in 1601, when he afforded succour to the shipwrecked crew of a Dutch vessel, would point to the noble house of Winton, in which it should be recollected that Alexander was a family name. But a careful examination of Maitland's Genealogy of the House and Surname of Seton, and other Scottish genealogical works, has thrown no light on the question.

A few notices of Seton, from his contemporaries, may aid to his identification. Early in 1602, he was at Enkhuysen, in Holland, and subsequently visited Amsterdam and Rotterdam, whence, it is supposed, he embarked for Italy. His servant, scholar, or friend-it is difficult to say in which capacity he was—who travelled with him, bore the name of William Hamilton. In the same and following year, Seton is heard of at Basle, Strasburg, Cologne, Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and Munich, at which last place he married in 1603; Hamilton returning to Britain about the same time. Immediately afterwards, Seton was induced to visit the Court of Christian II., Elector of Saxony. Here he was imprisoned and cruelly tortured by the Elector, but in vain; the alchemist resolutely refusing to reveal his secret art of making gold. Rescued from prison by a Moravian or Polish gentleman named Michael Sendivogius, also well known in the strange annals of the Hermetic philosophy, Seton was taken to Cracow, where he died from the effects of the torture in January 1604.


ANONYMOUS. 66 Divinity and Philosophy Dissected and set forth, by a Madman. 4to, Amsterdam, 1644." Any particulars of this sensible book would be acceptable. A copy is in the British Museum. All the most likely books on bibliography have been consulted without finding any mention of the work. The imprint is doubtful.

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3. Delrio's denial of the baptising of bells in his Magical Disquisitions.

Any further information that can be given to me respecting the denial of the custom will oblige, as I am engaged in collecting a few scraps upon the subject.

In the Centum Gravanium, offered to Pope Adrian in 1521, by the Princes of Germany, respecting the baptism of bells, it concludes with, "that the said bells might be baptised not only by suffragans, but by any priest, with holy water, salt, herbs, without such cost." In which way were the salt and herbs used? and what were they? Salt has been used in the services of the dead, and has also been considered by the superstitious to protect infants from sorcery and the fairies, but I have not heard of its application in baptism before. ROBERT MORRIS.

Richmond House, Boughton, Chester.

BED-GOWN AND NIGHT-DRESS. - As a question illustrating the custom of our forefathers, I ask, When was this article of dress first put on and slept in? It arises from a perusal of Fielding's Joseph Andrews, the first edition of which was published about 1736. Throughout this work it would appear that our grandparents did not sleep in a dress. One passage is, "She then raised herself a little in her bed.I have trusted myself with a man alone, naked in bed," b. i. chap. v. Another extract is, "He therefore arose, put on his breeches and night-gown, and stole softly along the gal lery," b. iv. chap. xiv. Do not the early medieval illuminated manuscripts show that no night-dress was used?


Soon after writing this, I noticed in the article on "Mrs. Glasse" (2nd S. vi. 147), that her advertisement notifies that she made (1751, fourth edit.) bed-gowns, night-gowns, and robe de shambers." Have our names changed for these dresses, and our present "dressing-gown" used for the more ancient "night-gown"? W. P.

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THE DEVIL. I am desirous to obtain every possible kind of book or tractate, or paper in periodicals, in any language, bearing upon the exist ence and attributes of Satan. I am anxious to possess the literature and art of the subject. I ask readers of "N. & Q." to kindly give me the benefit of their knowledge of sources of information and illustration. I am specially wishful to get at the conceptions of the Devil prior to Milton's splendid nonsense; also to know any paintings or sculpture by distinguished names in which the Evil One is represented.


THE GAME OF WHIST.-I beg to be informed where I can find memoirs of celebrated whist players in England, particularly towards the end of the last century and the commencement of the present. Of course I mean the long game, and before the general introduction of short whist. I

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REV. GEORGE HEATH.-This gentleman wrote a small 16mo volume, entitled The History, Antiquities, Survey, and Description of the City and Suburbs of Bristol, &c., which was published in 1797. Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." oblige me with an account of the author; if dead, with the date of his decease, age, &c.; if living, where ?

