Nicolas, in his Life of Sir Christopher Hatton, p. 36, wisely remarks: "There are so many versions of this pithy letter, that its authenticity becomes doubtful."]

"THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN."- Who was the author of the Whole Duty of Man, laid down in a Familiar Way for the Use of All, but especially for the Meanest Reader. The work is sometimes attributed to the pious Robert Nelson. It belongs to his era: but I have heard it referred to the celebrated John Kettlewell, and this seems confirmed by the following expressions in his epitaph: "Qualem fateare par est, qui totius officii nostri rationes, annum adhuc agens vigesimum quartum, feliciter adeo atque ex animo explicuit." Where can I find a Life of Kettlewell, besides that by Robert Nelson and the notices in Lath-. bury's History of the Non-Jurors?

JUXTA TURRIM. [Robert Nelson was born on June 22, 1656, and John Kettlewell on March 10, 1658; The Whole Duty of Man was first published in 1658, so that these two eminently pious men must be taken off the list of claimants for the authorship of this celebrated production. Dates are sometimes very useful in settling disputed points.-The Memoirs of the Life of Mr. John Kettlewell, 8vo, 1718, and which is also prefixed to the folio edition of his Works, 1719, 2 vols., although compiled from the manuscripts left by Robert Nelson (p. 436, 8vo edition), was brought out under the co-editorship of Dr. George Hickes and Dr. Francis Lee. (See Kennett's Collection, vol. liii. p. 393, Lansdowne MSS.; and Birch's Life of Abp. Tillotson, p. 247, edit. 1753). There is a Life of John Kettlewell in the British Magazine for 1832, vol. ii. pp. 10, 120, as well as in the Church of England Magazine for 1842, vol. xii. pp. 35, 85; but these are merely compilations from the original memoir.]

FLAMBOROUGH TOWER.-Can you give any account or tradition respecting the Danes tower: a ruin, now almost demolished, standing in a field at the west end of the town of Flamborough, in Yorkshire? It (the town) is said to be a very ancient place, and to have been formerly of some note. The tower appears to have been erected as a stronghold, and probably to resist the incursions of the Danes, or to have formed part of a castle. There are numerous mounds in the field, as if the ruins or foundations of a larger structure had been grown over by the grass.

The lower story is arched over with a wagonheaded vault. It is built of the neighbouring limestone. JNO. A. BROWN, Archt. 86, King Street, Manchester.

[A description of this tower, with an engraving, will be found in Knox's Descriptions Geological, Topographical, and Antiquarian, in Eastern Yorkshire, 8vo, 1855, p. 140. Mr. Knox says, that "the name Danish Tower, now usurping that of the Flamborough Tower, is a misnomer. In all its characteristics it answers to an early Saxon Christian chapel or church; and not at all to what is called a Danish tower. . . . This old building consists of only one long square room on the ground (and it never was otherwise), being nine long paces in length at the inside, east and west, and six and a half in width, north and south, set nearly to the cardinal points.

Its height at the inside is about twenty feet, and its flag-stone roof, now falling in, is supported on ten circular stone arches; which style of architecture carries the building of it to an era earlier than the Gothic period."]

NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK.- What are the best genealogical histories of these counties? Indeed, I shall be obliged by a reference to any works likely to assist me in pedigrees of families of Norfolk and Suffolk.


[Blomefield's History of Norfolk, 1739-75, fol., 5 vols., and the edition of 1805-10, 8vo, 11 vols., is the best printed work to be consulted. The manuscript collections county are in the British Museum. of Gibbons, Le Neve, Craven Ord, Suckling, &c., for this Vide Sims's Manual for the Genealogist, &c., ed. 1856, p. 215; and "N. & Q.," 1 S. xii. 327; 2nd S. i. 162; vi. 348.-Printed works on Suffolk are, A History of Hawsted and Hardwick, by Sir John Cullum, Lond. 1813, 4to; The History of Hengrave, by J. Gage, Lond. 1822, 4to; The History of Suffolk (Thingoe Hundred), by J. Gage, Lond. 1838, 4to; History of the County of Suffolk, by the Rev. A. Suckling, 2 vols., Lond. 1846, fol. The valuable MS. collections for this county, by D. E. Davy, Esq., and H. Jermyn, Esq., are deposited among the Additional MSS. in the British Museum. Minor collections by Craven Ord, Gibbons, and Suckling, are in the same library. Vide Sims's Manual, pp. 220-222; and "N. & Q," 2nd S. i. 94, 162, 205; vi. 348.]

