decide that the centre window is "the window of the balcony," and the one for which we are searching?

Another question I beg to submit, and that is, Was the king taken on the north side of the building at all?. The following are the principal statements in respect of the assertion that he was there: :

Herbert (p. 135) says, "There was a passage broken through the wall, by which the king passed unto the scaffold." Warwick (p. 344) says, " He came out of the Banqueting-house on the scaffold." A pamphlet of the day, entitled King Charles his Speech, states the king came "through the Banqueting-house, adjoining to which the scaffold was erected between Whitehall Gate and the gate leading into the gallery from St. James's." Pennant says, he came "through the wall in which a passage was broken. This passage still remains at the north end of the room, and is at present the door to a small additional building of later date." Ludlow relates that the king was "conducted to the scaffold out of the window of the Banqueting-house." Smith, as I before noticed, has marked the centre of the front as the place of execution. Vertue, "according to the truest reports," has marked a window belonging to the small building on the north side for the one through which Charles passed. If we could identify Charles's bedchamber (called councilroom by some writers)-that room in which he rested for a while previous to the execution it might assist in determining the route he took; as to whether he passed through the Banquetinghouse northwards into the projection, and so out, or whether he came into the Banqueting-house southwards. Pennant declares that the bedchamber

is marked A on the old plan. This old plan, I presume, is that of Fisher's, taken about 1670 or 1680, and engraved by Vertue. The chambers having that letter are called thereon, “Her Majesty's apartments;" so what authority Pennant had for deeming them the King's bedchamber is not clear; and when it is remembered that these chambers so marked overlooked the river, we may probably doubt whether they took the king right across the palace from the Park to the river. Herbert, whose account we must greatly respect, says, after crossing the Park from St. James's, "coming to the stair. . . . passed along the galleries unto his bedchamber;" afterwards "a guard was made all along the galleries and the Banqueting House, but behind the soldiers abundance of men and women crowded in. There was a passage broken through the wall, by which the king passed unto the scaffold." After the execution, the Bishop and Herbert "went with the body to the back stairs to be embalmed, meantime they went into the Long Gallery, where they met the General," and met Cromwell therein further on.

Comparing this statement with the old plan of Whitehall, it appears to me that the Long Gallery could only be on the south side of the Banqueting House, and that the back stairs was also near the south side. If this line of the route taken be tenable, and I have seen no authorised statement to the contrary, added to which there do not appear to be any buildings at all likely to have contained " galleries," or the Long Gallery on the north side, and no back stairs in that position, I came to the conclusion that the " passage broken through the wall" was made on the south side, and not on the north, and was done to give access from the Palace to the first floor of the Banqueting House without passing into the open court.

I trust the subject will excuse this long "note" in your short and valuable pages; and will only add, as a reply to the question of A. A., that no engravings that I have seen show any steps up to the scaffold, which is stated to have been hung with black, though that is not represented in any plate. WYATT PAPWORTH.

LEARNED Dane oN UNICORNS (3rd S. i. 50.) — Among the ancients who, as F. R.'s quotation says, represented female deer with horns, may be mentioned Callimachus, in his hymn to Artemis :


Εὖρες ἐπὶ προμολῇς ὄρεος τοῦ Παῤῥασίοιο Σκαιρούσας ἐλάφους, μέγα τε χρέος, αἱ μὲν ἐπ' οχθῇς Αἰὲν ἐβουκολέοντο μελαμψηφίδος ̓Αναύρου, Μάσσονες ἢ ταῦροι· κεράων δ ̓ ἀπελάμπετο χρυσός.” Ernesti's Callimachus, 1761, tom. i. p. 110. Aristotle says, referring to the passage: “ ̓́Ετι ποτέρων ἐστὶ τὸ ἀμάρτημα, τῶν κατὰ τὴν τέχνην, ἢ κατ ̓ ἄλλο συμβεβηκός; ἔλαττον γὰρ, εἰ μὴ ἤδει ὅτι ἔλαφος θήλεια κέρατα οὐκ ἔχει, ἢ εἰ κακομιμήτως paye."-Poetics, Oxon., 1794, chap. xlvi. p. 87.


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The poet could not mean that these deer were females, which had assumed some of the outward characteristics of the male sex, as is sometimes the case with animals of the bovine and ovine genera. The celebrated Hunter, in his treatise on the freemartin, has adduced several instances of the kind; but says nothing about deer.

I am acquainted with a district in which those beautiful animals (both red and fallow) abounded, till, by an act of Vandalism and cruelty, they were all destroyed, and I never heard of a female with horns. Still, I would not pronounce such a thing impossible.

