Jura. He wrote a most wretched scrawl; and it was only by calling in the aid of a distinguished archæologist, and by our consulting the modern


NOTES:-The Swiss Ballad of "Renaud," 221- Sir John printed copies, that we could decypher the min-
Henderson, 224-"Scoticisms: " Beattie: David Hume:
Lord Hailes, 225.

strel's hieroglyphics. To translate the Romande
is no easy task, even to one who, like myself, has
become somewhat familiar with it from long resi-
dence where it predominates. There is no stan-
dard for its orthography; and then it varies in
every district, nay, almost in every parish. The
following translation is tolerably literal, and many
of the stanzas are word for word. In 1858, I
printed a few copies of my first translation. It
also appeared in the Durham Advertiser. It was
copied by several other journals, and even found
its way into some American papers. I also hear
that it is in some "Selections."
popularity, because I am now enabled to give a
I regret this
better rendering, and would desire to cancel the
first impression. Robert White, Esq., of New-
castle-on-Tyne, the author of some of the best
ballads and songs in our language (vide Book of
Scottish Ballads; The Fishers' Garland, &c., &c.),
thus writes in the Durham Advertiser in a letter
dated Dec. 28, 1858:-


MINOR NOTES:-Webster's "Devil's Law Case:" its Date
-Tombstones and their Inscriptions-"Quarterly Re-
views"- Mirabeau a Spy-Paper-Lady Madelina Palmer
-Origin of the Saracen's Head - The End of Speech, 227.
QUERIES: "Don Quixote," 227 The Rev. William
Jarvis Abdy-Rev. Richard Barry, M.A.-St. Anthony's

Temptation -Sir Thomas Bartlet- Bible Translators-
Blount of Bitton-Thomas Brooks-Carew and Broke

Carved Head in Astley Church George Edwards,
F.R.S.- Engravings of Religious Rites Rev. William
Felton-Games: Merry-main-Heath Beer-Heraldic
Herbert of Cardiff-Maxims: Newbery: Goldsmith -
"May Maids" in Ireland, France, and Belgium - Me-


diatised German Princes - Phillips Family Games-Ancient Sundial - King William III., 227.

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Bishop Cox, of Ely, and Queen

Whole Duty

Flamborough Tower-Norfolk and Suffolk-Lines on London Dissenting Ministers — Calis and Island Voyages-Washington Family- Mediæval Emblems-Epitaph on Dr. Vincent,


[ocr errors]

REPLIES:-Boswell, 232- St. Patrick and the Shamrock, 233-Toison d'Or, lb.-Titles borne by Clergymen, 235Danish Invasion, Ib. - The "Faerie Queene" unveiled, 236- The " Arcadia" unveiled, 237-St. Patrick and Venomous Reptiles in Ireland-"He died and she married the Barber"-Pomeroy Family-Sir Ferdinand LeeCowthorpe Oak - A Lady's Dress in 1762 - Randolph Crewe Mævius The Bhagavadgita, &c. Suspended Animation -Jacob's Staff- Patrician Families of Louvain, 237.



The "Chanson de Renaud" is unquestionably of great antiquity, and may probably be referred to the Middle Ages. It belongs to the Jurassian district of Romande Switzerland, where traditional versions are sung both in the Romande language, and in old and modern French. The printed copies, which vary considerably — not merely in the text of the verses, but in the number of them - are common broadsheets, for the country people. A Swiss antiquary, in 1858, printed a copy in modern French at Lausanne,


and said:

"La Chanson de Renaud est encore connue, aujourdhui, dans beaucoup de provinces du Jura. Je la donne telle que je l'ai entendu chanter dans le Jura, et sans me permettre la moindre alteration."

Although I call the Lausanne copy a modern French one, I must observe that it contains many old and obsolete French words, and also several Romande ones. Another very faulty copy may be found in the works of the late Gerhard de Nerval, Paris, 1856. The text varies considerably from the Lausanne copy, and is only about half the length. The following translation is from a Romande traditional copy, obtained (1857) from a professional fiddler that I met with in the

[blocks in formation]

"Our Johnny has come from the wars." By turning to the first line of the "Chanson de Renaud," it will be seen that if we substitute "Our Johnny," for "Renaud," and put "guerre" in the plural, we have Dean Swift's line, word for word. It is not very probable that either Finlay or Swift was acquainted with the "Chanson de Renaud." I could point out several such resemblances. Those who have paid attention to the ballads of different countries are aware of the fact that there is always a remarkable similarity in ballad phraseology. Particular phrases and


modes of expression seem to belong to no particular country; but, like certain terminations in music, to be common property. Plagiarism is an offence that is not easily brought home to the ballad-monger.

