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the community.” And here the pro- influence. Now, that the laws of honow fligacy and revengeful spirit which were at least intended to make men of they inculcate are sufficiently ac
fashion act honourably towards each other, knowledged in the representation prescribe and regulate the duties betwist
there can be no question ; because they given by Paley. They are thus de- equals. But that they do not and canpicted by Mr. Grinfield :
not accomplish this object, we bave al“Thc man of fashion who acts upon ready shewn, and the cause of this defect such principles, is the common enemy to
may be easily accounted for. As water all around him; he thinks himself at li- can never rise above its natural and origiberty to sport with the sorrows of parents, nal level, so no set of principles can teach and with the calamities of their children; us to look above the authority from which he makes a mock of friendship by murdere they emanate. Hence it is, that as the ing his friend on the smallest affront; aud world looks with an indulgent eye on so long as he can settle his debts of honour, many crimes to which there are strong he cares uot how many he may ruip by his
natural temptations, so it is always very prodigality, nor what ipisery he may occa
dubious whether the mere man of honour sion by his excess. This species of honour, will feel liiniself bound to abstain from which is so much debated and boasted of such crimes, under any severe and pressat clubs and assemblies, would, if gene. ing circumstances. rally acted on, convert the most fourish- “ Again, there are some losses and mising empires into wilds and deserts; it fortunes which must necessarily exclude a would deform and deface the fairest scenes
man from the intercourse of fashionable of civilization into dens and charnel- life, and from the name and appearance of houses; it would transform men into de
a gentleman. Whatever leads to poverty mons, delighting in each other's ruip, from is of this description. If, then, from cerdespair and disgust of themselves; and tain accidents, a man of honour should be when it had achieved its horrid triumph, threatened with the loss of his fortune, or it might salute itself and its votaries in if his prodigality has brought him into the words of our dramatist :
great pecuniary embarrassments, it will • Brutus is an honourable map :
always be very problematical, should he
have no better principles to sustain him, So are ye all--all honourable men.'»
whether he may not yield to some strong Mr. Grinfield having thus satis- temptations to frand and deceit. factorily exposed the futility of the “Nor is this all,-people of fashion, law of honour as set forth by Paley, who affect to regulate their condact by is chiefly occupied in the remainder the laws of honour, are always, it should of his discourse, in discussing the be recollected, living in the midst of such
dangers and temptations; their babits of propriety of introducing such a law play and prodigality keep them on the in a system of moral philosophy. very verge of this dangerous precipice. And here he expresses his regret, as Now, that law must be absurd and nugahe had indeed at the outset of his tory, which first invites to the indulgence observations, that such a system of of the crime, and which would afterwards opinious should have been intro. condemn and punish the criminal. By duced by Paley in his celebrated of people of fashion, a man is encouraged
the laws of honour, and the intercourse work on moral philosophy, with in habits of gaming, excess, and dissipa. the sanction of a rule.
tion; but, if placed in a situation of reThat such principles cannot be sponsibility, he should yield to the force esteemed a rule of oral science, is of surrounding temptations, and betray argued then from the imperfect foun- and violate the trust reposed in him, then, dation on which they rest—their mu
the sanje laws affect to condemo him, and
leave him to the pity and scoro, and patable character-their acknowledg. nishment of that world, whose templaed partiality—their indulgence to tions and blandishments had brought bim vice—their tendency to subvert their to ruin," P. 19. own influence. This tendency is
Mr. Grinfield then draws a forci. thus shewn by Mr. G.
ble contrast between the rule of life “Nothing can deserve to be called a
which religion supplies, and that rule of life which destroys its own inten
have hitherto been contions, and which is subversive of its own sidering, and shews very convincing. ly that religious principle is the pro- support is under such difficulties ; but per and only safeguard of virtue. with religion we could never have ex
perienced them, “So true is the laws “Such is the principle which is alone fit guage of Scripture: let no man say when to be deemed a rule of human life, be
he is tempted, I am tempted of God, for cause it comes to us invested with proper
God cannot be tempted with evil, neither authority, and fortified with proper sanc
temptetli he aby man; but' every man is tions. It is adequate for time, because it tempted when he is drawn away' by his is cominensurate with eternity; and it can
own lust and eciticed. Thus when lust support us upon earth, for it comes to us
hath increased, it bringeth forth sin, and from heaven. The man who has drawn sin, when it is finished, bringeth 'fortli bis principles from the motives of worldly death.” P. 25. honour, may liope by cunning and dupli. But while we sincerely approve city, still to retain the good opinion of the and admire the high tone of religiworld, and to avoid detection; but he wlio cares more for realities than appearances,
ous feeling which animates this discannot be satisfied even witli the strongest course of Mr. Grinfield, and concur hopes of such an escape. He looks for- in his strictures on the law of howard to the period, when that which is nour, when regarded as a substitute secret shall be made manifest, when every for the rule of conscience, there are thought of his heart shall be brought into still some points in wbich we cannot judgment; and whilst bis faith enables implicitly agree with him. In the liim to support his present trials or losses first place, we think he has too those difficulties and temptations which bastily ascribed to Paley an introducmust always eucircle the votary of fa- tion of the law of honour among the shion," P. 22.