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never have had any doubt of their identification of "E. K." with Edward Kerke; or of his having been, as I believe they have stated, a son of the Mrs. Kerke through whom Spenser used to send and get parcels and letters to and from Cambridge. As he speaks of coming to Mrs. Kerke's "to have his letter delivered to the carrier," may Bull Inn in Bishopsgate Street; at which the not Mrs. Kerke have been the proprietor of the Cambridge carrier, the well-known Hobson, used


As to C.'s elaborate unveiling of the Faerie Queene, I must say that I differ from it toto cælo ; and if the readers of "N. & Q." have no objection, I shall, when I have more leisure than at present, give my conception of the allegory of the first book, and make some remarks on the other books. In 1859, I wrote an article in Fraser's Magazine on the Life of Spenser, which was highly praised in N. & Q.," and which MR. COLLIER might have read. In it I proved that Spenser must have been born in 1551, and not in 1553, as is usually supposed. I accounted for his residence in Kent, and acquaintance with Sir Philip Sidney. I made it, I believe, pretty clear that Rosalind was a donna di mente. a purely imaginary personage. I gave strong reasons in proof of his never having left Ireland from 1580 to 1589-a proof, by the way, of his not having seen the Arcadia in MS., which was not printed till after the First Part of the Faerie Queene. I have further shown that his Sonnets give a regular and faithful history of his courtship of the lady who became his wife. There is one omission: I was not aware that the probability is, that when he fled to England in 1598, he left his wife and children either with her family (at Kinsale ?), or with his sister Mrs. Travers (at Cork?)

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A change in the management of the Magazine prevented me from writing in it, as I had intended, on the works of Spenser; and I now propose giving some of my observations and discoveries in the pages of "N. & Q."


THETA (3rd S. iv. 111.) - Various forms of the sacred circle, or periphery, are to be found on the earlier coins of Britain. This emblem appears on thirteen out of twenty-one examples before me; and, except on one coin, is accompanied by the horse, a type, evidently a rude imitation copied from Greek coins. The forms under which this periphery appears, are: 1. A large dot. 2. A dot surrounded by seven others. 3. A wheel with six spokes; or a dot within a circle, from which issue six bars. 4. A wheel with four spokes. 5. A circle, or annulus. 6. A lozenge with dotted points. 7. A cross, composed of five dots. In all these cases the circle, &c., occurs in the base of the coin, below the horse. On several there are,

in addition to these base circles, other similar circles before and above the horse. And in some cases we find, not only the wheel with spokes, or cross within a circle, but also a mark very similar to the numismatic Greek ; namely, a dot within a circle, the emblem of divinity.

On the reverse of one coin, instead of the type of a horse, there is a rude representation of a bird, which appears to me to have been imitated from some of the Ptolemaic coins. In front of the bird is a cross saltirewise, between four dots— the wheel emblem in another form. And behind the bird is a geometrical or mystic figure: the interlaced triangle, or star of five points.

However appropriate the cross may be as an emblem on the coins of Christian sovereigns, we find the same emblem occurring on money of a date prior to A.D. 1, either in a circle or by itself, and undoubtedly used as a sacred symbol. The e of your correspondent's Query, is most probably one of these emblems. It is easy to account for the "dot in a circle," "the sacred centre of all things" type; and when the same idea is shown by a wheel and horse, it is but the representative of the sun, symbolising the centre of the universe. CHESSBOROUGH.

THE EARL OF SEFTON (3rd S. iv. 148.)-May I ask your correspondent MR. REDMOND for his authority for stating, as he has done, that "the Earl of Sefton was, about eighty or ninety years ago, a Roman Catholic priest"? He labours, I think, under a mistake, if the Peerage which I have consulted is correct. ABHBA. WHITEHALL PLACE, ETC. (3rd S. iv. 29, 94.)— The engraving referred to is to be found in Stukeley's Itin. Curiosum; wherein it is placed incidentally, with the note that the walls were pulled down within a week afterwards. If the coat of arms belongs to Wolsey, the engraving represents the arms badly. W. P.

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doubtful; that she was not the wife of William That she was the daughter of a Lord de Ros is de Braose, Lord of Brembre, is clear; but she may have been the second wife (a Ravent was the first) of William, the son of Braose by his third wife Maria, who died in 19 Edw. II. (Esc. No. 90). Thomas Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, died in 12 Edw. III.; his widow, the Countess Marshal, in 36 Edw. III. The escheat of that year (Pt. II. 1st Nos. 9,) says she had no issue by the Earl ("Inquisition for Gloucester"); that John de Cobham was her son and heir ("Inquisition for Norfolk"); that she had the manor of Erdyngton of the inheritance of her son John, then living, and of Ralph Cobham her first husband ("Inquisition for Berks "). Ralph died in 19 Edw. II.; his son and heir, John, being a year old. (Esc., No. 93.) B.

