with the generous regard for his brave but un- calls this contribution "consuetudo apostolica, fortunate opponent which is said to have been a quâ neque Rex, neque archiepiscopus vel epiexhibited by Cromwell, he would not have desig-scopus, abbas vel prior, aut quilibet in regno imnated him the Arch-rebel.

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PETER'S PENCE (3rd S. iv. 49.)— The custom of paying Rome-feoh, Rome-scot, Peter's-pence, Rome-pennying seems to have been peculiar to England, and was not, as is generally asserted, a tribute to the Pope, but an alms in support of the English College at Rome. Petrie, in cent. viii. p. 99, of his History of the Church, says "It was called Peter's-pence because it was ordained to be paid on Peter's Day; yet certainly thereafter it was called Peter's tribute."

Ina, King of the West Saxons, is said to have instituted the payment of a penny for every house in his kingdom during his pilgrimage to Rome in 724, and the custom was not abolished until 1533. Offa, in 793, made a pilgrimage to Rome by way of penance for the murder of Ethelbert, and "gave unto the Pope a yearly penny" a fact we learn from the "Vita Offe" mentioned by Spelman. The laws of Edward the Confessor enact that, "omnes qui habent 30 denariatus vivæ pecuniæ

munis erat." Camden, I think, assigns to Offa the credit of its institution.

Cowell, from whom I have borrowed some of the above information, refers to Lambarde's Explication of Saxon Words, verbo "Nummus," King Edgar's laws, fol. 78, c. 4; and Stow's Annals, p. 67.

The Moneta S. Petri" coined at York and elsewhere, is not, according to some numismatists, to be mistaken for Peter-pence. Several specimens of this coinage are before me. Other countries forwarded contributions, or tribute, to the chair of Peter, but the special payment called Peter-pence is, I think, to be distinguished from these, and confined to this kingdom. CHESSBOROUGH.

COURT COSTUME OF LOUIS XIII. OF FRANCE (3rd S. iv. 186.) A. D. will find the costume of this period very minutely, and most probably, correctly represented in the plates to Pluvinel's Horsemanship, by Crispin de Pas.

In order to be sure of the genuineness of the plates, the first edition, folio, Paris, 1623, should be consulted, or that issued by De Charniquy, also in folio, 1625. There were many later editions in French, as well as translations into German and Dutch, until at length the coppers being quite worn out, they were professedly copied by more modern artists, whose works, although sufficiently illustrative of the Pluvinellian manège, are not at all to be relied on in regard to portraiture. R. S. Q.

GEORGE BELLAS (3rd S. iv. 146.)—A MS. note George Bellas married Miss Greenough of Ludin my copy of Beloe's Sexagenarian states that JOSEPH RIX, M.D. gate Street, St. Neots.

REGIOMONTANUS (3rd S. iv. 178.)- Your correspondent CHESSBOROUGH is correct as to the episcopal throne of Ratisbon having been occupied by Albertus Magnus. He was elected Bishop 1259, and voluntary resigned the see 1263.


de suo proprio, Anglorum lege dabit BATH HOSPITAL (3rd S. iv. 134.)-Up to the denarium Sancti Petri, et lege Danorum dimi-year 1743, the only bishops who had subscribed diam markam: iste vero denarius debet summoniri in Solemnitate Apostolorum Petri & Pauli, et colligi ad festivitatem quæ dicitur ad vincula.' The same statute expressly describes this payment as being an alms, and not a tribute of subjection; for we find that "hic denarius Regis eleemosyna


*In later times, doubtless, the Peter-pence were wrongly considered as an acknowledgment of the Papal supremacy. Matthew of Westminster

to the above hospital were the Bishops of Oxford, and of Bath and Wells; and the sums they subscribed were under 501. Had any bishop between 1723 and 1743 subscribed 50l., he would not have been "the principal contributor;" as several persons gave 50l., some 1007., and George II. 2007. There is not, nor ever was any motto, either within or without the hospital. The anecdote related by P. S. C. cannot, I think, be regarded as genuine.

