application from Archbishop Ray- alty were ignorant enough to credit nold and his Suffragans. They re- any thing, and for the sake of Holy mind the Pope that the deceased Church and the Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster had applied to it was deemed expedient to make his Holiness upon the same subject. them suppose that the course of They dwell at considerable length nature was suspended at the tomb upon the learning, virtues, and of the deceased Primate. sufferings of Winchelsey, and con. A much more creditable spe. clude by submitting a few of the cimen of Ecclesiastical conduct is dumerous miracles which had been to be met with in the history of wrought for his sake to the consi. William Grenefeld, Archbishop of deration of the Apostolic See ; York. He interfered with great hoping that it may be deemed ex- earnestness to prevent the adoration pedient to institute an inquiry upon of an Image of the Virgiu, comthe subject, and to take such farther paring it with the Brazen Serpent steps as may redound to the glory destroyed by Hezekiah, and proof God, and the exaltation of the nouncing the respect which was paid Catholic faith.

to it idolatry. The image was This epistle appears to have ex- placed in the parish church of perienced the fate which it deserved. Foston ; crowds assembled to worNot that the reigning Pope, John ship, oblations poured in abundantXXII, was backward at discovering ly, and much strife, confusion and miracles or granting Canonization, danger, were the result. Archbishop For three years before the date of Grenefeld required his Ecclesiastical the preceding epistle, he had ex- officers to put an end to these propressed his anxiety to elevate ceedings, to inhibit both Clergy and Thomas Aquinas to the Saintship, Laity from resorting to the aforesaid provided proof could be obtained image either at Foston, or at any of his miracles. The evidence, as other place to , which it might might be expected, was forthcoming, be removed ; and pronounced the and Aquinas was exalted to the penalty of the greater excommunihighest rank in bis Church. But the cation against every one by whom favour thus bestowed upon the the mandates were disobeyed. It greatest writer of his age, was does not appear, however, that the deemed too precious for an English Prelate's anger was excited by the Primate, whose services had been mere invocation of Saints, but he confined to his own country, and found fault with the Foston worwhose character for sanctity was of shippers, because they considered more importance to the English their image more sacred and divine Barons than to the Popish Hierar- than others, and adored it not only eby. Had Winchelsey been as use. on account of that which it repreful to the Apostolic See, as he was sented, but for the sake of the idol to the Parliament and Aristocracy itself. His letters, therefore, give of Britain, the miracles which were an express sanction to the adoration so fully proved at Canterbury, would of the Virgin; but they shew that have been received without scruple the Archbishop would not suffer at Avignon or Rome.

her image to be worshipped, alThe wbole affair furnishes me. thongh such an event, like a belief lancholy instance of the advantage in the miracles of Winchelsey, might which the Clergy were disposed to have contributed to the exaltation of derive from the fame of this great the

Catholic Faith. Prelate. It is evident that they The other Ecclesiastical events were no believers in Winchelsey's of this reign, with the exception of miracles, nor did they expect the the abolition of the order of the Pope to be so. But the common. Templars, which will be considered

hereafter, are neither important or was agreed on all hands that they numerous. School divivity flourish- were the clothes in which St, Al. ed, and heresies, of more or less banus suffered martyrdom, and that consequence, were continually the blood was that of the martyr springing from that fruitful source. himself; and King Edward, who The King and the Clergy accused moderated between the contending each other of transgressing the monks, exclaimed,

" that here was bounds of their respective juris- fresh proof of the singular merit of dictions, and there was a singular St. Albanus, and that since his robe contest between the inonks of Ely worked miracles at Ely, greater wonand St. Alban's, respecting the ders might reasonably be expected relics of Albanus, the proto-martyr. from his body at St. Albans." The The monks of the former place pro- ignorance and superstition thus maduced a coffin, in which they de. nifested, are particularly deserving clared that the saint's body was of notice, as tending to explain the inclosed. The coffin was opened, difficulties with which the suppresand contained nothing but clothes, sion of the Templars is so thickly freshly sprinkled with blood. It enveloped.