Since the original translation of the "Chanson de Renaud," I have consulted no less than ten different copies, of which two MS. traditional ones were in the Romande. With this language (for I cannot call it a patois) I am more familiar than I was in 1858; and I have recently translated from it another ballad, "The Battle of La Planta," and two or three popular songs and some Ranz de Vaches. The result of the revision of the following ballad, is, greater purity of text, the insertion of some verses, and the rejection of others. I think it right to say that I am responsible for the * by which the breaks in the narrative are marked. They are not placed to give a fragmentary appearance to what I consider to be a perfect composition; but they seem necessary to mark the sudden transitions, and will make the tale better understood. The singers in the Jura find it necessary to give a little verbal explanation where I have placed asterisks.

What, it may be asked, is the origin of the ballad? Who was Renaud? Was he a real personage, or is he a mere creation of the old trouvère? In De Nerval's copy, he is everywhere styled "Jean Renaud;" but I find this "Jean" nowhere else. De Nerval has not stated any authority for an appellation that is at variance with every other copy, printed or traditional; and yet some have taken advantage of this, and contended that the

[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

hero was a Swiss-Major John Reynaud-who figured in the "Thirty-years' War," and died from a wound received in fight. The mediæval imagery, the general structure of the composition, the various readings, and the want of any known standard of appeal, are sufficient to make me reject such an hypothesis; which, by-the-bye, neither De Nerval nor the Lausanne editor take any notice of. I am inclined to believe, that "The Chanson de Renaud" is much older than two hundred years; and that the hero was a Swiss, or an Italian of Piedmont, who figured in some of the Burgundian wars of the fifteenth century. Renaud is the French form of Rinaldo: it must, of course, be pronounced Reno. I shall be glad of any information as to the origin of the ballad. In conclusion, I have one remark to make. Of late years, while I have been abroad, several compilers, or rather "getters up" of "selections," have made very free with my labours. I have seen traditional ballads and songs, published by me for the first time, appropriated- and often without the slightest acknowledgment; and a religious Society has even shown this want of courtesy. I will not permit this wholesale plunder any longer. In future, if any one think my "Collections" worthy of a reprint, he must ask my permission. I have for some time past been compiling a Ballad Book, and the practice complained of is calculated to affect my intended publication. JAMES HENRY DIXON.

Via Santa Maria, Florence, Italy,; August 13, 1863.

Renaud comes from the field of fight,
A care-worn, sad, and a weary wight.
His manly breast is crimson dyed-
A hand is press'd to his wounded side.
From latticed chamber, high and dim,
A mother rush'd to welcome him.
"Welcome!" she cried, "this day of joy
Thy ladye fair hath borne a boy."
["See ye not my pallid brow,

And the life-blood flowing now?] "The joy in the castle is not for me; My boy and his mother I may not see. "Mother! go make me a bed to-night; Let the coverlet and the sheets be white. "But spread my couch in a distant tower, I must be far from my ladye's bower. "She must not know, while in child-bed lain, Her lord returns from the battle-plain." At the time of deep mid-night, Poor Renaud render'd up his sprite.

* One copy reads, "d'un petit."

Les valets se mirent à pleurer, Et les vassaulx à soupirer.

"Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je vous pleurez ici?”

"Ma fille, c'est un de nos blancs chevaux, Qui à l'écurie se trouve mort. "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je donc taper ici?" "Ma fille, c'est le charpentier, Qui raccommode l'escalier."+ "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je donc chanter ici?” "Ma fille, c'est la procession, Qui fait le tour de la maison." "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Quand sortirai-je de ce lit?" "Ni aujourd'hui, ni demain; Vous en sortirez après la semaine." "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Quelle belle robe mettrai-je ?"

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

"Le blanc et le rose vous quitterez, Le noir et le violet vous mettrez."

Quand elle fut sur le chemin, || L'ont rencontrée trois capuçins. "N'est-ce pas la belle femme du sieur Qu'on a enterré a cinq heures?" "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'est-ce que ces moines ont dit?" "Ma fille! c'est une vielle chanson, Que chacun dit à sa façon."

"Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Le beau tombeau que voici!"

"Ma fille! il peut bien être beau: C'est celui de mon filz Renaud." "Qu'on ôte ma bague et mes anneaux: Je veux mourir avec Renaud !

"Je veux l'espace y soit si grand, Qu'on y renferme aussi l'enfant."

This is the reading of a Romande copy. † One version reads, "le plancher."

This is the reading of a traditional copy.
Some copies read "bleu," instead of "noir."
The reading of the Lausanne copy is -
"Quand elle fut dans son carosse montée,
Trois moines l'ont rencontrée."

The serving-men surround the bed,
And vassals weep o'er the warrior dead.

"Mother! wherefore do ye sigh,

And your hand-maids standing by? "*

"Our fair white steed lies dead in the stallHe was the bravest barb of all!" "Mother! methinks the night-winds bring Sounds of a distant hammering?"