To save trouble, I may state that I have met with the following:

Dr. George Heath was educated at Eton; elected to King's College in 1763; A.B. 1768; A.M. 1771; was tutor to the Earl of Moreton; an assistant at Eton School; and in December 1791, was elected Head Master of that celebrated seminary. He was presented to the rectory of Monks Risborough, Bucks, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, which he resigned. On being appointed a Fellow of Eton College, he resigned the Head-Mastership, and died Feb. 23, 1822; also George Heath, D.D., was vicar of Stourminster Marshal, Dorset, 1815. GEORGE PRYCE.

Bristol City Library. JOHN HEYWOOD, THE EPIGRAMMATIST.-Wood (A. O., i. 350, ed. Bliss) says that he ended his days at Mechlin about 1565. Fuller (Worthies, London, p. 222,) gives the date 1566. But in a list of Roman Catholic fugitives, in 1576, occurs the following entry: "Kanc. John Heywood, Gent." (Egerton Papers, p. 63), which MR. COLLIER thinks refers to the old poet and dramatist; and adds, that "he is known to have been alive in 1570, but it is possible that when the return was made out, Heywood was dead." Peacham (Compleat Gentleman, 1661, p. 95,) says he had property at North Mims, in Hertfordshire; but I know not why MR. COLLIER connects him with the county of Kent, or states that "he is known to have been alive in 1570." What is the real date of his death? Is anything known of his wife and family beyond what Wood states of his sons Ellis and Jasper? I have reason to believe that his wife was a daughter of Judge Rastall.


HOLYBACK.-What is the meaning of the word holy back in the following extract from the Register of Burials in the parish of Staplehurst, Kent?

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MAYORS AND PROVOSTS.—What is the exact point that was settled in the recent discussion between Garter and Ulster? Sir George Grey stated in the House recently that Garter's decision only established the relative precedency of the Lord Mayor of London, the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and the Lord Mayor of Dublin, in presenting petitions to her Majesty. If so, what is the relative precedency generally of the Lord Mayors of London, Dublin, and York, the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and the Mayors and Provosts of provincial towns?

JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A. THE PHOENIX FAMILY. Will S. T., who so kindly answered my query (2nd S. xii. 217), give me the full name and address in Wolverhampton of the tobacconist he mentions? J. C. L.

PICART'S "RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES."-Who was the author of the letterpress devoted to England in Picart's Religious Ceremonies? and if a foreigner, from what source did he derive his information? My object in asking the question is to ascertain how far it can be relied on as a contemporary account of our religious observances in the early years of the last century. L. I.

THE POSTAL SYSTEM.-Was it in the reign of James I. or Charles I. that the postal systemwhich now is so nearly perfect all over the worldwas introduced into this country? and when or where did it originate? Had the ancients anything like our system? I ask because, on reference to the book of Job, chap. ix. ver. 25, it is post," and again, in the book of Esther, chap. viii. stated that "My days have been swifter than a post, and swift posts were sent out carrying mesvers. 10 and 14, we find "letters were sent by sages" (the king's letters.) Whatever antiquity there may be about the passage in Job, in regard to a comparison with our postal system, there can be none in reference to that in Esther, where we are told expressly that letters were sent by post. Enlightenment on this point is desirable as to the antiquity of such a system.


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"1578. There was comytted to the earth the body of one Johan Longley, who died in the highway as she was carryed on holyback to have been conveyed from officering a quotation?


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"THOUGHTS ON THE EARLY AGES OF THE IRISH NATION, ETC." -I have a copy of a 4to pamphlet of 50 pages, entitled, Thoughts on the Early Ages of the Irish Nation and History, and on the Ancient Establishment of the Milesian Families in that Kingdom, which would appear to have been "privately printed," not having the author's name, nor the place and date of publication. The opening paragraph, moreover, contains the following words:

"Though this Memoir is designed for private information, and not intended for the world, it has been thought best to confine the narrative to such points as can be established upon the authority of historical data."