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These initials apparently indicate the writer to have been Jonson himself, although much reliance cannot be placed upon the signatures in this MS. volume. (See Hannah's Poems by Wotton, Raleigh, and others, pp. 96, 97, &c.)

Perhaps I may be permitted to append another poem from the same collection (p. 75), which I do not remember to have met with in print before?


"Is't for a grace, or is't for some dislike,

Where others give ye lippe, you give the cheeke;
Some houlde it for a pride of your behaviour,
But I do rather count it as a favour.

Wherefore to shew my kindnesse and my love,
I leave both lipps and cheekes, and kisse your glove.
Now what's the cause? To make you full acquainted,
Your glove's perfum'd, your lippes and cheekes be

Who is the author?

The MS. referred to contains many poems by Donne, Raleigh, Hoskins, Francis Davison, Brooke, Sidney, and others; some of which undoubtedly exist only in MS.



HEROD THE GREAT (3rd S. iv. 87.)-I am not aware of the existence of any contemporary coins which bear the likeness of Herod the Great; the types of his money, or of that attributed to him, usually show the manna-pot and lily, while the coins of Herod Agrippa bear the sacred "umbrella" and wheat-ears. About which of the Cleopatras does MR. SIMPSON inquire? If he desires to see a good likeness of Cleopatra, the friend of Marc Antony, he will find it in Mr. Humphrey's Coin-Collectors' Manual, pl. 7, p. 136, vol. i. Her portrait usually appears on one side of the coin, and that of Antony on the other: in silver and brass they are not very rare.

CHESSBOROUGH. P.S. Why not try the British Museum?

If a complete tyro in numismatics may be allowed to speak when authorities "make no sign," it may possibly be of some use to MR. SIMPSON to know that he will find a coin of Herod the Great, and another of Herod Archelaus, engraved at p. 14 of Akerman's Introduction to the Study of Ancient and Modern Coins, but not presenting any portrait. Mr. Akerman remarks that the coins of Herod the Great "are very scarce, and are seldom well preserved." A coin of Cleopatra is engraved in Whelan's Numismatic Atlas of the Roman Empire. Would not coins of both be found in the British Museum? I possess myself a small silver medal, which I suspect to be a medal of Cleopatra, and I should be greatly obliged to any one who could satisfy me on the subject.

The Editor has goodnaturedly permitted a query to pass appended to a reply in more instances than one; may I therefore add a description of my medal here, in hope of elucidation ? — Silver, rudely and deeply notched round the edge; about the size of a farthing (the real original copper farthing, I mean, not the new bronze inconveniences); obverse, a head, with diadem, necklace, and ear-rings; hair falling in one long curl down back; terminated at the base of throat, without drapery; no legend, except the letters "S. C." at back of head. Reverse, figure of Victory, in chariot, drawn by three horses, gifted with ten legs only among them; legend, over the horses" 'XVII." under their feet, "C.GNE. BAS." The features of the face are decidedly Egyptian, and do not in the least resemble the engraved coins of the Empress Cornelia Gnæa, to whom I at first supposed the medal to belong. HERMENTRUDE.

WALDO FAMILY (3rd S. iii. 191, 397; iv. 136.) Since my first query I have obtained much information respecting this family, of which in the time of Charles II. Sir Edward Waldo was the head. The family sprung originally, it is said, from Peter Waldo of Lyons (see Hasted's History of Kent, vol. i. p. 397 n.). One of his descendants came to England, temp. Elizabeth, from the Netherlands, to avoid the persecution of the Duke d'Alva, and married twice, and had by his first wife two sons, Laurence and Robert. The eldest, Laurence, had fifteen children; Laurence's fifth son, Daniel, had a numerous family. His first son was Daniel, father of Rev. Dr. Waldo, rector of Aston Clinton. His second son was Sir Edward Waldo, Knight. His third son was Timothy Waldo, who was grandfather of Sir Timothy Waldo, Knight; and bis fourth son, Samuel Waldo, was the ancestor of the Waldo-Sibthorpe family. I am not able to state whether the American branch of the Waldo family is connected with the above family. It is possible that branch may have sprung from the original family of Waldo, and emigrated direct from the Netherlands to America. Nevertheless I incline to the opinion that it derived from the English family. I will forward direct to MR. WHITMORE Such information as I possess respecting the latter family. Was Cornelius of Ipswich, Mass. 1654, the grandfather of Brig.-Gen. Samuel Waldo? What is the date of the Waldo patent, and what did it comprise?

There is an English family of the name of Waldo, who derive from Joseph Waldo of Boston, merchant, who came to Bristol in 1783, which Joseph Waldo was, I believe, a grandson of Cornelius Waldo, a brother of Brig.-Gen. Waldo; but I presume MR. WHITMORE's question rather applies to the connection of the first of the name who settled in America with some English family.