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The Life and Death of the most puty and Council of Ireland, commanding

Rev. and learned Father Dr. them to grant a licence for his being ab-
James Usher, late Archbishop of sent from his see. Upon which summons
Armagh, and Primate of all Ire- the Bishop came over into England, and

spent about a year here in consulting the land.

best manascripts in both universities, and (Concluded from p. 723. Vol. V.) private libraries, in order to the perfecting

that noble work, De Primordiis EccleUpon his return to Ireland he was conse- siarum Britannicarum, which was not pube crated Bishop of Meath, at Drogheda, by lished till about two years after. Primate Hampton, with the assistance of Abont this time he answered the chal. two suffragan bisbops, according to the lenge of the Jesuit Malone ; and his coming custom, and the then book of consecra- over to England for the printing of it tion; there was then given him an Ana- occasioned another learned tract on the gram of his name, as then he was to write Universality of the Church of Christ, and kimself, which he made good ever after, the Unity of the Catholic Faith, delivered « James Meath," I am the same. He in a sermon preached before King James, did not now slack in his constancy of from Ephw.iv. 13. Till we all come in preaching, but was still the same; and the unity of the faith, &c. While he bound bimself the rather to it by the motto was in England, Primate Hampton dying, of his episcopal seal, mihi si non evan- he was made (ann. 1624,) Primate of gelizavero, which lie continued in the seal Ireland, the hundredth bishop of that see of his primacy also.

from the first, supposed to be Patricius, In the year 1622, there was a censure who lived in St. Augustine's tiine, 480 of some Papists in the Star-chamber, for years after. Carist, whom we read much refusing to take the oath of supremacy; he of in divers ancient writers; and this rewas called thither to inform them of it, verend Primate, in luis book called the before sentence, which occasioned that Religion of the Ancient Irish, hath made learned speech of his to that purpose, it appear, at least to be very probable, printed with his English works.

that the doctrine St. Patrick planted and After the Bishop bad been in Ireland preached among thein at first was in subabout two years, it pleased King James stance the same which is now taught and to employ him to write the antiquities of professed by us. the British Church, and that he might have When he was thus promoted to the high. the better opportunity, and means for that est step his profession was capable of in bis end, he sent over a letter to the Lord De native country, he was the more humble

and laborious in preaching: and it so fell In August, 1626, be returned into Ireout, that for some weeks together, preach- land, wliere he was received with all the jag too often beyond bis strength, to the expressions of joy that could be given; overmuch wasting of bis spirits, at the re- and being now returned into his native quest of some ministers in Essex, to have country, and settled in this great charge him preach on the week days, (because (having not only many churches, but diothey could not come to hear him on the ceses under his care,) he began carefully Sundays,) he fell into a quartane ague, to inspect his own diocese first, and the which held him three quarters of a year. manners and abilities of those of the Cler

After his recovery, the Lord Mordant, gy, by frequent personal visitations; adafterwards Earl of Peterborough, being a monishing those he found faulty, and givPapist, and desirous to draw his lady to ing excellent advice and directions to the the same religion, he was willing there rest, charging thein to use the Liturgy of should be a meeting of two prime men of the Church in all public administrations, each, to dispute what might be in contro- and to preach and catechize diligently in versy between them. The Lady made their respective cures, and to make the choice of this Lord Primate, and prevailed Holy Scriptures the rule, as well as the with him, though newly recovered, and subject of their doctrine and sermons: nor scarce able to take that journey. The Jc. did he only endeavour to reform the suit chosen by the Earl went under the Clergy, bnt also the proctors, apparitors, name of Beaumond, but his right name and other officers of his ecclesiastical was Rookwood, brother to Ambrose Rook- courts, against whom there were many wood, one of the conspirators of the gun- great complaints of abuses and exactions powder treason, who was afterwards exe- in his predecessor's time; nor did he find cuted. The place of meeting was at Dray- that Popery and profaneness had increaston, in Northamptonshire, where there was ed in that kingdom by any thing more a great library, that no books of the an- than the neglect of due catechizing and cient fathers might be waiting for con- preaching; for want of which instruction sultation. The points proposed were Tran- the poor people that were outwardly Prosubstantiation, the Invocation of Saints, testants, were very ignorant of the princithe worshipping of Images, and the Visi- ples of religion, and the Papists continued bility of the Church. Three days were still in a blind obedience to their leaders : spent in disputation; three hours in the therefore he set himself with all his power forenoon, and two hours in the afternoon; to redress these neglects, as well by his but the conclusion was this: after the third own example, as by his ecclesiastical disday of meeting, when the Lord Primate, cipline. who had hitherto been opponent, was to It may not be amiss to insert here some take npon bim the part of respondent to of those directions which he used to give the Jesuit, that very morning, about the those who were newly entered into holy time be was expected, the Jesuit excused orders, since they may not be unprofitable his coming to the Earl, saying, “ That all to such as mean seriously to undertake this the arguments he had framed within his sacred calling. own head, and thought he had them as pere