rules of moral science. Paley does
not speak of it as' a law by which “But the main distinction, and that on the work of virtue may, or should be which we are content to rest the whole conducted, but only as a law by argament is this, that whilst honour de. which it is often attempted to regufeats its own intentions, by allowing and late the moral duties. The only way encouraging its votary to rush into every in which he mentious it, is as a rule kind of luxury and dissipation, religion at
of life adopted by certain members once secares its present duties, and rea- of society, and he would have moral us
' as much as possible from the tempta. philosophy applied to its correction tions of the world, and by proclaiming the
-not to its enforcement.--For our necessity of continually mortifying our part we should object to Paley's corrupt affections and desires,
statement on the subject on different “Supposing, then, for a moment, that accounts, We should
that inhonour as a motive was equally graud and stead of making too much of the law powerful with religion, yet it could not
of honour, he has made too little. prove equally beneficial in its effects upou luman life, nor equally success: Agreeably to the observations with ful in supporting us under the trials which we introduced the subject, we and difficulties of adverse fortune. The should say, that the law of honour, man of honour has set his heart upon instead of being confined to men of wealth and its enjoyments; he has grown fashion, was of universal operationup in habits of sin and self-indulgence in the unfashionable as well as the Can he of a sudden overcome liis favourite
fashionable orders of society-for parsuits and desires ? But how should lie attempt it? Will the love of honour ren- it appears to us to be nothing more der him content with poverty and privacy? than the rule of worldly approbation, No ; it is then temptation seizes biin with which, while it varies in its objects all its powers, and it finds him, not like an according to the accidental situation humble Christian, on his knees, but surrounded with every thing to inflame his men equally so far as they partake
of the individual, yet pervades' alt passions, and to drown his reflections. Can we wonder if he falls on such slip would follow, the still greater need
of one common nature, And hence pery ground? It would be too much, perhaps, to affirm that even religion could of sound moral philosophy' to obvie
ate the widely-spread influence of the world, bad as it is, so depraved such a very imperfect principle of that it gives its approbation to noaction.
thing but that which is evil; and Then again Paley should have wherever it approves that which is distinctly stated in his work, that in intrinsically good, then we should terming such a law, a law of honour, say that the law of honour was good. he was only conforming with an es- We would instance the duty of reratablished usage of speech founded city--what is considered a greater on the corrupt practice of the world. breach of honour than to be guilty He should have shewn that honour of a falsehood ? there is no charge rightly understood is only another which the mere man of honour rename for the highest virtue. For if by sents more highly. He knows that honour we represent to qurselves, as the world has the greatest contempt by the nearest correspondence in our for a man on whose word no relilanguage, the expressive term of the ance can be placed; andhe there. Greek, xaroxaya tics it includes at fore guards his reputation for veraonce that excellence which is ap- city with the most scrupulous tenproved by God, and that which derness--and as the only effectual stands fair with man. Agreeably to means of preserving such a reputasuch a view of honour is the exhor- tion feels the duty enforced on tation of the Apostle, in which he him, of really speaking the truth on unites whatsoever things are lovely, all occasions. At the same time we and of good report, or have any do not mean to say, that a mere praise in them, with such as are true, man of honour will be necessarily a and honest, and just, and pure. By man of veracity, for, as Mr. Grinfield omitting thus to discriminate be- has ably shewn, his principle will not twein real honour, and that honour abide him in the day of trial; but which assumes the name, Paley has this we maintain, that his principle no doubt given an undue appearance is such by nature as to make him ad. of reality to principles of conduct here to truth, though it may not be which are, in truth, a source of dis- strong enough and pure enough to grace, rather than of honour, to stand the fiery trial of affliction, or those who make them the sole rule of any other severe temptation. This iptheir life, But we are not to cen- deed is the really weak part in Paley's sure him on that account for having statement, as Mr. G., we have algiven them a place in a work which ready seen, has well pointed out, in professes to teach men their duty which he asserts, that a man of hoand the reasons of it, because they nour is not the worse to deal with in constitute a series of facts which na- those concerns which are usually turally form part of the subject mat- transacted between one gentleman ter of the science.