M. C. I.

SINAVEE OR SINAVEY (3rd S. iv. 111.)—“A copious spring near the old Kirk of Mains, Forfarshire, bears this name." This is undoubtedly the Norse Saint " Sunniva," whose church and shrine at Bergen were very famous. She was of Irish origin, according to the legend, and left her native country on account of its being so harassed by the Northern pirates. Sailing round by the north of Scotland, she landed on Selja isle, near Stadtland, in Norway. Here her relics were found in the time of King Olaf Tryggvason, and were afterwards solemnly translated to Bergen. The history of St. Sunniva is given at full length by Munch in his admirable History of Norway, vol. ii. p. 296-297, 8, and the legend may be read in Langebek, Script. Rerum Danic. vol. iv. P. 14EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 7, Eldon Square, Newcastle.


CRUSH A CUP (3rd S. iii. 493.) There is a passage in Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxvii. 2) which suggests the idea that freaks of this sort may be justified by classical precedent. I quote from Holland's translation, which is a rather free expansion of the original: —

"There are not many yeares past, since that a noble man who had been consul of Rome, used to drinke out of this cup; and notwithstanding that in pledging upon a time, a lady whom he fancied, he bit a piece out of the brim thereof (which her sweet lips touched); yet this injurie done to it rather made it more esteemed and valued at a higher price; neither is there at this day a cup of Cassidoine more pretious or dearer than the same."


VENUS CHASTISING CUPID (2nd S. i. 355.) There is an engraving published by Bowles and Carver, from a painting by Nattier, representing Venus whipping Cupid with a bunch of roses, and under it the following inscription : —

"Oft on the god who wings the amorous dart
His Cyprian parent will inflict a smart.

Such is the painter's hint, that men may know
Their fondest joys are intermixed with woe."

BUSH HOUSES (3rd S. iv. 141.)- Bush houses in England are not confined to one locality. The custom of hanging out a bush at fair time, and selling liquor without a licence, has been practised from time immemorial at Bridgwater, in Somersetshire; and at Church-Staunton, and NewtonPoppleford, near Sidmouth, in Devonshire. Any traveller in Normandy may to this day see the common public houses distinguished by having a bush hung out over or near the door. This fact may suggest as to where the custom came from. P. HUTCHINSON.



Shakespeare-Characters; chiefly those subordinate. By C.
Cowden Clarke. (Smith, Elder & Co.)

Those who remember the delight with which the Lectures on the Clowns and other Minor Characters in Shakespeare's Plays, which Mr. Cowden Clarke was in the habit of delivering some few years ago, were listened to by crowded and admiring audiences, will think he has done wisely in revising and remodelling those Lectures for the purpose of presenting them to the reading public. Nor will those who know how heartily and how thoroughly speare's genius, regret that he has endeavoured to give Mr. Clarke appreciated the depth and variety of Shakecompleteness and interest to the present publication by including in it an explanation of the more prominent characters in each drama. Our author pronounces the genius of Shakespeare "the greatest and most lovable that was ever vouchsafed to humanity," and that opinion gives the keynote to these pleasant lectures, in which love and reverence for the subject of them seem ever striving for the mastery.

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NICOLAS DE NICOLE. Brunet does not mention the value of the German translation of this work. There is a copy of it in the British Museum.

The moralising poet signs himself L. This is rather a note for T. W.'s information than an answer to his inquiry for the classical authority posed by J. L. Ellerton. Mr. Cobbin speaks of three editions of Day's for this eccentric subject, frequently met with in mediæval art. V. C.

R. INGLIS. The title-page of Paradise Lost, an Oratorio, merely states that the words are selected from the works of Milton, and the music com

English translation of John Fox's Christus Triumphans, 1579, 1607, and 1672; but we suspect the last is a Latin edition, edited by T. C. a clergy man of Cambridge. Mr. Cobbin has not quoted this work in his Life of Fox.

SUBSCRIBER. Janet Taylor was inquired after in our last volume, p. 48.

Q. Seven articles on the saying "Mind your P's and Q's" appeared in our 1st S. vols. iii. iv. vi.

a. "Aut Cæsar aut nullus," is said to have been a saying of Julius Cæsar.

ERRATUM. 3rd S. iv. p. 180, col. ii. line 14 from bottom, for " v.” read "vi." "NOTES AND is at noon and is also Six Months forwarded direct from the (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 11s, 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order in all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186, FLEET STREET, E.C., to whom

issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for

Full benefit of reduced duty obtained by purchasing Horniman's Pure Tea; very choice at 38. 4d, and 4s. "Hugh Standard" at 48. 4d. (formerly 4s. 8d.), is the strongest and most delicious imported. Agents in every town supply it in Packets.

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