LINES ON LONDON DISSENTING MINISTERS (1" S. i. 454.)-Who was the "Papal Wright" of the above? A brief biography in reply, including whose son he was, and whom he married, will much oblige. R. W. DIXON.

[Papal Wright was Samuel Wright, D.D., a minister of some celebrity in London, who was born on Jan. 30, 1682-3. He was the eldest son of the Rev. James Wright of Retford, co. Nottingham, by Eleanor, daughter of Mr. Cotton, a gentleman in Yorkshire, and father to the Rev. Thomas Cotton of Westminster. About two years after his settlement at the Carter Lane meeting-house, Dr. Wright married the widow of his predecessor (Matthew Sylvester), daughter of the Rev. Obadiah Hughes of Wright died on the 3rd April, 1746, in the sixty-fourth Enfield. By this lady he had only one daughter. Dr. year of his age. Vide Wilson's History of Dissenting Churches; ii. 139–147, et seq.]

CALIS AND ISLAND VOYAGES. - Dr. Marbeck's account of these expeditions is said to exist in MS. in the British Museum. I should feel CPL.

much obliged by a reference to it.

[This manuscript is in the Sloane Collection (Addit. MS. 226), and is entitled "A Breefe and a true Discourse of the late honorable voyage unto Spaine, and of the wynning, sacking, and burning of the famous Towne of Cadiz there, and of the miraculous overthrowe of the Spanish Navie at that tyme, with a reporte of all other Accidents thereunto appertayning, by Doctor Marbeck, attending upon the person of the right honorable the Lord Highe Admirall of England all the tyme of the said Action." This manuscript is in the beautiful calligraphy of Peter Bales, the most celebrated master of penmanship.]

WASHINGTON FAMILY.-Where can I find a pedigree of this family? Thomas Washington

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died in Spain in the reign of James I. I think
one of the family was connected with George
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.


[The pedigree of Washington of Sulgrave will be found in Baker's History of Northamptonshire, i. 513; but the best work to consult is Jared Sparks's Life of George Washington, 8vo, 1852, pp. 497-512, who has not only reprinted Baker's genealogical table, but Sir Isaac Heard's table of the American branch in addition. To these he has added the genealogy of the Washington family of Adwick, taken from Hunter's History of Doncaster. appears that Sir William Washington of Packington, co. Leicester, married Anne, half-sister to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, whose son was Sir Henry Washington, the defender of Worcester.]


MEDIEVAL EMBLEMS.-Where can I find mediæval representations of St. Barnabas, St. Britius, St. Machatus, St. Crispin, and other blackletter saints of the Anglican Calendar, with their respective emblems? If you can kindly help me in this, I shall feel greatly obliged. LAY CLERK.

[The most convenient and valuable book of reference on this subject is Dr. F. C. Husenbeth's Emblems of Saints, Second Edition, 12mo, 1860, as it contains a list of the principal works consulted or referred to in this manual. Vide also Sacred and Legendary Art, by Mrs. Jameson, 2 vols. 8vo, 1848; The Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated, Oxford, 12mo, 1851; and a work by Menestrier, L'Art des Emblèmes, Paris, 8vo, 1684.]

EPITAPH ON DR. VINCENT.-Could any correspondent of "N. & Q." supply the epitaph on William Vincent, D.D., Dean of Wesminster, who died in the year 1815, and is buried in the abbey


[The simple inscription on the monument of Dean OXONIENSIS. Vincent was his own composition: "Hic requiescit quod mortale est GULIELMI VINCENT, qui Puer sub domûs hujusce penetralibus Enutritus, mox post studia Academica confecta unde abiit reversus, atque ex imo præceptorum gradu summam adeptus, Decanatu tandem hujusce Ecclesiæ (quam unicè dilexit) Decoratus est. fuerit vitâ, studiis, et moribus Lapis sepulchralis taceat. Qualis Ortus ex honestâ stirpe Vincentiorum de Shepy in agro Leicestriensi, natus Londini, Novis secundo, 1739: denatus Decembis 21mo, 1815."]



(3rd S. iv. 186.)