R. W. F.

LADY CATHERINE REBECCA MANNERS (3rd S. iv. 187.)- Catherine Rebecca, Lady Manners, was the daughter of Francis Grey of Lehena, co. Cork, Esq. She married William Manners, son of John Manners and Louisa Tollemache, Countess of Dysart, in 1789. William Manners was made a baronet in 1793, and afterwards became Baron Huntingtower, and took the name of Talmash by royal sign manual in 1821. A second edition of Lady Manners's Poems was published in 1793 by J. Bell, British Library, Strand, with a portrait.


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"One of the Doctor's peculiarities was his extraordinary fondness for church bells, and many and pressing were the calls upon the pockets of his friends and correspondents to contribute to those at the church at Hatton. He says himself, I have been importunate, and almost impudent, in my applications.' Campanology was a subject so much at his heart, that, in one of his letters, he intimates an intention of treating upon it at large. In the Bibliotheca Parriana, p. 479, is a long note on Magius de Tintinnabulis, in which he notices Paccichelli de Tintinnabulo Nolano, as the only learned work he had met with on bells. He does not seem to have fallen in with the commentary of Angelus Roccha or the poetry of Dellingham, or the Campanologie Rationale of Durandus, or the huge folio of Valentinus, which would have been a great comfort to the Doctor's mind. What would he have said, however, to the incomparable theory of Frater Johannes Drabicius, who, in his book, De Calo et Calesti Statu, printed at Mentz, 1618 [not 1718], employs 425 pages to prove that the principal employment of the blest in heaven will be in the continued ringing of bells."Quarterly Review, vol. xxxix., Life and Writings of Dr. Parr, n. p. 308.


INSCRIPTION ON CROSTHWAITE FONT, KESWICK (3rd S. iv. 187.)-By way of reply to the first of MR. KNOWLES's Queries, may I suggest that Keswick is but a contracted form of Ked's-wick, or Khede's-wick, and that Khede is one of the many ways in which the name of St. Chad is so frequently found in the nomenclature of English towns; combined with the terminations -den, -ley, -wick, -kirk, -hunt, well, -ford, "Chad" is found in the names of nearly a dozen places; as Cad, Chat, Chid, Chit, &c., it enters largely into English topographical names. (Skiddaw? unde derivatur?) CHESSBOROUGH. Harbertonford.

GLOUCESTERSHIRE SONGS (3rd S. iv. 210.) — In the Collectanea Glocestriensia of the late J. D. Phelps, Esq., of Chavenage House, I find in the Catalogue of Poetry, at p. 48, "True Blue. Tune, Grenadier's March." Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to complete the information by stating where Mr. Phelps's Collection is now preserved.* P. S. CAREY.

CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER (3rd S. iv. 216.)-I have read MR. Foss's interesting reply to MR. CAMPBELL'S Query, in which he says the Chancellor of the Exchequer is now the Chief Judge on the Equity side of the Court. Will MR. Foss kindly inform me how far the judicial authority of the Chancellor, as an Exchequer judge, has been affected by the 5 Vict. c. 5, which abolished the equity jurisdiction of the Court of Exchequer? JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A.

OYSTER GROTTOES (3rd S. iv. 140, 192.)-The Yonge's History of Christian Names, says: Guardian, Sept. 2, 1863, p. 830, quoting Miss

"Very curious associations cluster round this particular local conception of St. James:- The conventional representation of the saint was a pilgrim to his own shrine, staff-in-hand, and in his broad-leaved hat one of the scallop shells, thence named Pecten Jacobæus, emblems probably of pilgrims' fare, but which led to oysters being considered appropriate to his festival; so that the 25th of July, old style, ushers them in, and the grotto of their shells built by little Londoners on that day is the reminiscence of his shrine, and testifies to his popularity.'