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INSCRIPTION ON THE FOUNDATION STONE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY'S COLLEGE AT IPSWICH.In Murray's Hand-Book to the Cathedrals of England (Eastern Division, Oxford Cathedral, p. 35) occur the following remarks: :

"In the outer division of the Chapter House, against the south wall, is the foundation stone of Wolsey's College at Ipswich, rescued from destruction by the Rev. Richard Canning, Rector of Harkstead and Freston in Suffolk, who found it built into a wall, and bequeathed it to the Dean and Chapter in 1789. The inscription (at length) runs thus: Anno Christi 1528, et Regni Henrici Octavi, Regis Anglia 20, mensis vero Junii 15, positum per Johannem, Episcopum Lidensem.' This bishop was John Holt, titular Bishop of Lydda, and probably a suffragan of Lincoln."

of the Hand-Book, mistaken in asserting that the I ask is not Mr. John King, the able compiler have always seen another bishop mentioned as foundation stone was laid by Bishop Holt? I having laid the foundation stone, viz. John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln from 1521 to 1547, who was also confessor to Henry VIII.

In Howard's Cardinal Wolsey and his Times (London, 1824, p. 365), reference is made to this very circumstance in the following words:

"Kirby says that the very foundation (of the college) was dug up, in so much so that the first stone was not long since (1764) found in two pieces, worked into a common wall in Woulform's Lane, with a Latin inscription to this effect-In the year of Christ, 1528, and the twentieth of the reign of Henry VIII. King of England, on the 15th of June, laid by John, Bishop of Lincoln.' It is now preserved in Christ Church College as a relic of the founder," &c.

Mr. King may perhaps have copied the Latin inscription incorrectly. Instead of " per Joannem

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[The passage relating to this stone is quoted verbatim by Mr. King from Ingram's Memorials of Oxford, i. 63, where there is a facsimile engraving of this curious relic. We believe Mr. Ingram was the first to read the doubtful contraction lidem, Lidensem, contrary to the received opinion of most antiquaries that Lincoln is meant. The foundation stone of Wolsey's College at Ipswich was laid in the year 1528; but according to Stubbs's Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 147, John Holt was not appointed Suffragan of Lydda until 1530. Moreover, as Kirby (Suffolk Traveller, edit. 1764, p. 48), further remarks: "John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln, did certainly lay the foundation stone of Wolsey's College at Oxford, and preached a sermon from Prov. ix. 1. That stone was laid 20 March, 1525. As the stone of Wolsey's College at Ipswich was laid a little more than three years after that, it seems not improbable, that the same person might be employed on a like occasion at Ipswich. For this reason (and because the word could not mean any other English bishop in that year) we suppose the last word in the inscription to stand for Lincoln. But as the stone would not admit of more letters, that word consists of five only, and is plainly abbreviated in two places; which abbreviations have rendered the meaning of it somewhat doubtful." We are inclined to think there must be some defect in this part of the inscription, for Dr. Ingram has lidem; whereas Gough (Camden's Britannia, ii. 85), has Lidem; and in the Beauties of England and Wales, xiv. 253, it is spelt Liuem.]

EELS AND LAMPREYS. Can you inform me whether the Scotch have any definite reason for their antipathy to the flesh of eels? That a very prevalent objection to these fish exists amongst the Scotch is undoubted. A friend of mine knows a lady who once tasted eel inadvertently, and thought it excellent; but on finding out what it was would eat no more, and has never tasted it since. The same friend also tells me that his countrymen have an almost equal dislike to pike. Is the aversion to eel owing to its snake-like form (the reason why some English people abstain from eating it), or to the popular (erroneous) belief that this fish is destitute of scales, and therefore forbidden food?