“ I. Read and study the Scriptures carefect as his pater noster, he had forgotten, fully, wherein is the best learning, and only and could not recover them again : that he infallible truth ; they will furnish yon believed it was the just judgment of God with the best materials for your sermons ; upon him thus to desert him in the defence the only rules of faith and practice; the of his cause, for the undertaking of himself most powerful motives to persuade and to dispute with a man of that eminency convince the conscience; and the strongand learning, without the licence of his est arguments to contute all errors, heresuperior.” Whereupon the Earl, upon some sies, and schisms: therefore be sure let all further discourse with the Lord Primate, your sermons be congruous to them; and was converted, and became a Protestant, to this end it is expedient that you underand so continued to his last. This I had stand, them as well in the origipals as in from an eye and ear witness, which is con. the translations. firmed by a secular priest, Challoner, who II. Take not hastily up other men's opiwriting a book against this Beaunond, bids nions without due trial, nor vent your lim beware of coming any more to Dray- own conceits, but compare them first with ton, lest he met another Usher there, to the the analogy of faith, and rules of holives, dishonour of his profession and himself. recorded in the Scriptnres, which are the Upon this the Countess of Peterborough proper tests of all opinions and doctrines. beld him in great respect, and upon his III. Meddle with controversies and losses in Ireland, and other distresses here, doubtful points as little as may be in your she took him to her own house, where he popular preaching, lest you puzzle your lived to the day of his death.

bearers, or engage them in wrapgling dis

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putations, and so hinder their becoming mily. And every Sunday, in the evening, better men, which is the main design of there was a sermon in the chapel. In preaching.

the winter evenings he constantly spent IV. Insist most on those points that two hours in comparing old MSS. of the tend to effect sound belief, sincere love to Bible, Greek and Latin, in which abont God, repentance and amnendment of life, five or six of us assisted him, and the Press these things home to the conscience variæ lectiones of each were taken by himof your hearers, as of absolute necessity, self, with his own hand. leaving no gap for evasions, but bind them About this time a very high mark as close as inay be to their duty; and as you of esteem was shewn him: the Lord ought to preach sound and orthodox doc- Deputy Falkland, being called back into trine, so ought you to deliver God's message England, at his taking boat at the as near as may be in God's words, that is, in water side, reserved this Lord Primate such as are plain and intelligible, that the for the last persorr to take leave of, and meanest of your auditors may understand: fell upon bis knees or the sands, and beg. to which end it is necessary to back all ged his blessing. Add to this, the many practical precepts and doctrines with apt letters that came to him from foreign parts, proofs from the Holy Scriptures, avoiding as well as from persons at home, upon se all exotic phrases, scholastic terms, unue- veral occasions; some for resolving of cessary quotations of authors, and forced difficulties in divinity, others in cases of rhetorical figures, since it is not difficult conscience and practical subjects, which to make easy things appear hard, but to proved the respect in which he was held. render hard things easy is the hardest part He endeavoured, in Ireland, to augof a good orator, as well as preacher. ment the means of the Clergy, for

V. Get your hearts sincerely affected which end he had obtained a patent for with the things you persuadę others to impropriations, to be passed in his name, embrace, that so you may preach experi- for their use, as they did fall; but it was mentally, and your learers perceive that too much neglected by themselves. you are in good earnest, and press nothing As to his own expenses they were upon them but what may tend to their much in books; and while he enjoyed advantage, and which yourself would ven- the receipts of his Archbishopric, a certure your own salvation on.

tain sum every year was laid aside for VI. Dissemble not the truths of God this end ; but ecially for collecting main any case, nor comply with the lusts of puscripts and rarities, as well from remen, or give any countenance to sin by mote parts of the world, as near at hand. word or deed.

He was the first that procured the SamaVII. But above all, you must never ritan Bible, (which is only the Pentateuch) forget to order your own conversation as to the view of these western parts, as * becomes the Gospel, that so you may teach Mr. Selden acknowledgeth. It was sent by example, as well as precept, and that him from Syria, by the way of Aleppo, you may appear a good divine every anno 1625. He had four sent him by a where, as well as in the pulpit, for a mi. factor he employed for the search of things nister's life and conversation is more heed- of that nature, and were thought to be all ed than his doctrine."

