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It is probable that it afterwards belonged to the Killigrews, as it was in the successive possession of Sir Nicholas Lower and Sir Reginald Mohun, who married the daughters of Sir Henry Killigrew. Clifton, which was inherited by the Mohuns, was sold, after the death of the last Lord Mohun, to Thomas Pitt, Esq., grandfather of the first Lord Camelford, and having passed with other estates in this county to Lady Grenville, was purchased in 1807 by the Rev. Francis Vyvyan Jago, Rector of Landulph. Vide Lysons's Cornwall, iii. 172; and Archæologia, xviii. 90."]
QUOTATION WANTED.-In some play of modern date, if I am not mistaken, a servant is introduced asking permission to go and see a friend. His master is so pleased with the idea of a friend, having never in his life met one, that he volunteers to go and look at him himself, though it is a wet and cold night. A reference to this scene would Jos. HARGROve. greatly oblige.
Clare Coll., Cambridge.
[We think our correspondent will find the friendly colloquy in the following lines from Cowper's Epistle to Joseph Hill, Esq. :
"Horatio's servant once, with bow and cringe,
Lest he should trespass, begg'd to go abroad.
"PYLGRIMAGE OF PERFECTION."- Is the fol
lowing Work," printed at London in Flete Streete, besyde Saynt Dunstan's Churche, by Richarde Pynson, Priter to the Kynge's noble Grace. Cu privilegio, Anno Domini, 1526," of any particular value or rarity?—
[This is certainly an uncommon book; and from the omission of any price in Lowndes, it would seem that it had not turned up at a book sale of late years. It is fully described in Herbert's Ames, i. 182, 275. Herbert adds, "I do not find the author's name mentioned any where in this book; but in a little treatise entitled Å Dayly Exercise and Experience of Deathe, by Richard Whytforde, the olde wretche of Syon, printed by Rob. Redman,' William Bonde, a bacheler of devinyte, and one of his devoute bretherne lately departed, is cited as the author of The Pylgrimage of Perfection.]
EURASIAN. Within the last two or three years this word has frequently come before me in reading books or newspapers relating to India. Is the word a new one? What does it mean, and what is its etymology? I believe it is used to designate a person, the offspring of an European
father and a native mother. Is this its precise signification? J.
[The word occurs in the Supplement to Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary: "Eurasian, n. or a. A contraction of European and Asian. In India, a term applied to children born of European parents on the one side, and Asiatic parents on the other side."]
SWING. - In a leader of The Times of Nov. 21, 1859, the following sentence is used: "Excesses of the Luddites and Swing." The Luddites are well remembered in this locality, but I can get no explanation of "Swing." Will you aid me? GEORGE LLOYD.
[The cognomen Swing was connected with a novel species of outrage in the agricultural districts of England during the autumn of 1830. Night after night fires were lighted up by bands of incendaries, when cornstacks, barns, farm-buildings, and live stock were indiscriminately consumed. These fires were began by revolutionary propagandists, well provided with those means of mischief wherewith modern science has armed the wicked, and sufficiently supplied with pecuniary resources. The newspapers and periodicals of that date may be consulted for the conviction and punishment of these misguided men.]
"Here begynneth a devout treatyse in Englysshe, called the Pylgrimage of Perfection: very profitable for
all Christen people to rede, and in especiall, to all rely-edith and zevyth yow wher of to dispose and help yor
"PASTON LETTERS."-Wanted, an explanation of the following phrases in the Paston Letters, London, 1789, vol. iii. 4to. ed., Letter cv.:yn Relevyng and Sustenawns of yor evyn but also long as God evyn Crysten ze most nedis despose hit forth a monggus yor evyn Crysten.
gious p'sons moche necessary."
W. H. L.
[This satirical piece is entitled "The New Litany," and appeared about the year 1646. It is reprinted in Wilkins's Political Ballads, i. 23, ed. 1860. The au thorship is apparently unknown.]
[The phrase is even (sometimes written eme) or fellow Christian. Wiclif thus renders Phil. ii. 25: "Forsothe I gesside it needeful for to send to 30w Epaphrodite my brothir and euene worchere, and my euene knyght"; and the Gravedigger in Hamlet, Act V. Sc. 1, uses even Christian" in the sense of "fellow Christian."]
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
In "N. & Q." 3rd S. iv. 241, I observe that you refer to a gentleman of your acquaintance, a correspondent of " N. & Q.," who is engaged on a" Memoir of Sir Francis Drake." I see also that he states that in the expedition in which
"A strong sense of them (viz. his disappointments') is supposed to have thrown him (Drake) into a melancholy, which occasioned a bloody flux, and of this he died on board his own ship, near the town of Nombre de Dios, in the West Indies, Jan. 28, 1596."