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In Dame Juliana Berner's Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle (Book of St. Alban's, 1496), the following sentence occurs: "In Aprill take the same baytes, and also juneba, otherwyse named vii eyes." What is the derivation of juneba ? W. H. [It would appear from Partington's British Cyclopædia that the Scottish objection to eels as an article of food is "In the mainly due to their supposed unwholesomeness. northern part of Britain, in Scotland especially, the prejudice of the people runs very strong, not only against

the form of the eel, but against the quality of its flesh as an article of food." And again, "eels are held in small estimation in the North, and even discounting their serpent form, they are regarded as far from wholesome." The prejudice against eels is common amongst country people elsewhere; but even in Scotland we do not think it is universal. We have never heard of any such objection, as our correspondent mentions, to the pike. Prejudices, however, against particular articles of food do sometimes occur. We have known "a good plain cook " who would send up a roast hare admirably done, but whom nothing would have induced to touch a morsel of it herself.

Concerning Juneba we can give no information. But on looking into the reprint of the Treatyse of Fysshynge by Pickering, 1827, we there find the word is Inneba, p. 25. This we would derive from the Latin inhibeo, or the Fr. inhiber, to hinder or retard. The seven eyes, or lamprey, has the faculty of adhering; and hence arose certain old-world and medieval superstitions, especially affecting the salt-water lamprey, and crediting that animal with the power of arresting ships in their course-on which account the passengers on one occasion caught the lamprey and ate it, which certainly was a very sensible remedy. Thus, just as another fish, for a similar reason, was called remora, we may suppose the lamprey to have been called inhiba, whence inniba. So ill-omened birds, which by their flight deferred an undertaking or a journey, were styled inhiba aves.]

GUIDO FAWKES.-Ireland, in his Confessions, quotes Mr. James Caulfield as his authority for stating that the real name of Guy Fawkes was Guy Johnson, Fawkes having assumed that name when he entered into the conspiracy. Is this correct? Knight, in his Cyclopædia (edition, 1837), states that he was a gentleman of good parentage, and respectable family in Yorkshire. His father, Edward Fawkes, was a notary at York, and held the office of registrar and advocate of the Consistory Court of the Cathedral." Do the


records at York show this?


[In the "Relation of the Discovery of the Gunpowder under the Parliament House," printed in the Archaologia, xii. *202, it is stated, that "Upon the first apprehension, the wretch gave himself the name of John Johnson, which synce he hath confessed to be false, and his true name to be Guy Fawkes, a gentleman born near Spofforth in Yorkshire." The researches of Mr. Jardine in his Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot, 8vo, 1857, p. 31, settles the point. He states that "in an examination dated the 7th of November, 1605, in which he for the first time gives his real name, Fawkes says that he was born in the city of York, and that his father's name was Edward Fawkes, a gentleman, a younger brother, who died about thirty years before, and left to him but small living, which he spent.' Now it appears from certain proceedings in the Star Chamber in 1573, the record of which is in the Chapter-house at Westminster, that an Edward Fawkes, a notary, was at that time living at York in a respectable sphere of life, and in the register of burials of St. Olave's in Marygate at York is the following entry: 'Mr. Edward Fawkes, register and advocate of the Consistory Court of the cathedral church of York, about forty-six years of age, buried in the cathedral church January 17, 1578.' Here then is an Edward Fawkes whose station in the world and time of death correspond pretty exactly with the statement of Fawkes himself in his examination, and as the name is an uncommon one,

the above facts seem almost to amount to a demonstration." The parentage of the conspirator has been more fully investigated in a little work entitled The Fawkes's of York in the Sixteenth Century, 12mo, 1850.]

S. GEORGE'S, MIDDLESEX. Searching through an old pedigree the other day, I found several baptisms stated to have been registered at S. George's, Middlesex. Is this S. George's, Hanover Square; if not, which S. George's is it? The dates referred to were between the years 1708 and 1748, and one is signed by C. Rowland, Register of S. George's, Middlesex. D. S. E.

correspondent inquires, is doubtless due to this northern myth. In explanation of the myth itself we would venture to submit that the stork was a bird sacred to Juno, and that Juno was supposed to preside over childbirth. Hence might come the notion that the stork brought the baby.