Messrs. Chambers probably obtained the anecdote of Boswell riding to Tyburn in the same mourning coach with the murderer Hackman, the ordinary of Newgate, and a turnkey, from the Selwyn Correspondence, vol. iv. p. 83, 1844; but the following account, which I extract from the St. James's Chronicle of April 20, 1779, is a fuller one:

"A little after five yesterday morning the Revd. Mr. Hackman got up, dressed himself, and was at private meditation till near seven, when Mr. Boswell and two other gentlemen waited on him and accompanied him to

[3rd S. IV. SEPT. 19, '63.

the Chapel, when Prayers were read by the Ordinary of Newgate, after which he received the Sacrament; between

eight and nine he came down from Chapel and was haltered. When the Sheriff's Officer took the Cord from the Bag to perform his Duty, Mr. Hackman said, 'Oh! the sight of this shocks me more than the Thought of its intended operation': he then shed a few tears, and took leave of two Gentlemen in a very affecting manner. He was then conducted to a mourning Coach, attended by Mr. Villette, the Ordinary, Mr. Boswell, and Mr. Davenport, the Sheriff's Officer, when the procession set out for Tyburn in the following manner, viz., Mr. Miller, City Marshal, on Horseback, in mourning, a number of Sheriff's Officers on Horseback, Constables, &c., Mr. Sheriff Kitchen, with his Under-Sheriff, in his Carriage; the Prisoner, with the afore-mentioned persons in the Mourning Coach; Officers, &c.; the Cart hung with black, out of which he was to make his Exit. On his Cart, and took an affectionate leave of Mr. Boswell and arrival at Tyburn, he got out of the Coach, mounted the the Ordinary. After some time spent in Prayer, he was tied up, and about 10 minutes past Eleven he was launched into Eternity. After hanging the usual time, his body was brought to Surgeons' Hall for dissection. When immediately kneeled down with his face towards the Mr. Hackman got into the Cart under the Gallows, he horses, and prayed some time: he then rose and joined in prayer with Mr. Villette and Mr. Boswell about a quarter of an Hour, when he desired to be permitted to have a few minutes to himself. The Clergymen then took leave of him. His request being granted, he informed the Executioner when he was prepared he would drop his Handerchief as a Signal; accordingly, after praying about six or seven minutes to himself, he dropped his Handkerchief, and the Cart drew from under him.'

Chronicle for April 17, is a long letter signed
In the previous number of the St. James's
wellian. He commences by observing
"J. B.," evidently by Boswell, and truly Bos-

"I am just come from attending the Trial and Condemnation of the unfortunate Mr. Hackman, who shot Miss Ray, and I must own that I feel an unusual Depression of Spirits, joined with that Pause which so solemn a Warning of the dreadful effects that the passion of Love may produce, must give all of us who have lively Sensations and warm Tempers."

He goes on in a very apologetic strain :—


"As his (Mr. Hackman's) manners were uncommonly amiable, his mind and heart seem to have been uncommonly Pure and Virtuous. It may seem strange at first, but I can very well suppose that had he been less virtuous he would not now have been so criminal. His case is one of the most remarkable that has ever occurred in the History of Human Nature; but it is by no means unnatural. The principle of it is very philosophically explained and illustrated in the Hypocondriack,' a periodical Paper peculiarly adapted to the people of England, and which now comes out monthly in the London Magazine." is too long to extract. The paper so praised He then quotes a passage from the Bosworth himself was the author of. paper, which to many numbers, but was never collected in a It extended James's Chronicle by urging that he (Hackman), volume. He concludes his letter in the St.

Prerogative could transmute the mode of punishment
"Is an object neither of Abhorrence nor of Contempt;
and upon such an occasion I could wish that the Royal

3rd S. IV. SEPT. 19, '63.]


from that which is common to mean offenders to what till centuries after the time of the saint. would better suit the character of the sufferer."

In his Life of Johnson he mentions his attending the trial, but not the execution, of Hackman He dined in Johnson's company after the trial, and says,

"Johnson was much interested by my account of what passed, and particularly with his (Hackman's) prayer for the mercy of Heaven. He said, in a solemn fervid tone, 'I trust he shall find mercy." (Croker's edition, 1831, vol. iv. p. 254.)