I have no other modern authority on the point at hand, but I see that the fact, not of the flux, but of Drake's "chagrin," is disputed by the contemporaneous authority of one of his captains,
who commanded a ship in the fleet of Drake and
Hawkins, and must necessarily have known what was the truth. I refer to Capt. Henry Savile, who, in answer to a letter by a Spanish General, published in Spain, wrote a tract under the title of A Libell of Spanish Lies, printed in 1596, one of the "lies" being "that Francis Drake died in Nombre de Dios for very grief that he had lost so many barks and men, as was afterwards more manifestly known." Savile's tract is one of great rarity (I only know of the existence of four copies of it), which I procured to be reprinted some years ago, and there he denies most emphatically that Drake died at Nombre de Dios, or that the cause of his death was "for very grief that he had lost so many barks and men,"-"que Francisco Draque murio en Nombre de Dios de pena de aver perdido tantos baxeles y gente." Savile's words in answer to this "lie" are these:
"For admit the mistaking of the place (Nombre de Dios) might be tolerable, notwithstanding, the precise affirming the cause of his death doth manifestly prove
General doth make no conscience to lie. And as concerning the losse of any barks or men in our navy by the valour of the Spaniard, before Sir Francis Drake's death, we had none (one small pinnace excepted) which we assuredly know was taken by chance, falling single into a fleet of five frigates (of which was General Don Pedro Tellio) near unto the island of Dominico, and not by the valour of Don Bernaldino: the which five frigates of the king's afterwards had but ill success, for one of them was burnt in the harbour of S. John Portrico, and one other was sunk in the same harbour, and the other
three were burnt amongst many other ships at the taking of Cadiz. This, I think, in wise men's judgments, will seem a silly cause to move a man sorrow to death. For true it is, Sir Francis Drake died of the flux which he had grown upon him eight days before his death, and yielded up his spirit like a Christian to his Creator quietly in his cabin."
It is very possible that your correspondent, with a view to his Memoir of Drake, has seen the original tract; but so small a number of my reprint was struck off (only twenty-five copies, most of which are still in my hands), that it is not likely it should have fallen in his way. If he have not met with it, and would like to possess a copy, one of them shall be entirely at his service. On another page of his answer, Savile informs us
that "it is most certain that Drake died twixt the island of Scouda and Portobello," and not at J. PAYNE COLLIER. Nombre de Dios.
I have read with interest your article respecting Sir Francis Drake, and it occurred to me that perhaps the future historian of his life, whose answer you have inserted, would like to know that there is now residing at Kingsbridge, Devon, the family of Pearse, one of whom is a medical man in that town; and some members of the family are called Drake, from being descendants of Sir Francis; and I believe they have either a portrait or some other things of his now. published some years since in Plymouth, entitled Since writing the foregoing, I find, in a work A thousand Facts in the Histories of Devon and Cornwall, under "1582," that Sir Francis Drake was Mayor of Plymouth, which is the same year as his wife was buried, as, according to the old election, the mayors were elected on September 17, and sworn in on September 29, his term of mayoralty not expiring till September 29, 1582. I think some further particulars might be gathered from the Plymouth Corporation Records. If the above marriage was a fact, may not the marriage referred to ("N. & Q." 3rd S. iv. 189) be that of some other Francis Drake, as it does not specify GEORGE PRIDEAUX. any place of residence?
will form a supplement to the pamphlet mentioned.
Whether this supplement was ever published does not appear certain; but nearly six years after the date of the former letter-to wit, on the 7th February, 1785-Beattie, then at Aberdeen, writes again to Sir William on the subject, as under:
My list of Scotticisms is also much enlarged. I believe I shall print it here for the convenience of correcting the press. If you see Mr. Creech, please to ask what number of copies I shall send to him. It will be a pretty large pamphlet, and the price shall not exceed a shilling.".
Under date of the 26th November, in the same year, Beattie, writing to his friend Robert Arbuthnot, Esq., expresses a doubt as to the propriety of publishing the pamphlet, for these
"Our language (I mean the English) is degenerating very fast; and many phrases, which I know to be Scottish idioms, have got into it of late years: so that many of my strictures are liable to be opposed by authorities which the world accounts unexceptionable. However, I shall send you the manuscript, since you desire it, and let you dispose of it as you please.”
As I do not find the Scotticisms mentioned in the List of Dr. Beattie's works, printed in the Appendix to his Life, by Sir William Forbes, may I ask J. M. if he is quite certain that the work printed for William Creed, in 1787, was written by the poet? And may not the " rare work," alluded to by Dean Ramsey, have been the "little book" printed by Beattie for the use of the students in 1779? D. M. STEVENS.