The question raised by our correspondent, to whom the Christening Gift (or "Pathen-Geschenck") was given, is and discussed by jurisconsults, whether the gift belonged connected with one of some interest; as a point was raised to the infant or to the parents. See Zedler on "PathenGeschenck."]

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HORSE-LOAVES.-What is the meaning of horseloaves? "Since you were the height of three [St. George's, Middlesex, according to Maitland (Lon-horse-loaves" means "since you were very young," don, p. 755, edit. 1739) is now known as St. George's in the East, near Ratcliff Highway, and is one of Queen "so high," as we say, suiting the action to the Anne's fifty new churches. We are at a loss, however, word. J. D. CAMPBELL. to account for the register commencing so early as 1708, as its foundation was not laid until 1715, and the church was consecrated by Bishop Gibson on July 19, 1729.]

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[In the edition of 1652 of The Great Mystery of Godliness, published four years before the death of Bishop Hall, the passage reads "and meet to be adjudged to a perpetual extermination." In the Bishop's collected works by Pratt, the word is altered to "perpetual migration."]

CHRISTENING TONGS.-I should be glad if any one could furnish me with some account of the use and origin of "Christening Tongs." The pair to which I allude are of the same size as an ordinary pair of sugar-tongs, but evidently intended in shape to represent a Stork, standing upright upon the claws, which partly form the handle. When opened for the purpose of grasping the sugar, the body, which is hollow, discloses the image of a baby, in swaddling clothes, from which they take their name.

Very little appears to be known regarding their origin; all that I can learn being that it was customary some time since to give a pair of these as a present-to whom I am unable to say-at the christening of an infant.

H. J.R.

[When, much to the surprise and delight of the younger members of a family, a baby makes its first appearance in the household, and they naturally ask “where it comes from," the usual answer among ourselves is, "It comes out of the parsley bed." The reply in some of the northern countries of Europe is that "The stork has brought it." The old Teutonic notion that new-born babies are brought by storks, is pleasingly taken up and wrought into a little tale by Hans Christian Andersen.

See Danish Story Book, translated by C. Boner, 1846, and

also "N. & Q." 3rd S. iv. 70.

The origin of these Christening Tongs bearing the form of a stork and containing a baby, respecting which our

[Horse-loaves, says Halliwell, a kind of bread formerly given to horses. It was anciently a common phrase to say that a diminutive person was no higher than three horse-loaves. A phrase still current says, such a one must stand on three penny loaves to look over the back of a goat, or, sometimes, a duck.]

BASTARD FAMILY.- In a foreign heraldic work I find it stated that the branch of this family settled at Kitley, in Devonshire, was raised to the baronetage in 1779, but has never assumed the title. Is this correct? J. WOODWARD.

[William Bastard, Esq. of Kitley, descended from a very ancient Devonshire family, having during the war with France rendered essential service to government by conducting from Plymouth to Exeter a large number of French prisoners confined in the arsenal of the former place, for the removal of whom no troops could be spared from the garrison, already insufficient for the defence of the place, was created a baronet by George III. The title was gazetted in 1779, but has never been adopted. Had it been assumed by the family, Edmund Pollexfen Bastard, Esq. of Kitley, in Devon, late M.P. for that county, would be the baronet. See Burke's Commoners, i. 17, and Burke's Extinct Baronetage, p. 44, ed. 1844.]

HAFURSFIRDI. Can any of your readers say with certainty where is the site mentioned in this quotation, and what is its modern name? "Eptir orrostona í HAFURSFIRDI feck Haralldr konungr enga mótstodo í Noregi"; translated thus: "Post prælium in Sinu Hafurensi, Haraldo Regi obstitit nemo in Norvegia ;" and being the first words of" Antiquitates Celto-Scandicæ ex Snorrone, &c." compiled by Johnstone. "Havniæ, typis MDCCLXXXVI." Augusti Friderici Steinii.


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