In the Town and Country Magazine for April, 1779, Boswell is not named as one of the parties in the mourning coach; but it is stated that he (Hackman)


leaf of the wild sorrel is even better adapted for
the illustration than that of clover; but how two
of the plants mentioned by the Quarterly Review
as sharing also the name of Shamrock, speedwell
and pimpernel, could have been so called, I can-
not imagine, since their leaves are formed very
differently from those of clover, and from each

"Was permitted to go from Newgate to Tyburn in a Mourning Coach, being accompanied by the Ordinary of Newgate, another Clergyman, and his brother-in-law, Mr. Booth."

Did Boswell take the place of the other clergyman? He seems at all events to have performed the duty of one, and thus to have out Selwyned JAS. CROSSLEY. Selwyn.

of a

The extract from the Quarterly Review speaks "last and most legendary" Life of St. Patrick, "printed by Colgan." I do not know what Life is here meant, but the most ample and legendary one which I have seen is that translated from Jocelin of Farnesio, written in Latin in the twelfth century, and published in English, together with the Lives of St. Bridget and St. Columba, printed by John Cousturier in 1636. This Life of St. Patrick is filled with legendary F. C. H. lore, but it nowhere mentions the account of the shamrock.


(3rd S. iv. 187.)

When we speak of a tradition, we mean expressly something not written, but delivered orally from age to age. It is not to be expected then that traditionary accounts should be found in histories; if they were, they would cease to be traditions. But the very fact of their not being recorded in history renders it well nigh hopeless to trace their origin satisfactorily. Hence it is unreasonable to expect, as CANON DALTON seems to do, that any one should be able to explain how the tradition arose of St. Patrick's use of the shamrock to illustrate the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity. If no history can be cited, what can be said but that the account has always been believed, and that this affords a strong presumption that it is founded on truth? The account is so natural and plausible, and at the same time so harmless, that no one can justly take exception to it.

TOISON D'OR. (3rd S. iii. 169.)

I am sorry not to be able to answer MR. WOODWARD's inquiries completely; but his Query gives me an opportunity of recording some information about the Toison d'Or which I hope may not be unacceptable to him, and to other readers of "N. & Q." who are interested in genealogy and heraldry. Favyn gives a list of twenty-three chapters, and of the places where they were held. The following list gives the places:

The first is "The Isle in Flanders," that is to say, Lille, in the year 1430; Lille in 1431; Bruges in 1432; Bruges in 1433; Bruxelles in 1435; St. Omer in 1440; Gand in 1445; Mons in 1451; the Hague in 1456; St. Omer in 1461; Bruges in 1467. Chifflet, from whom I am about to quote largely, gives this chapter as occurring in 1468. In it Edward IV. of England was elected. His arms, if my memory, unassisted by notes, serves me, are among those which are now to be seen in the choir of Nôtre Dame at Bruges. Valenciennes in 1473; Bruges in 1478; Bois le Duc in 1481; Malines in 1491; Bruxelles in 1501; Middelbourg in 1505; Bruxelles in 1516; Barcelona in 1519; Tournay in 1531; Utrecht in 1546; Antwerp in 1554; Gand in 1559. After which date no more chapters appear to have been held in the Netherlands.

It does not seem settled, however, what the The name plant used by St. Patrick really was. of Shamrock is said to be derived from the Irish Seamar-ogh, holy trefoil. It has been supposed to be identical with the pipuλov, mentioned by Herodotus, as used in the sacrifices of the ancient Persians, and derived from them, as a sacred emblem by the Irish, as traces of their fire-worship are still to be found in Ireland. But though it is universally applied now to the leaf of the white clover, there is good reason to believe that what St. Patrick used was the wild sorrel (Oxalis acetosella); for it has been proved very satisfactorily that clover was not introduced into Ireland

But Favyn must be wrong in his first statement. Lille was not the place of the first Chapter; Bruges was. Favyn had previously recited the Letters Patent of the Institution of the Order, in which Philip Duke of Burgundy, the founder, says:

"The Tenth day of the moneth of January, and in the year of Grace or of our Lord, one Thousand four

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It was exhibited by the Duke of Brabant. Many of the readers of "N. & Q." will recollect the picture. I was able to get near enough, and stand long enough by it, to make a blazon of all the coats displayed in it. The picture gives the interior of a church. In the foreground on the dexter side are ecclesiastics, in surplices, seated on the bench of the enclosure of the choir. The enclosure rises above their heads, and is hung with tapestry. All along outside this enclosure is a crowd of men and a few women. Beyond are the church windows. Towards the centre is the person taking the oath. He is habited in red, with the collar of the order over his robes. Others in the same habit stand behind him, forming part of the crowd nearest to the enclosure of the choir. He is laying his left hand on a chasse and raising his right. A bishop is separated from him by the chasse, and appears to be receiving the oath.

