed every one who requested an audience with this imaginary authority, by saying, « On ne passe pas; le gouvernement est en conference." The mere mention of a government operated as a charm ; and decided the last remaining doubts as to the success of the people. Such was the state of things on the morning of the 29th, when, as I have said, the deputies met at M. Lafitte's; and it was then that a commission, consisting of five deputies (Lafitte, Schonen, Puyraveau, Lobau, and C. Périer),* replaced the fictitious creation of M. Bérard.

* Monsieur Dupin's name was omitted, on knowing which he expressed great regret.

† This was natural: a great change had taken place in passing events; nor are such vicissitudes of feeling in moments like these to be held up to ridicule and blame. That which is caution at one time becomes timidity at another, and though in such crises men of an energetic resolution are required, it is not amiss that some should show a more peaceful and careful disposition. We sympathize with the more daring; it is not necessary to censure the more prudent.

I have now conducted the civil transactions of the three days to the point at which I left the military operations. It only remains for me to say what had been taking place during these events in the cabinet and at the court. On the morning of the 27th, M. de Polignac first made known to the king the troubles which had taken place the preceding evening, and Charles X. sent for the Duc de Raguse and intrusted him with the command so fatal to his reputation and his fortunes. On arriving at Paris, the marshal found the most utter want, of preparation for that kind of resistance which the government ought to have expected. The troops were not even consigned to their quarters, and it was necessary to wait the muster hour in order to assemble them together. Things, as v have seen, not proceeding so quietly as was expected, the council, assembled at night, decided on proclaiming Paris - en état de siège,” which was done the following morning. In the mean time Charles X., ho nad ordered the Duc de Raguse to return in the evening to St. Cloud if the city were quiet, remained in the most

• Mauguin was afterward added.

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