and another. It is merely a theoretic In the next place we do not agree calculation of the force of the law with Mr. Grinfield in his sweeping itself, without taking into considercondemnation of the law of honour tion the resistance which it has to as utterly useless. In every thing encounter, and which experience which he says to reprobate it as a abundantly informs us, is more than sole principle substituted for the sufficient to counterpoise the power sterling principle of religion, we may of the principle. That a man of repeat, we go completely along with honour is such as not to do a disbim; but when he says, as he after- honourable action, is not a truth of wards does more explicitly in a equal validity with this—that a man postscript to his discourse, that of religious principle is such as there is no one duty inculcated by the not to do an irreligious actionlaw of honour, we must here withhold for a man of honour does not avoid pur assent, For we do uot consider dishonourable actions, in that re. spect in which they are really dis- and refinement, the delusion which honourable, but only according to prompts us to rest in so imperfect a the worldly acceptation of the term. standard of duty, naturally obtains a
But these points of difference are a more influential operation than in inconsiderable when set against our
ruder times. There is a great tengeneral concurrence with the argu- dency in such an age to identify man. ment of the pamphlet. It
ners with morals, to be content with a seasonable adınonition to the pub. the virtue wbich renders us at ease lic, to beware how they lean on a in society, instead of that which broken reed, bow they trust their makes us at peace with God and all to an unsound vessel, which is ourselves. And the caution against not able to weather the storms and the delusion,
is therefore more waves of the world; and we are needed. As those qualities of chatherefore anxious to give additional racter which are superficial rise in currency to the practical wisdom estimation, the greater should be the contained in the substance of Mr. exertion to recal men from a vain Grinfield's observations. It is im- repose in them—to remind then portant that men should see that that the fashion of this world passeth the law of worldly honour cannot away—that it is a tide which has its help them in the time of need; that ebb, and which as it retires will it fails when its support is most leave those who trust themselves needed; that it will neither strengthen securely to float on it, stranded on them in temptation, nor comfort its shores, far from that haven of rest them when they are afflicted. In and happiness where they would be. these days of extended civilization
MISCELLANEOUS. PRACTICAL INFIDELITY DISPLAYED, if I made the least motion to escape. Look.
IN A SKETCH FROM THE FRENCH ing round for my Provençal friend, I obo REVOLUTION.
served two National guards present to the
President, a petition from the Section de (Continued from a previous Number)
la Croix-Rouge, in behalf of the prisoner. CHAP. IV.
He told them, that sucli petitions were of
no avail in the case of traitors. On which the THE CRISIS OF MY AGONY.
prisoner cried out, “ C'est affreux ; votre By the glare of two torches 1 distinguish- jugenient est un assassinat.” The President ed the terrible tribunal, which was about to
answered, “I wash my hands of it--Conduidecide on my life or death. The President,
sez M. Maillé t." Hardly were these words in a grey coat, with a sabre by his side, was
uttered, when they pushed the prisoner into leaning on a table, on which were some pa
the street, where I saw him butchered, pers, a writing desk, pipes, and bottles. througli the opening of the door. Round this table were ten persons sitting and have always been able to master
I have often been in situations of danger, and standing, two of whom were in their waistcoats and aprons; others were sleep- feelings, but in the present, the horrors of ing on benches. Two men, whose shirt all that was passing around me would have sleeves were stained with blood, kept guard qnite overcome me, had it not been for the at the door, with swords in their hands, and
conversation with my Provençal friend, and an old turnkey stood with his band on the
my dream, which was constantly recurring bolt. Opposite the President three men
to my imagination. were holding a prisoner, whose age appeared
The President sat down to write, and to be about sixty.