The enclosure of the choir extends a long way across the picture, and is then broken by a shaft, which runs up into a cap, upon which is a shield held by two lions. The shield shows no colours, but is painted to represent carving, and gives this coat, Three estoiles of eight rays.

From the capping, or handrail, of this enclosure hang five shields; and from the shaft which I have mentioned hang five more, all by straps. They are all given as true shields, hung temporarily for the occasion, and are all coloured. By the aid of Chifflet's list they can all be identified. I give the names and blazon from him, and do not add my note of any shield unless it differs from his blazon.

Beginning at the dexter end of the enclosure, the first five shields, ranged above the heads of the ecclesiastics, are these:


"1. Primus Eques. Messire Guilliaume de Vienne, Seigneur de St. George et de Ste. Croix. Portoit de gueulles a l'aigle d'or."

My note gives the eagle argent.

"2. Messire Jean de Villers de Lilleadam. Portoit d'or au chef d'azur, chargé d'un bras droit vestu d'hermines, au fanon de mesme frangé d'argent, pendant sur le tout."

My note gives a little variation, namely, a dextrochere issuant from the sinister side of the escocheon, the sleeve and maniple white, edged gules.

"3. Messire Philippe Seigneur de Ternant et de la Motte. Portoit eschiqueté d'or et de gueulles.

"4. Messire Hue de Lannoy Seigneur de Santes. Portoit d'argent a trois lyons de sinople couronnez et armez d'or lampassez de gueulles: l'escu brisé d'une bordure engrelée aussi de gueulles."

I do not recollect this bordure in the picture.

"5. Messire Roland de Wtkercke Seigneur de Hemerode et de Herstruut. Portoit d'argent a la croix de sable chargée de cinq coquilles oreillées d'or."

The next five hang from the shaft.

"6. Messire Jean Seigneur de Commines. Portoit de gueulles au chevron d'or accompagné de trois coquilles oreillées d'argent lignées de sable, deux en chef et une en pointe: a le bordure de l'escu d'or.

7. Messire Regnier Pot, Seigneur de la Prugne et de la Rochenoulay. Portoit escartele au 1 et 4 d'or a la fasce d'azur, au 2 et 3 eschiqueté d'argent et de sable a deux badeloires de gueulles, enmanchez, virolez, et rivez d'or,

mis en bande l'un sur l'autre."

But my note of the second and third quarters in the picture differs from Chifflet's blazon. In my note they occur as checky of long pieces like billets, or and gules.

"8. Messire Pierre de Luxembourg Comte de S. Pol, de Conversan et de Brienne, Seigneur d'Enghien. Portoit d'argent au lyon de gueulles a la queue double passée en sautoir couronnée et armée d'or, lampassé d'azur.


"9. Messire Robert Seigneur de Masmines. d'azur au lyon d'or langué et armé de gueulles.

"10. Messire Antoine Seigneur de Croy et de Renty. Portoit escartelé, au 1 et 4 d'argent a la fasce de gueulles de trois pieces; au 2 et 3 d'argent a trois doloires de gueulles, deux en chef addossées, et l'autre en pointe."

A small group of men appears between the shaft on which these last five shields are hung, One of this and the person taking the oath. group is in part screened by the person taking the oath. On the left shoulder of that one man

only in the group is a shield, supported it seemed difficult to say how. It shows, quarterly, 1 and 4 gules, three sixfoils pierced or. 2 and 3 barry of six pieces; three pieces, beginning with the topmost, per fesse nebuly argent and azure; the other three gules. Over all what in English modern heraldry would be an escocheon of pretence, showing, gules three small circular, or nearly circular charges, extremely indistinct.

flet's blazon, I have no hesitation in assigning Notwithstanding the apparent variation in Chifthis shield to Messire Pierre de Beffroiment Seigneur de Charny. He, says Chifflet,

"Portoit escartelé au 1 et dernier vairé d'or et de

gueulles: au 2 et 3 de Vergy [de gueulles a trois quintefueilles percées d'or, l'escu brise d'une bordure d'or]. Sur le tout de gueulles a trois escussons d'argent, 2, 1.'