"My child! it is the carpentere, Who mendeth the escalier."

"Mother! I hear a solemn strainIt swells-it falls-it comes again."

"A procession winds along,

And chanters raise the holy song." "Mother! I fain would quit my room,

I'm sick at heart of the castle's gloom." "You are too feeble to quit your bed, You must wait till a week hath fled."

"When I go out, O mother dear!

What are the robes that I shall wear?"

"The white and the red you must not put on, But the black and the violet ye may don."




As she rode upon the way, They met three friars in garb of grey. "The lady is gay, and fair, and young; It was for her lord that the mass was sung." "Mother! what did the friars say, As they pass'd along the way?'

"My child! the monks, as is their wont, Wile the time with an old Romaunt."

In the chapel's vaulted aisle, They sat them down to rest awhile. Three sculptors, mid the solemn gloom, Were working at a marble tomb.** "Mother! that tomb is wondrous fair; What brave knight is buried there?" "The tomb is fair, and it should be so; It is that of my son Renaud." "Take my jewels, and rings of pride. I soon shall rest by my Renaud's side. "And I trust the grave is wide and deep, That my child may also beside us sleep." On the tomb by the gallant knight, Is the sculptur'd form of his ladye bright.

In some modern broadsheets the friars have been changed into "trois pasteurs." In the Jura, where there are numerous Baptists, monks would not be tolerated even in a ballad.

** This, and the preceding stanza, are only found in the Romande copies. They seem necessary to complete the



This person, who was governor of two important fortresses for Charles I., is not once named by Clarendon, whose reason for silence respecting him may however be conjectured from what follows:

Mr. Carlyle calls him a renegade Scot. He was a soldier of fortune, having, according to his own account, spent thirty years, and lost much blood in Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. He was Governor of Dumbarton Castle, but the king not being able to supply it with victuals, he was forced to surrender it upon articles to the Marquis of Argyle, August 24, 1640. The king's instructions to him, by the name of Colonel Hendersham, as captain and governor of the Castle of Dumbarton, are given by Rymer (Fœdera, xx. 454.)

One David Alexander, a poor Scot, in October, 1642, gave information to the parliament that Sir John Henderson had urged him to assassinate Sir John Hotham, and to blow up the magazine of the parliament army. The substance of the statement was embodied in the Declaration issued by both Houses concerning the advance of the king's army to London; it being added that they were credibly informed Sir John Henderson was a Papist. În the Declaration of the Lords and Commons, Oct. 22, 1642, it is stated that Sir John Henderson and Col. Cockrom, men of ill report both for religion and honesty, had, as the Houses had been credibly informed, been sent to Hamburgh and Denmark to raise forces for the Earl of Newcastle. The king in his answer alludes to this statement as a vile scandal.

When Newark was garrisoned for the king, Sir John Henderson was appointed governor of the castle and town. Early in 1642-3 he seized Belvoir Castle for the king, and in July, 1643, he escorted the queen from Newark to Oxford. On the way to Nottingham, the royal escort of 5000 men was attacked by Lord Grey, whom he routed and put to flight.

On Oct. 11, 1643, occurred the famous fight at Winceby, near Horncastle, when Sir John Henderson was defeated by the parliament forces.

In or shortly before Jan. 1643-4, he sent letters by a trumpeter from Oxford soliciting a pass from the parliament for himself, his wife, and children to go into Holland, and settle there. The letters were addressed to Lord Maitland, Alexander Henderson, and Sir Henry Vane, the elder. The latter laid the application before the House of Commons, who refused the pass.

When Newark was relieved by Prince Rupert in March following, he left Sir Richard Byron (afterwards Lord Byron) as governor. Why Sir John Henderson was superseded does not appear.

In or about the beginning of May, 1645, he arrived in England with letters from the King of Denmark to the parliament interceding for peace with Charles I. He was also the bearer of a letter to that monarch from the King of Denmark; he was taken into custody, and on May 25 the Commons sent him to the Tower for levying civil war against the king and parliament. On Oct. 16 he was required to return to Denmark in fourteen days, taking back with him the letter he had brought for the English king, the parliament determining to send an answer to the King of Denmark's letter to them by commissioners of their


On Oct. 14, 1647, he applied to the House of Lords for permission to deliver letters from the King of Denmark to the king, he having recently arrived from Denmark, and having instructions to return there in haste. The Lords acceded to the request.

He was imprisoned at Edinburgh, but obtained his release by the favour of Cromwell. This was apparently in or before 1650. A curious letter from him to Cromwell, dated Cannigate, Sept. 19, 1650, is given in Nickolls's Original Letters and Papers of State, 21.

Subsequently, going to the continent, he became a hired spy of the Protector, acquainting his government from time to time with all the movements and designs of the Royalists abroad. Information respecting him during this period may be gathered from Thurloe's State Papers.