If DR. BELL will add to July 25, which is the day of St. James the Greater, the ten days omitted at Pope Gregory's revision of the Calendar in 1582, he will have the very date under discussion, Aug. 4. S. F. CRESWELL.

Cathedral School, Durham.

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'computetur dies ille et dies proxime precedens pro uno die."

Generally it may be answered that our old practice of counting two days as one was preserved out of deference to Roman authority, which was afterwards abandoned for the more simple and scientific method of adding one day at the end of the month. In like manner the Jews intercalated one month, but they gave the same name to the two months; so did the Greeks. Why the Roman priesthood should have fixed on the sixth calend may have been because six hours was the surplus time to be dealt with annually. T. J. BUCKTON.

ARMS WANTED, FAMILY FOR (3rd S. iv. 128, 166.) Your correspondent should consult Berry's Encyclopædia Heraldica, and Glover's Ordinary of Arms. By their help he may refer the first shield inquired for to the Gilberts of London and Sussex, and the quartered shield as follows: 1st quarter to the family of Dennys of Devon; 2nd, to that of Loveday; 3rd, to the Ffolliotts; and the 4th to the Dyverles of Devon.

According to Machin's Diary, a Philip Dennys was buried at Allhallows Barking, in 1556

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"The vjth day of Sept was bered at Barking Church Mr. Phelype Dennys, Squire with Cote of Armes, and ij whytt branches and xii torches, iiij grett tapurs, ij dozen skochyuns of Armes and a grett juster."

col. ii., whose editors suppose it to have been the
author's maiden sermon. The same magazine for

1815 at p. 547, col. ii., gives an account of the
Rev. W. Eastmead's settlement over the church
of Christ at Kirkby-Moorside on August 10, when
he was said to be from Hackney.
D. B.

BUSH HOUSES (3rd S. iv. 141, 200.) — The bush
tended to resemble a bush, consisting of three or
as a tavern sign was succeeded by a thing in-
four tiers of hoops fastened one above another,
gilt, and a Bacchus bestriding a tun at top. The
with vine leaves and grapes richly carved and
owner of a tavern or ale-house in Aldersgate
Street, at the time when Charles I. was beheaded,
bush in mourning by painting it black.
was so affected upon that event that he put his
house was long after known by the name of the
History of Music, vol. v. bk. 1. c. ix. p. 78.) I
"Mourning Bush at Aldersgate." (Hawkins's
may supplement this note with the following pro-


"Good wine needs no bush; Al buon vino non bisogna frasca, Ital.; A bon vin il ne faut point d'enseigne, Fr.; Vino vendibili hederâ suspensâ nihil est opus; El vino que es bueno, no ha menester pregonero, Span.; Gude wine needs na a wisp, Scot."-Ray's Proverbs.


GAMBRINUS (3rd S. iv. 147.)-In the Divi Britannici, London, 1675, p. 103, Sir W. Churchill,

The tomb existed in Stowe's time, who describes speaking of the English race, says :it thus:

"A small brass plate is fixed on the E. wall, and thus inscribed, of your charitye pray for the soule of Philip Dennys of London, Esquire, whose body lyeth before this stone. He died the 3rd day of September, 1556."

May not the shield in question be a part of the now missing memorial ? B. Hr.

MARGARET WAKE (3rd S. iv. 188.)- HERMENTRUDE will find an elaborate pedigree of the Wake family in the Report of the Proceedings of the Leicestershire Archæological Society for 1861. The name of Margaret Wake's mother is not given in it. C. J. R.

The following extract, from the Archbishop's Memoir of his family, 1833, may assist HERMEN


In reference to John, Lord Wake, who was the father of Margaret, he says (p. 35): —

"Whom he marryed I am yet to seek; only I find her in an Ancient Charter, called by the name of Joan; and that, in right of her, he held the Wapentake of Skarndale, in the County of Derby."