Ecclesiastical as being superior to any other calling or profession, by assigning to one of its members precedence next after the royal family, and to another precedence over all Dukes not of royal blood.

In concluding this reply, I take the opportunity to inquire if there be any reason or legal impediment why one of the young princes should not be educated with a view to embracing the sacred profession? Prince Henry, afterwards Henry VIII., was intended for the Church; and Paolo Sarpi informs us that he was an able philosopher, satirist, and divine. Still later we have had a Royal Cardinal; and though he cannot be conQ."sidered as a clerical personage, we find that distinguished member of the Church-Militant, H.R.H. the Duke of York, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, and Bishop of Osnaburg!!

I have given my note of the 2 and 3 quarters as they would be read in English heraldry. But foreign delineations of Vair constantly give it in the form which we should describe as Barry Nebuly. Thus, in the Nobiliario Genealogico de Espana of Lopez de Haro, Madrid, 1618, p. 18, what looks like barry nebuly is blazoned "escaques de veros azules y blancos in campo de oro."

This is a very long reply, and imperfect after all; but the great historical interest of the picture and its heraldry will, I hope, be some excuse for my having trespassed so largely on N. &


D. P.

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.

(3rd S. iv. 148.)


A rather amusing, though not very accurate, French writer, M. D'Haussez, describes the English clergyman as un homme d'une grande naissance;" and that the ecclesiastical profession in this country is recruited largely, if not chiefly, from a source different to that which yielded a priesthood to Jeroboam, is a fact neither novel nor surprising, although your Liverpool correspondent does not appear to be aware that its ranks have always contained, as compared with other professions, a fair share of "men of title" (not of course meaning by this term that class of curates who consider a "nomination" minus £ s. d. as sufficient compensation for their services). If, for instance, we compare the Clergy List of 1863 with the Army List, say, of 1861, we find the total number of "men of title" in the English branch of the U. C. to be over 150, all of whom have derived their titles by descent. Not including military knights, the total number of titled officers in the Cavalry, Engineers, Artillery, Guards, Line, Rifle Brigade, and Marines, is 194. In the army are-Earls, 6 to 3 in the Church; Viscounts, 14 to 1; Lords, 21 to 15; Honourables, 125 to 105; Baronets, 23 to 32; and it should be noticed that several of the titles in the army have been earned by their present possessors. In addition to those given above, the Army contains 2 Princes, 1 Royal Duke, and 2 Marquises,-titles as yet unrepresented in the English Church, though that of Ireland can show a Marquis. It is, I think, a noticeable fact that Baronets preponderate in the Church. Although the "mighty and noble after the flesh" called to the sacred office are "not many," yet they are not "few," when a comparison is drawn with other professions. The State has, very properly, recognised the dignity of the


So far as can be learnt, there have never been but two in the Presbyterian church. Sir Henry Moncrieff (Wellwood), of Tulliebole, was for more than half a century one of the ministers of the large suburban parish of St. Cuthbert's, or West Church, Edinburgh. He died in 1827; and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Sir James, who was an eminent judge in the Court of Session, by the title of Lord Moncrieff. He died in 1851, and his eldest son Sir Henry is now a minister in the Free Church; being incumbent of Free St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh. Before the Secession of 1843, he was parish minister of East Kilbride, in Lanarkshire. The present Lord Advocate of Scotland is his immediate younger brother. date of the baronetcy is 1826.



The present Earl of Guilford, having been born orders; and the Earl of Kilmorey, though Lord in the year 1851, is a minor, and not in holy Abbot of the exempt jurisdiction of Newry and Mourne, is nevertheless a layman. MR. WORKARD will, I am sure, be glad to be corrected. ABHBA.

(3rd S. iv. 58.)

Your correspondent and his authority, Koch, do not, I see, attach much importance to the Danish national records, according to which Britain was frequently invaded by Danes before the Christian era; for instance, if we take up the History of the Kings of Denmark, introduced by Hermann Cornerus in his Chronicon, we may pick out the following valuable information, and attach to it as much importance as we may deem suitable. It may be as well to state that this Chronicle was written about 1450, for H. C. took his D.D.

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