after he had, (as appeared) registered the Having placed me in a corner of the
name of the unlappy man they had just dungeon, my guards crossed their swords
butchered, I heard him say—" Another.” over my breast, and threatened to stab me
† I thought the President spoke these Immediately I was dragged before that ex- is as absurd, as that of which I am now peditious and bloody tribunal, with which going to speak is monstrous, They accuse the best protection was to have none, and me of laving been on the frontiers, and of where all resources were useless if not having raised recruits there, and of having founded on truth. Two of my guards led themover to the Emigrés.(Here a gene lield me cach by a hand, and the third ral murmur arose. It did not disconcert me, grasped the collar of my coat. The Pre- and I continued in a louder voice.) Stay, sident. Your navie and profession? One Gentlemen; Gevtlemen, it is my turp to of the Judges. The least falsehood will speak, and I beseech M. le President to be fatal to you. A. My name is Jourgniac support me in my right. Never has it been Saint Meard. I have served twenty-five of more importance to me. The Judges.years as an officer in the army. And I ap. (laughing) Very true ; very trne; silence. pear before your tribunal, with the confi- A. My accuser is a monster; I will prove dence of a man who has nothing to re. this to you, Gentlemen, whom the people proach bimself with, and therefore will not would not bave chosen for my Judges, if it utter a falsehood. The President. We shall had not considered you able to distinguisti see, Stay a moinent. (He looked over a list the innocent from the guilty. Here, Gentle of prisoners and accusations, and passed it men, are certificates that I have not quitto the Judges.) Do you know the cause ted Paris for the last year and eleven of your arresti A. Yes, M. le President; months. Here are three attestations of mas. and I am persuaded, from the falsehood of ters of houses in which I have lodged during the accusation, that the Comité de Surveil- that time. (My judges were employed in lance de la Commune would not liave had examining them, when they were interrupt. une confined, but for the precautions whiched by the arrival of a prisoner wbo took my the safety of the people rendered it neces. place before the President. Those who held sary to take. They accuse me of being the him, said that this was another priest whom editor of an anti-feuillant journal, called they had dislodged from the Chapel. After le Journal de la Cour et de la Ville. It is a very brief examination, he was dispatched false. The real Editor is a person of the "a la Force.” He threw liis breviary upon name of Gauthier, the description of whose the table, and was dragged out of the danperson so little resembles mine, that great geon and massacred. This business finished, malice alone could have caused my being I re-appeared before the tribunal.) One of apprehended in his place. If I could search the Judges. I do not say that these certi. in my pockets—Here I madean attempt to ficates are false, but wlio will prove ttiat they take out my pocket book, which one of the are true? A. Yonr obscrvation is just, and Judges observing, ordered my guards tu to enable you to jndge me with a full knowloose me,-I then laid on the table, the atá ledge of my case, let me be confined in a testations de plusienrs commis, facteurs, as dungeon till Commissioners, whom I beg well as shopkeepers and masters of houses M. le President to appoint, shall have aswhere I had lodged, proving that M. Gau- certained their genuineness. If they are thier was Editor and sole Proprietor of that false, I deserve to die. One of the Hedges, journal.) One of the Judges. Still there is who had appeared to interest himself for no smoke without fire. You must tell us me during the examination, observed in an why you are thus accused. A. I was going under voice, A guilty man would not speak to do so. You are aware, Gentlemen, that with such confidence. Another Judge. To this journal was a sort of box in which were what section do you belong? A. To that deposited les calembourgs, quolibets, epi- of the Halle au Blé. A Nalional Guard. grammes, plaisanteries, good, bad, and in- (not one of the judges.) Ah! Ah! I belong different, which were produced in Paris, to that section. With whom do you lodge and the 83 departments. I might, indeed, A. With M. Teissier, rue Croix-des-Petits. deny that I ever wrote any thing for this Champs. The National Guard. I know journal, as there does not exist a single ma. him - we bave bad business together, and I nuscript in my hand writing, but the natu- can tell whether the certificate is bis. ral frankness of my character, which has Having looked at it, he said, Gentlemen, I dever deserted me, forces me to coufess that bear witness that this is the signature of the my gaiety of heart frequently inspired me Citizen Teissier. With what pleasure could with pleasant thoughts, which I sent to the I have thrown my arms round the neck of Sieur Gauthier. Such, Gentlemen, is the this my guardian angel*. But I bad thing, simple truth of this great accusation, which
words against his inclination : a number of • See Christian Remembrancer for Octo. the Tucurs had come into the dungeon, and ber, p. 606.
were creativg much disturbance.