W. W. S.

REV. W. EASTMEAD (3rd S. iv. 186.)-William Eastmead, on Oct. 16, 1809, preached at Hambledon, Bucks, a sermon entitled The Power of Satan limited and his Policy confounded by Christ. It was printed, and a notice of it was inserted in the Evangelical Magazine for April, 1810, p. 170,

"Woden, their common ancestor, being descended in a direct line from Theutones, the grandchild of Gambrivius (the first inventer of good Ale and Beer, which they have lov'd but too well ever since), he was the third in descent from Manus, son of Tuisco, the eldest son of Gomer, the first son of Japheth, third son of Noah, whom (?) Moses remembers by the name of Aschenaz, from whom the Hebrews call the Germans Aschenims."

From this account we see that Gambrivius was seventh in descent from Noah; in other words, that he was the patriarch's G.-G.-G.-G.-G. GrandChurchill refers, in the margin, to Lanquet for information concerning this patron saint of CHESSBOROUGH.



Harbertonford, Devon. CHRISTIAN NAMES OF AUTHORS (3rd S. iv. 161.) The librarian alluded to by S. Y. R. is quite right in his conjecture; Lieut.-Colonel Robert Carey, C.B., Deputy-Adjutant-General, is the author of The Narrative of the late New Zealand War. P. S. CAREY.

MYMS (3rd S. iv. 123.)-The only etymology that I can find for this name is the German mumme, a castrated animal. The river Maran in the same county of Hertford, is also named Mimram, which, if this derivation is sound, means a wether sheep. The two Myms or Mimms, North and South, being within twenty miles of London, and near Barnet, a great cattle fair, and being in a line from the north and north-west of England, for

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the introduction of horses, cattle, and sheep into
the metropolis, may have acquired the name from
carrying on this branch of veterinary surgery.

FRENCH WINE IN 1749 (3rd S. iv. 209.)-From 1703 port established itself as what Defoe calls our general draught," pursuant to the treaty with Portugal in opposition to France, known as the Methuen Treaty, from the name of the Ambassador. Previously, the claret of France had been the beverage of the wine-drinkers of England. The Scotch stuck, however, to their French taste and predilections. (Knight's England, v. 267, 312.) The same may be said of the disaffected English. In 1749, the remembrance of French aid to the Romanists of Ireland and Scotland rising to support the Stuart family, would be fresh in the memory of the London drapers and others, and in their drink would be freshly remembered. The adoption of a new beverage is proof of strong feeling, and it is remarkable that it has required more than 150 years to reconvert our port-wine drinkers into French wine drinkers, which is again the result of foreign policy.


BIBLICAL QUERIES: PROV. XXVI. 8. (3rd S. iv. 219.)- Allow me to observe in explanation that quicksilver is not mentioned in the original nor in any of the versions.

It is certain that in the Latin Vulgate the word "Mercurii" means the god Mercury, and not the mineral mercury or quicksilver, the Latin name of which was a Greek compound, hydrargyT. J. BUCKTON. rum (Plin. xxxiii. 3).

SIR THOMAS REMINGTON (3rd S. iv. 210.) — Queries such as this of a private genealogical character, which may be very interesting to the inquirer, but little or none to the general reader, should not be asked under any initials, but by a full name and address: Then the probability is that satisfactory replies will be received through private and direct communication, such as, in many cases, it might not be desirable for all the wide world to know. I can speak from experience that I have often received very valuable information in reply to my queries direct, conveyed in the most courteous and obliging manner, and have made some very agreeable acquaintances thereby.

How often does the editor of "N. & Q." announce to correspondents that letters are lying with him for A. B. and C., containing, I have no doubt, replies which the writers don't think proper to make public? Therefore my advice to R. EXPERTO CREDE. B. is

P.S. Had I known his address, I would have put him on the track he wishes to find.

A pedigree of this family, from Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire, 1665-6 (p. 123), is published by

EDWARD PEACOCK. the Surtees Society. It was registered at Kilham on Aug. 31, 1665.

Bottesford Manor, Brigg.

F. C. H. will, I feel sure, pardon me for calling
in question the accuracy of his statement that the
Labarum appears on coins of Constantine the
Great. Will he kindly inform me where any
coins of this emperor are to be seen on which a
standard, bearing the, so-called, "sacred mono-
gram," is represented.

In my own cabinet are thirty-four coins of
Constantine the Great, and I have examined en-
gravings of many others, the types of which are
not represented in my collection; and I regret to
say that I have as yet been unable to discover on
any of this Emperor's coins either the Labarum,
or indeed the most distant allusion to the new
religion he embraced, though of his connection
with the older religious system there are many
traces, as, for instance, in the augur's cowl, and
the title of Divus prefixed to his name.
all proper respect for the legends of antiquity, I
take leave to doubt whether this so-called mono-
gram ought to be considered a Christian emblem
at all, a doubt the reasons for which I hope to
show in the course of a note I am preparing on
Religious Symbols.




P.S. Since writing the above, I find in p. 364 of Mr. Humphrey's Coin Manual the following remark: "We seek in vain for Christian emblems on the coinage of the first Christian Emperor." See also remarks on the Labarum in p. 365 of the same book.

VENUS CHASTISING CUPID (3rd S. iv. 200.)— There is a classical authority for Venus chastising Cupid with a more effective weapon, viz. her sandal. Lucian, in his dialogue of Aphrodite and Selene (Tauchnitz edition, vol. i. p. 105), makes H. C. C. the former say— hồn dè kai wλnyàs autą évéteiva eis τὰς πύγας τῷ σανδάλῳ.

SATIRICAL EPITAPH (3rd S. iv. 189.)-I have always heard the first line repeated thus:

"Here lies the mutton-eating King," &c.
The reference to Hume should be vol. viii.
C. A. B.
p. 212, not 312.
The mother of Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford,
was Margaret de Baux, of the house of Andria;
whose armorial bearings were, without heraldic
I have seen a halberd of his age in
right, granted by Edward IV. to Queen Elizabeth
S. P. V.
the armoury at the Tower, on which these arms
are engraved.
Of the mothers of the wives of English princes,
I can only answer HERMENTRUDE'S Queries as to
the following:-

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1. Isabel Marshal; whose mother was Isabel de Clare, daughter of Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke (Strongbow).

2. Margaret Wake. Her mother was Joan, who died 1310, Rot. Orig. 3 Edw. I. (from genealogical table in Rev. E. Trollope's Hereward, the Saxon Patriot).

3. Joan Holland. Her mother was Lady Alice Fitzalan, daughter of Richard, Earl of Arundel.

4. Jaquetta of Luxemburg. Her mother was Margaret de Baux, daughter of the Duke of Andria, in the kingdom of Naples. C. R. S. M.

BEAN FEAST (3rd S. iv. 186.)-I believe this term originated in days when workmen were contented with much humbler fare than would satisfy them at present; and when a day in the country, with a dinner of beans and bacon, washed down with a due proportion of beer, was looked upon as a real treat. Formerly, the bean feasts always took place about the time of year when broad beans are plentiful. JAYDEE.

EXPLANATION OF WORDS WANTED (3rd S. iv. 167.)-Perhaps the following will help HERMEN



Espiner." Fil d'Espinay A kind of loose twisted and (somewhat) coarse thread, made at Espinay, a town in Artois. (Cotgrave.)

tion in Mitford's edition of the poet's Works, where it is thus given :—

"He is reported to have made a little speech to the Cardinals in the conclave, while they were undetermined about an election, as follows: Most eminent Lords, here are three Bolognese of different characters, but all equally proper for the Popedom. If it be your pleasures to pitch upon a saint, there is Cardinal Gotti; if upon a politician, there is Aldrovandi; if upon a booby, here am I.' The Italian is much more expressive; and, indeed, not to be translated: -Eminentissimi Signori, ci siamo tre (Bolognesi?) diversi si, ma tutti idonei al papato. Si vi piace un santo, c'è 'l Gotti; se volete una testa scaltra e politica, c'è l'Aldrovandi; se un coglione, ecco mi!" " C. W. BINGHAM.