Hearing of the Protector's preparation for a foreign war, he in 1655 offered his services to him, stating that if they were declined he intended to address himself to the King of Sweden for entertainment under him, having refused a proper employment from the emperor, from whose court he had lately come.

When or where he died is not known, but amongst the petitions to Charles II., supposed to pertain to the year 1662, are four, which are thus abstracted by Mrs. Green (Cal. Dom. State Papers Charles II., ii. 624): —

[blocks in formation]

to that monarch; indeed she had herself rendered assistance in worming out the secrets of the Royalists for transmission to Cromwell.

Sir John Henderson had six children. One son was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, but obtained his freedom. After which, against his father's will, he took an engagement under Middleton on behalf of Charles II.

There appear to have been four successive governors of the royal garrison at Newark, viz. Sir John Henderson, Sir Richard Byron, Sir Richard Willis, and Lord Bellasis. It is very remarkable that two of them (Henderson and Willis) acted treacherously to Charles II. when in exile. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER.


"Scoticisms; arranged in Alphabetical Order, designed

to correct Improprieties of Speech and Writing. Edinburgh: Printed for William Creed, Edinburgh; and T.

Cadell, London, 1787."


Dean Ramsey, in his amusing Sketches of Sco-loss tish Life, observes that he has two rather rare works on Scoticisms. One by Dr. Beattie, and another by the late Sir John Sinclair. The former is, I presume, the following work:

Some months since, I picked up a very fine uncut copy of the former at a stall, interleaved

and annotated to a considerable extent by some unknown individual, whose observations and additions are exceedingly valuable. Every attempt to ascertain from the handwriting, the author has hitherto failed—a circumstance to be regretted; but the MS. additions themselves indicate that he must have been a person of education and research.

The most singular circumstance, however, is this: that at the end are bound thirty or forty pages of additional MS. material, together with a tract of eight leaves, apparently printed for private circulation; bearing the title of "Scoticisms," but having no title-page. The last leaf is descriptive of "Books published by the same Author;" and upon investigating the contents of the three books described, they turn out all to be from the pen of David Hume. Thus the inference is obvious, that the author of the History of England and the Essays was the author of the Scoticisms; but why they appeared in this odd form, is not very intelligible-unless it was intended by Hume as a sort of specimen, to be circulated among his private friends, whose favourable reception might be an inducement for his subsequently reproducing it in a more enlarged form.

of some few individuals on whose judgment he placed great weight. The two brochures are of great rarity, and exist only in very few libraries. One of them is entitled, A Specimen of Notes on the Scotish Law of Scotland, small 8vo. In the Address, which is signed by his Lordship, he mentions he had, without effect, called the attention of the learned to an explanation of the obsolete words used through the Scotch Magazine; and only received a communication from "one" tleman. He thereupon privately printed the specimen; the object of which he discloses in the following paragraph:


"My purpose is to explain uncommon and obsolete words, to offer conjectures as to the import of obscure effusions, to illustrate law by history, and, as far as may be practicable, to delineate the state of Scotland and the manners of the Scotish nation, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries."

No assistance, however, was given; and, to the of the present race of historical students, the

lucubrations of this most accurate and accom

plished historian went no farther.

The other work of Lord Hailes, also privately printed, was A Glossary of the Scotish Language. This was circulated in the same form; and it is supposed that there are not half-a-dozen copies in existence. After a perusal, these two rarities would be thrown aside; and in course of time

would become almost unknown, excepting to a verified by Lord Hailes: the copy before me few literary antiquaries. The "specimen" is being a presentation one to " Mr. John Douglas, Mr. Thomas Thomson, Deputy Clerk Registrar, Advocate." Of the authorship of the Glossary, had no doubt. He found a copy at New Hailes, when contemplating a complete edition of the miscellaneous works of this learned judge and worthy man.

J. M.

Minor Notes.

WEBSTER'S "DEVIL'S LAW CASE;" ITS DATE. This play was published in 1623, and the REV. MR. DYCE justly remarks that it must have been written but a short time before, since in Act IV. Sc. 2, there is an allusion to the Dutch massacre of the English in Amboyna in Feb. 1622. The argument is the stronger in that the passage does not read like an after interpolation; but as this objection can always be raised against any such single proof, I may perhaps be allowed to strengthen it by another. In Act II. Sc. 3, Ariosto makes some remarks upon the defiant and ill-omened names given by Romelio to his ships, whence says he, "he never looked they'd prosper, since they were surely cursed from their cradles." Now if any one will turn to the ObSir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, in two in-servations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage stances adopted this mode of eliciting the opinion into the South Sea (pp. 8-10, Hakluyt Soc. edit.),

« VorigeDoorgaan »