J. M. speaks of eight leaves of Scoticisms, apparently privately printed, but without title, bound up with his interleaved volume. Are these not the Scoticisms by Hume, affixed to the Political Discourses of 1752, cut out and added to the Anon. annotator's copy of the book published in 1787? I have the Discourses of the dates indicated, but this addition is absent from it, as well as from the British Museum copy, which shows that it must have been sparingly issued. In a work of James Elphinstone's, entitled Animadversions upon Elements of Criticism, &c., with an Appendix on Scoticism, Lond. 1771, Hume's specimens are reprinted from the Scot's Mag., where they are said to be taken from the aforesaid production of the historian. Elphinstone adds, from a later vol, of the same magazine, a letter from Philologus on Scoticism, dated London, 1764, which I take to be a continuation of the subject by himself.
In regard to the authorship of the Anon. Scoticisms arranged in Alphabetical Order of 1787, I think there is little doubt of its being by Beattie. In his letters he speaks of having made large collections this way, a few of which, he says,
Beattie's books on Scoticisms (both of which conHaving copies of Sir John Sinclair's and Dr. tain, so far as I can judge, " valuable observations and additions" in MS.), I feel gratified by the interesting Notes of your correspondent J. M. upon the subject; and beg to say, that if he has any wish to see my copies of these books, he is welcome to have a look at them. The words, "from the Author," are upon the title-page of my copy of Sinclair; and the pages of the Introduction and Observations are so covered by corrections and interlineations, that they appear to me to be more like "an author's proof-sheet" than anything else. The handwriting is unknown to me. The MS. additions to Beattie are mostly by an old, and lately deceased, parish minister of Forfarshire, who was well read in Scottish literaA. J.
From this list there can, I think, be no mistake in identifying the characters in Trumbull's historical picture of the sortie, and in Sharp's reproduction of it as an engraving. The key to the picture must, at this date, be in very few hands. The above list will therefore be of use to your readers generally, and of service for after referI have a copy of the key, which is at J.'s service, as a loan, should he require it. M. S. R.
13. Lieut. Koehler, Royal Artillery, Aide-deCamp to Gen. Elliot.
7. Lieut.-Col. Hardy, 56th Regt., QuarterMaster-General of the Garrison.
2. Major-Gen. Ross.
9. Capt. Whitham, commanding a detachment of the Royal Artillery, who served as Artificers. 3. Commodore Sir Roger Curtis, Volunteer. 5. Lieut.-Col. Trigge, 10th Regt.
6. Lieut.-Col. Maxwell, 71st Regt. 4. Lieut.-Col. Hugo, Hanoverian.
17. The wounded officer in the foreground is Don Joseph Barboza, Captain in the Spanish Artillery.
There are six other references, which cannot be described without taking up too much space in " N. & Q." THOMAS H. CROMEK. Wakefield.
"Albion (the most ancient name of this Isle) containeth Englande and Scotlande: of the beginning (origen) of which name haue sundrie opinios (opinions): one late feigned by him, which prynted the Englishe Chronicle, wherein is neither similitude of trouth, reasone, nor honestie. I mean the fable of the fiftie Doughters of Dioclesian, Kyng of Syria, where neuer any other historie maketh mencion of a King of Syria so named. Also that name is Greeke, and no part of the language of Syria. Moreover the coming of theim from Syria in a shippe or boate without any marynours (mariners) thorowe (through) the sea called Mediterraneum into the ocean, and so finally to finde this Ile, and to inhabit it, is both impossible, and much reproche to this noble Realme, to ascribe hir first name and habitation to such invention. Another opinion is (which hath a more honeste similitude) that it was named Albion, ab albis rupibus, of white rockes, because that unto them that come by sea, the bankes and rockes of this Ile doe appeare whyte. Of this opinion I moste mervayle (marvel), because it is written of great learned men, First, Albion is no latin worde, nor hath the analogie, that is to saie, proportion or similitude of latine. For who hath founde this syllable on at the ende of a latin woord? And if it should have been so called for the whyte colour of the rockes, men would have called called it [I believe this to be a misprint] Alba, or Albus, or Album. In Italy were townes called Alba, and in Asia a country called Albania, and neither of them took their beginning of graphie: nor the water of the ryuer called Albis semeth whyte rockes, or walles, as ye may read in books of geoany whiter than other water. But if where ancient remembraunce of the beginning of thinges lacketh, it may be leeful for men to use their coniectures, than may myne be as well accepted as Plinies (although he incomparably excelled me in wisedome and doctrine) specially if it may appeer that my coiecture shal approch more neere to the similitude of trouth. Wherfore I will also sett foorth mine opinion onely to the intent to exclude fables,
lackyng eyther honestie or reasonable similitudes. Whan the Greekes began first to prosper, and their cities became populous and wared puissaunt, they which trauailed on the seas called Hellespontus, Ægeum, and Creticu(m), after that thei knewe perfectly the course of sailynge, and had founded thereby profyte, they by little and little attempted to serch and finde out the commodities of outwarde countrees: and like as Spaniardes and Portugalls haue late doone, they experienced to seeke out countries before unknown. And at last passyng the Streictes of Marrocke (Morocco) they entered into the great ocean sea, where they fond dyvers and many Iles. Among which they perceiuing this Ile to be not onely the greatest in circuite, but also most plenteouse of every necessary to man, the earth moste apte to bring forth," &c. &c.