A LADY'S DRESS IN 1762 (3rd S. iv. 238.) J. L. should not make Ovid speak like the most prosaic of prose writers. It is needless to put the words in poetical order; indeed I think they have very lately been quoted in "N. & Q." LYTTELTON.

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Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentleman by whom they are required, whose name and address are given for that purpose:

Accuby." Accubes Couches, lodgings, DIBDIN'S SUNDAY LIBRARY. Vol. II. resting-places; cabins to lie in, or to rest in. (Cotgrave.)

"Par Anal." This must be akin to Anneler= to curl, to ring, to twist, &c.



Forall" I take to be fold, or furl (fresler), or

"Esqueles." Esquilles, aiguilles = needles. "Quillers." (Perhaps) knitting, quilling (or twilling) needles, or pins.


Thomas Pearce, D.D., Sub-Dean of the chapel. Rivingtons, 1826.
Wanted by Rev. John Pickford, M.A., Sherington, Newport-Pagnell,

Notices to Correspondents.

T. B. is referred to our 1st S. vii. 202; but especially to the 2nd S. vi.

"Enorres" I take to have affinity with gold; 145, 218, for the origin and correct spelling of the word Teetotalism. perhaps gilt may be the meaning. "Un hanap d'argent enorres a silver gilt cup."

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"Ove" one would suppose to mean "ou," but a conjunction does not seem to be wanting, so that it may have some affinity, with the Italian Uva (Uova, Ove) Uveo, a grape, or grape-like in shape.

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"Resones de Averill" I take to be raisins grapes or a bunch of grapes, "of April" or "of spring," or green." Ash has Avernota kind of grape. J. D. CAMPBELL. Glasgow.

"Esqueles" is evidently "ecuelles," porrin

The other words I give up.

For 66 quillers" read "cuillers" spoons.

H. W. H.

BENEDICT XIV. (3rd S. iv. 166.)-The authority for this anecdote is a letter of Gray's to Mr. West, dated " 'Florence, Aug. 21, N. S. 1740;" and standing as Letter XXIX. of the second sec

K. B. Hewer in Evelyn's Diary is clearly a misprint for Dr. John Hewett, noticed in the 8th and 12th vols of our Second Series.-The great critic who declared" He that would pun would pick a pocket," was John Dennis. See" N. & Q." 3rd S. ii. 197; iii. 457.

C. Bunyan's allusion to the gratitude of the chicken is noticed in our 2nd S. vii. 57. Bunyan was only four years of age when George Herbert died.

S. Y. R. Mr. William John Pinks was born 29th Sept. 1829, and died the 12th Nov. 1860. A short Memoir of him may be had at the Office of the Clerkenwell News.

W. M. M. For eradicating the worm in old books see "N. & Q." 1st 8. viii. 526: ix. 527; xi. 167. The authorship of The Whole Duty of Man is still considered an open question. Vide our 2nd S. i. 135.

W. I. J. The work announced by Knapton is doubtless a translation of Jugement de Pluton sur les deux Parties des nouveaux Dialogues des Morts, 12mo. Paris, 1684, published anonymously, but written by M. de Fontenelle.

ERRATUM.-The date of the Moncrieff baronetcy is 1626, not 1826, as in the writer's MS.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 118. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order in favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186, FLEET STREET, E.C, to whom all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed.

Full benefit of reduced duty obtained by purchasing Horniman's Pure Tea; very choice at 38. 4d. and 4s. "High Standard" at 48. 4d. (formerly 48. 8d.), is the strongest and most delicious imported. Agents in every town supply it in Packets.

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