that could be had there. He gave one to The discourses which daily fell from the library at Oxford; a second to Leyhim at his table, in the clearing of diffi- den, for which Ludovicus de Dieu gives cultres in the Scripture, and other sub- him public thanks, in a book dedicated to jects, especially when learned men came him; a third to Sir Robert Cotton's lito visit him, were of great advantage to brary; and the fourth, having, as I take it, such as were about him. And such was compared it with the other, be kept him. his fumility, that he would, on prac- self. The Old Testament, in Syriae, a ra tical subjects, apply himself to the in- rity also in these parts, was sent to bim formation and satisfaction of the poorest from thence not long after. and weakest person that should desire it. And now his trials began to approaclı. The order observed in his family, as to I will first mention, that a little before prayer, was four times a day; in the morn- the parliament in Ireland, 1634, there was: ing at six, in the evening at eight, and be- a letter sent over from the late king to fore dinner and supper in the chapel, at the Lord Deputy and Council, for de each of which he was always present. termining the precedency of the Primate On Friday, in the afternoon, constantly and Archbishop of Dublin there, of which an hour in the chapel was spent in going through the principles of religion in the catechism, for the instructiou of the fa. Marm, Arundel, edit. causa.

of later times there had been some ques- or two, abont his private affairs, and then tion-Dothing as to their persons, but in to return again ; but it pleased God to relation to their sees; this good man, out disappoint him in those resolutions, for le of his great bumility, was hardly drawn to never saw bis native country again. Not that argument; but being commanded, long after his coming to London (when he shewed a great deal of learning and rare had kissed his Majesty's hand, and been observations in matters of antiquity; and received by him with his wonted favour,) the thing was determined on his side, who he went to Oxford, as well to be absent afterwards, by another letter, (procured from those heats and differences which without his seeking) lead the precedency then liappened in that short parliament, as given bim of the lord chancellor ; which also with greater freedom to pursue his how little those things took with him, not stadies in the libraries there, where he was in the least elating of him, bnt being rather accommodated with lodgings in Christo burdens to him, all men knew.

church, by Dr. Morice, Canon of that At that parliament, 1634, he preached house, and Hebrew Professor; and whilst the first day of it before the lord deputy, be was there, he conversed with the most the lords and commions, in St. Patrick's learned persons in that famons University, Dublin. His text was Gen. xlix. 10. The who tised him with all due respect whilst seeptre shall not depart from Judah, nor he contined with them : so after he had a lavgiver from between his feet, till resided there some time, he returned again Shiloh come, and to him shall the gather to London, where, after the sitting of that ing of the people be. And at the begin. long and enlappy parliament, he made it ning of the parliament, 1639, he preached his business, as well by preaching as writbefore the same auditory, from Dent. ing, to exhort them to loyalty, and obedixxxij. 4, 5. And Moses commanded us a ence to their Prince; endeavouring, to law, even the inheritance of the congre- the utmost of his power, to beat up those gation of Jacob, and he was king in Je breaches, and reconcile those differences, sarun, when the heads of the people and that were ready to break ont both in the tribes of Israel were gathered together. Church and State, though it did not meet Which, as they were most fit texts for a with that success he always desired. parliament, so were each fall of rare and His library(known to be a copious one,) eminent learning.

tlre first year of the rebellion of Ireland, About the end of this year, the Lord 1641, was with us in Drogheda, when we Primate published his long expected were besieged four months by the Irish work, entitled, Britannicarum Ecclesi- rebels, and when they made no qnestion arum Antiquitates, in which also is in- of devouring us. The priests and friars serted a history of Pelagius, and his be- talked much of the prize they should resy; and as it was long in coming out, have in the library, but the barbarous so it did fully answer expectation, when multitnde of barning it, and us by the it came abroad into the world, being the flame of the books, but it pleased God, most exaet account that ever yet was wonderfully to deliver ns and it out of given of the British Church, beginning their hands; and so the whole, with his with the earliest notices we can find in manuscripts, were sent him that summer ancient anthors of any credit, concerning to Chester. the first planting of Christianity in these The sufferings he now lay under were islands, within twenty years after onr Sa- many. All his personal estate, and what vionr's crucifixion, and bringing it down else belonged to his primacy in Ireland, (with the succession of Bishops, as far as was destroyed; and all that he had was they could be retrieved) not only in our the preachership at Covent Garden Church. Britain, but in Ireland also, as far as to. Upon these his losses, two offers were wards the end of the seventh century ; made him from foreign nations. The one collected out of the best authors, either from Cardinal Richelieu, out of regard printed or in manuscript, and is so great to his eminent learning, with a large maina treasure of this kind of learning, that all tenance, and liberty to have lived where who have written since with any success on he pleased in France, with the Protestthis subject, muust own thiemselves behold ants; the other from the Hollanders, ofing to him for his elaborate collections. fering him the place of Professor at Ley

In the year 1640, he came out of Ire- den, which had an ample stipend: buth land lither, being invited over by some which he refused. eminent persons, npon the occasion of the It pleased indeed bis late Majesty to prothen difference between the late King and vide for him muel better in England, by parliament, intending to stay here a year conferring on him the Bishopric of Car

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