After enumerating the natural advantages of our country, he continues:
"They wanderynge and reioysinge at their good and fortunate arrival, named this yle in Greeke Olbion, which in Englishe signifieth happy." W. I. S. HORTON.
I find in the edition of Facciolati, published in 1839 by Black and Armstrong, the following note attached by Furlanetto at Albion: "Etymon est ab Celtico vocabulo Alb, sive Alp, unde Alpes," and reference is made to the commentary of Servius, who is supposed to have lived towards the beginning of the fifth century. Servius at Virgil's G. iii. 474, says "Nam Gallorum linguâ alti montes Alpes vocantur," and Philargyrius in his commentary makes the same remark. And again, Servius at En. x. 13, says: "Sane omnes altitudines montium licet à Gallis Alpes vocentur, proprie tamen montium Gallicorum sunt." The idea of its being derived from albus, is, as your correspondent JANNOC very properly remarks, set aside by the name appearing in Aristotle. He says (De Mundo, c. 3):—
"Beyond the Pillars of Hercules the ocean flows round
the earth. In this ocean are two islands, and those very large, called Bretannic, Albion and Ierne, which are larger than those before mentioned, and lie beyond the C. T. RAMAge.
Secondly, these coins are of silver; and though it is related that Herod left to his sister Salome five hundred thousand pieces of coined silver (apyuplov erwhμov), and to many others, more or less coined silver (Joseph. Antiq., xvii. 8, 1); and though Zonaras (Annal., lib. v. 16,) even goes so far as to say that Herod coined gold and silver money out of the vessels he cut off, to assist the people who were suffering by famine in Judæa and Syria (a story also related by Josephus, Antiq., xv. 9, 2, who leaves out the words eis vouloiua), yet only copper coins of Herod are extant. This can be accounted for from the fact, that the Romans interdicted all countries that were subject to them from striking gold, and only permitted silver to be struck in some of the most important cities-as Alexandria, Antioch of Syria, &c. And it is known that Pompey only permitted a copper currency to be employed in most of the Phoenician mints. The silver that Herod left must have been denarii—if, indeed, the account of Josephus is not much exaggerated.
Thirdly, the silver coins with the manna-pot and lily are shekels and half-shekels, and belong to Simon Maccabæus, the first Jewish prince who was permitted to strike coins, B.C. 138. (See 1 Maccab. xv. 6.)
HEROD I. SURNAMED THE GREAT.
(3rd S. iv. 87, 199.)
The information volunteered by CHESSBOROUGH to MR. SIMPSON's question in "N. & Q." (3rd S. iv. 87) has induced me to say a few words, lest MR. SIMPSON should be led into error relative to the coins of Herod I. CHESSBOROUGH is perfectly correct in stating, that there are no coins "which bear the likeness of Herod the Great ;" but he is not correct in saying that "the types of his money, or of that attributed to him, usually show the manna-pot and lily."
In the first place, I am not aware of any one having attributed coins with the "manna-pot and lily" to Herod I., excepting CHESSborough.
MR. SIMPSON will find engravings of the coins of Herod I. in M. de Saulcy's Numismatique Judaique (pl. vi.), and of one of them in Mr. Akerman's Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of the New Testament, p. 3. The coins of Herod I. are of three sizes; and are called respectively Tpíxaλкov, Aixaλкov, and Xaλkous. They weigh (A) 104 to 64 grs., (B) wanting, and (c) 48 to 20 grs. The coin weighing 48 grs. is the quadrans; and that weighing 20 grs. is the lepton. (See Mark xii. 42, "two mites, which make a farthing.") Mr. Akerman's book is at present the only one in English which mentions Jewish coins; though I am enabled to state that a work upon the entire subject of Jewish and Biblical Numismatics is in preparation, and will shortly be laid before the numismatic public.
MR. SIMPSON'S first Query I must leave to others to answer; but may call his attention to the articles on Herod in Dr. Smith's Dict. of the Bible, and Kitto's Bibl. Encyc., 3rd edition.
I also take the opportunity to explain to HERMENTRUDE her medal of Cleopatra!! And first, I will say that it is not a medal, but a coin. “A medal is a piece struck to commemorate some event or person, and has no place in a currency:" whilst "a coin is a piece of metal of fixed weight, stamped by authority, and employed as a circulating medium." (Art. "Numismatics," Encycl. Brit., 8th edit.) This mistake may have arisen from the French employing the word médaille to signify "a coin." The description of HERMENTRUDE'S coin is as follows: