« VorigeDoorgaan »
LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1863.
NOTES:-"Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lakes Superior," 281-Essay on the Historical Allusions of Spenser, in the Poem of the "Faery Queen," 283-Letter from Horace Walpole, 284-Counterfeit Ballads, Ib.- Sir Philip Honywood, 285.
MINOR NOTES:- Anti-Jacobin Songs of the last Century Curious Contraction - Innocente Coate- A Hint to Extractors - Stooky-Sabbath Mutilation of Sepulchral Monuments-Greek Proverb-Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford, 285.
QUERIES:- Buff-Sir Walter Chute-Contracts: a per centage deducted De Wett Arms - John Fellows Friday Street-Joseph Fowke-"God save the King" in Church-Greyn Court, &c. Long Grass Monarchs' Seals- · Lord Nelson Nottingham Probate Court Painting Political Economy Quotations Wanted Riddle- Major Rudyerd- Seth, the Patriarch-St. Anthony of Padua preaching to the Fishes - Sir Richard Steele The Rev. Peter Thompson, &c., 287.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:-Edward Darcy, Esq.-Thraues
St. Anthony's Temptation Huish Numismatic Queries- Madame de Genlis, &c., 295.
"ANCIENT MINING ON THE SHORES OF LAKE SUPERIOR."
Will you rescue the following very interesting and instructive paper, written by your correspondent, and my esteemed friend, J. H. A. BONE, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. from the perishable columns of the Cleveland (U. S.) Herald, en passant, one of the best newspapers on the western
"About a year ago we spent some days examining, with considerable interest, the extensive evidences of ancient copper mining in the vicinity of Portage Lake, similar evidences also existing at various points along the entire mineral range on the south shore of Lake Superior. It was impossible not to feel interested in these remains of an ancient people who had diligently explored the earth for metal, and whose explorations have been valuable guides to the miners of the present day. The old pits and trenches on the locations of the Quincy, Pewabic, Pontiac, Isle Royale, and other mines, were the guide marks which pointed to the existence of the lodes now extensively worked.
"The personal observations made at that time added materially to the interest felt in the perusal of a work recently issued by the Smithsonian Institution on Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior, by Col. Charles Whittlesey. The work was written some six or seven years since, and has lain in the archives of the Institution until the present year, when it was brought out and published without giving the author an opportunity for adding to it the results of the more extensive explorations during the last four or five years. For instance, the investiga
tions of Col. W. at Portage Lake were confined chiefly to the Isle Royale, Quincy and Pewabic locations, the dense underbrush preventing his knowledge of the more extensive workings since found on the Ripley, Pontiac, and other more recent enterprises.
"The fact of the existence of these ancient workings was first publicly announced in 1848, the discovery being made on the Minnesota mine location. The attention of mining explorers having thus been called to the matter, other discoveries were soon made until the fact has been established that traces of these ancient workings have been discovered along the whole copper belt from Copper Harbor to the Minnesota, and even down in the iron region on the Carp river. The three principal groups or centres of operation appear to be near the forks of the Ontonagon River, in the Portage Lake basin, and on the waters of Eagle River. These three places are also the local points of modern mining.
"Col. Whittlesey, in speaking of these remains, says:— "They are, for the most part, merely irregular depressions in the soil, trenches, pits, and cavities; sometimes not exceeding one foot in depth, and a few feet in diameter. Thousands of persons had seen the depressions prior to 1848, who never suspected that they had any connection with the arts of man; the hollows, made by large trees overturned by the wind, being frequently as well marked as the ancient excavations. Besides this there are natural depressions in the rocks on the outcrop of veins, formed by the decomposition of the minerals, that resemble the troughs of the ancient miners, as they appear after the lapse of centuries. There is not always a mound or ridge along the side of the pits, for most of the broken rock was thrown behind, nearly filling up the trenches. A mound of earth is as nearly imperishable as any structure we can form. Some of the tumuli of the West retain their form, and even the perfection of their edges at this day. But mere pits in the earth are rapidly filled up by natural processes. Some of those which have been re-opened, and found to have been originally ten feet deep, are now scarcely visible. Others
that have a rim of earth around the borders, or a slight
mound at the side, and were at first very shallow, are more conspicuous at present than deep ones without a border.
"There are, however, pits of such size as could not fail to surprise one at first view, were not the effect destroyed by the close timber and underwood with which they are surrounded. A basin-shaped cavity 15 feet deep and 120 feet in diameter, would immediately attract the eye of the explorer were it properly exposed. But it is not unusual to find ten and twelve feet of decayed leaves and stick filling a trench, and no broken rock or gravel. In such cases a fine red clay has formed towards the bottom, a deposite from water, which indicates the long period of time since the excavation was made.'
"The implements with which the mining operations were carried on were extremely simple. In nearly every instance abundant proof has been found that most of the work was performed with stone mauls of the rudest description. They are natural boulders, or large waterwashed pebbles, oblong-shaped, and weighing from five to fifteen pounds. In some instances, as at the Copper Falls and Minnesota mines, a groove has been cut around these boulders, in which was fixed a handle of twisted withes or roots. Wherever grooved hammers are found, those without grooves are entirely wanting. From the fractures at the end of the mauls, it appears that the grooved hammers were used at either end, whilst the ungrooved were held in both hands, and the blows given with one end only. At the Pontiac mine we saw a heap of several hundreds of those ungrooved stone hammers, every one of them being fractured at one end.
The nearest point at which those stones could have been procured was at the Entry, some fifteen or sixteen miles distant.
"The marks of a pick are nowhere visible in the ancient workings. The ground was broken up, and fire used for the purpose of disintegrating the rock. Charcoal and ashes are found in all the pits, and at the Pontiac we found a considerable deposit of charcoal beneath the debris of centuries of decay, which was the evident traces of a fire unsuccessfully used for the purpose of disintegrating a large mass of copper-bearing rock, which still remained where the ancients found it. for no other kind was "The small masses of copperwhen found, were sought for by the ancient miners pounded into the desired shape by the stone hammers. The art of melting copper was evidently unknown to them, for all the copper implements and weapons found bore marks of having been beaten into shape without having first been heated. The remains discovered consist of copper chisels, gads, and spearheads, generally wrought with a certain amount of skill.
"Mass copper of considerable size evidently baffled their skill, and caused them much embarrassment. At the 'Central' mine, Col. Whittlesey says, that a mass of copper, nine feet long, had been worked round, and battered at the top until projecting rim had been formed, A large number of when the task was abandoned. broken mauls attested the severity of the struggle, and the reluctance of the old miners to abandon it. On the Minnesota location a mass of copper, weighing six tons, was found in an ancient pit.
"The mass copper had been raised several feet along the foot wall of the lode, on timbers, by means of wedges. Its upper surface and edges were beaten and pounded smooth, all irregularities taken off, and around the outside a rim or lip was formed, bending downwards. This work had apparently been done after the miners had conIcluded to abandon the mass. Such copper as could be separated by their tools was thus broken off. The beaten surface was smooth and polished, not rough. Near it were found, as the excavation advanced, other masses, imbedded in the vein. After several years, this vein has been found by the modern miners uncommonly rich and valuable for the size and number of its masses of copper.'
Romanes ignorant of this trade, as may appeare by a brasse Coyne of Domitian's, found in one of these workes, and fallen into my hands: and perhaps vnder one of those Flauians, the Iewish workmen made here their first arriuall.'
"By whom were those ancient mines on Lake Superior wrought? Col. Whittlesey says certainly not by the present Indian race. They have no traditions relating to them. They have no idea of digging for copper. They have proved themselves utterly incapable of fashioning, from their own resources, copper implements in any way resembling the perfectness of the ancient specimens. Nor have the Indians of Lake Superior any tradition respecting the Ancient Miners of that country, just as what we called the aborigines of this lower country had no traditions respecting the Mound Builders of Ohio. From the growth of the trees in the old pits, and other indications, Col. Whittlesey is inclined to put the cbandonment of the mines at a distance of at least 500 or 600 years ago.
"Who were the Ancient Miners? Col. Whittlesey is disposed to consider it not improbable that they were cotemporary, if not identical, with the Mound Builders of Ohio. Their mine works were evidently carried on in summer only, being mere open cuts, impossible to be worked in the rigour of a Lake Superior winter. It is probable that they had better means of transportation than the bark canoes of their less civilised successors. They might have come in the spring from the country of the Mound Builders in Ohio in vessels carrying supplies, and returning in the autumn with the proceeds of their labour, and the bodies of those who died; for no graves or funeral mounds of a date coeval with the mine workings have been found. Col. W. says:
"The Mound Builders consumed large quantities of copper. Axes, adzes, chisels, and ornamental rings are so common among the relics in Ohio as to leave no doubt on this subject. We know of no copper-bearing veins so accessible as those of Lake Superior to a people residing on the waters of the Ohio. Neither are there any others now known that produce native metal in quantities to serve as an article of commerce. Specimens of pure copper are found in other mines of North America, but not as a predominant part of the lode. The implements and ornaments found in the mounds are made of metal that has not been melted. They have been brought into shape cold wrought, or at least without heat enough to liquefy the metal, and were therefore produced from native copper. In the Lake Superior veins, spots of native silver are frequently seen studding the surface of the copper, united or welded to it, but not alloyed with it. This is not known of any other mines, and seems to mark a Lake Superior specimen wherever it is found. It also proves conclusively that such pieces have not undergone fusion, for then the pure white spots would disappear, forming a weak alloy. Copper with blotches of native silver has been taken from the mounds. Dr. John Locke, of Cincinnati, possessed a flattened piece of copper weighing several pounds, which was found in the earthworks at Colerain, Hamilton County, Ohio, having a spot of silver as large as a pea forming a part of the mass.'
"But throwing aside all conjectural speculations, and considering only known facts, Col. Whittlesey says, the following conclusions may be drawn with reasonable certainty:
"White cedar shovels for excavating the broken soil, wooden bowls for moving large pieces of rock, and a rude ladder, formed of an oak tree, trimmed so as to leave the stumps of the branches standing as steps, have also been found.
"It is a little curious to note in this connection, that the ancient tin mines of Cornwall, wrought before and during the occupation of Britain by the Romans, eighteen or nineteen centuries ago, average about the same depth with the old copper workings of Lake Superior, and the materials of many of their tools were not dissimilar.
"Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall (A.D. 1602), says, speaking of the tin 'moor works: '
They maintaine these workes to haue beene verie auncient, and first wrought by the Lewes with pickaxes of Holme, Boxe, and Harts horne: they prooue this by the name of those places yet enduring, to wit, Attall Sarazin, in English, the Lewes offcast, and by those tooles daily found amongst the rubble of such workes. And it may well be, that as Akornes made good bread, before Ceres taught the vse of Corne, and sharpe Stones serued the Indians for Kniues, vntil the Spaniards brought them instrupoore Iron: so in the infancie of knowledge, these ments for want of better did supplie a turne. There are also taken vp in such works, certaine little tooles heads of Brasse, which some terme Thunder-axes, but they make small shew of any profitable use. Neither were the
The ancient people extracted copper from the veins of Lake Superior, of whom history gives no account. "They did it in a rude way by means of fire, and the use of copper wedges or gads, and by stone mauls.
"They had only the simplest mechanical contrivances, and consequently penetrated the earth but a short distance.
"They do not appear to have acquired any skill in the art of metallurgy, or of cutting masses of copper. "For cutting tools they had chisels, and probably adzes or axes of copper. These tools are of pure copper, and hardened only by condensation or beating when cold. "They sought chiefly for small masses and lumps, and not for large masses.
"No sepulchral mounds, defences, domicils, roads, or canals are known to have been made by them. No evidences have been discovered of the cultivation of the soil.
ESSAY ON THE HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS OF
666 They had weapons of defence or of the chase, such as darts, spears, and daggers of copper.
an allusion to the oppression of the Netherlands by Spain, whose Moorish connection is figured under the designation of "Sarazin;" the character of the Spanish people in the description and names of the brothers, proud, melancholy, and
"They must have been numerous, industrious, and persevering, and have occupied the country a long bloodthirsty: and a triple character, also alluded
D. M. STEVENS.
to in the triple body of Gerioneo, the oppressor of Belgè, in the fifth book, which has reference to the three countries united into one empire, under Charles V. and Philip his son- Spain, Germany, and America.
Una is first protected from Sansloy by the Satyrs, which may probably be an allusion to the reformed faith being held up by what Spenser elsewhere calls the "brutish multitude; subsequently by Satyrane.
As the character of Prince Arthur is enriched with the achievements of the British power as a state, so the reign of Gloriana is enriched with events which took place prior to the accession of Elizabeth; and in the first book, the legend of Holiness, is given an allegorical history of the Reformation. Una is the one thing needful, truth or true religion, and she comes to the court of Gloriana, to seek assistance, as the reformers sought the assistance of Elizabeth; there is also probably in this an allusion to the early rise of the Reformation in England. St. George is described as
alluding, though with a slight perversion of the fact, to the early introduction of Christianity into England, and the change which occurred under the Saxon kings, when Augustine introduced the Roman Catholic doctrines. His adventures in Error's den appear to be an allusion to the rise of the Pelagian heresy in the fourth century. Ar chimago is the Pope, who, with Duessa, the Roman Catholic doctrine, separate him from true religion, and betray him into the hands of Orgoglio, figurative of the persecution under Mary, from which he is delivered by Prince Arthur, in reality by the power of England on the accession
Una, when separated from St. George, the representative of England an allusion to the restoration of Popery by Mary is protected by the Lion, the emblem of the Netherlands, who "mars blind devotion's mart" in the destruction of Kirkrapine, the support of Abessa and Corceca, * 3rd S. iv. 21, 236.
allusions to the ritual of the Roman Catholics.
The eldest of three brethren; all three bred
"A Satyr's son yborn in forest wild,
By strange adventure as it did betide,
Fayre Thyamis, the daughter of Labryde: " alluding to Sir John Perrot, who was supposed to be a natural son of Henry VIII., and who, while deputy of Ireland, appears to have protected the Protestants there.
In calling Archimago the Pope, it is not intended to imply that any particular pope is alluded to, but the Popedom, which perhaps may be enlarged to the Spirit of Evil, which by the Protestants of that time was considered synonymous with the Papacy. Archimago first raises the dream to the Red Cross Knight, which leads him to lose faith in Una. This, I have suggested, may allude to the Pelagian Heresy, or, as he raises a false Una in Duessa, may allude to the mission of Augustine, which introduced the Roman Catholic doctrine to supersede the action of the monks of Bangor, who kept up a continual service to Christ. We find him endeavouring to excite a dispute between the Red Cross Knight and Sir Guyon at the commencement of the next book. He takes charge of and renews the glory in canto VIII. of the first book. He steals the sword of Duessa, who had been stripped and shamed of Prince Arthur for Pyrocles, which probably refers to the Roman Catholics of England, who endeavoured to support Mary Queen of Scots, the symbol of Papacy, and saves Pyrocles from drowning, which may allude to the non-destruction of Spain on the defeat of the Armada; but we must not commence the second book at present.
A curious lapsus pennæ, or Homeric nod, may be observed in the description of St. George. The poem professes to be in glory of Faerie land,
which is declared to be England; yet St. George is described as of the race of Saxon kings, and stolen by a Faëry :
"And her base elfin brood there forthie left."
The solution of this poetical contradiction I may leave to others, as well as the question of identity of —
"Fayre Thyamis, the daughter of Labryde." That there is some meaning or allusion in it can scarcely be denied. FRANK HOWARD.
LETTER FROM HORACE WALPOLE.
I enclose a copy of a letter from Horace Walpole, addressed to William Parsons, Esq., presenting to him a copy of the Mystertous Mother: —
"Mr. Walpole is afraid of thanking Mr. Parsons as he ought for his kind compliments lest he should seem to accept them as due, when he is conscious of deserving more blame than praise; and tho' he obeys Mr. Parsons's command in sending him his tragedy, and begs his pardon for his mistake, and the trouble it has occasioned, he is unwilling to part with a copy without protesting against his own want of judgment in selecting so disgusting a subject, the absurdity of which he believes makes many faults of which he is sensible in the execution overlooked."
Horace Walpole's criticism upon his own work, the child of his own fancy, may probably be a reproach to his judgment (if his modesty, of which assuredly he had but little), be considered as its cause. But Walpole must have known that otherwise the subject is not one unsuited for the drama. It is the object of the stage to hold the mirror up to nature,-to reflect passion, and to delineate its results. Sympathy is excited, pity awakened when crime is the result of unconscious error; and, whilst the mind recoils from the crime, the spectator feels an involuntary interest in the criminal.
Such a theme, therefore, does possess dramatic interest, and upon the poet's power alone depends the judgment to be passed. No doubt incest is an unpleasant subject; so also is murder; so is adultery, and profligate gallantry. But these themes have been adopted by the greatest poets of modern Europe, and are recognised as the life of those great works of art, which are destined to remain the delight of successive generations. Indeed, if the reader will refer to Walpole's preface to this play, he will find the subject selected defended upon similar reasons.
The disgust to which Walpole alludes arises from the criminal intention, and although this is held in abeyance by the constructive art of the author, horror and not pity is excited by the conclusion. For the rest, the play is of no great merit. Walpole, who reprehends Lee, too often recalls him. He has a tendency, to quote his Own lines
The pomp of horror, with tremendous coolness." Much of the poetry is little more than very flatulent declamation; yet it would be unjust to deny there are many lines above average merit. He could condescend to clap-trap, and has conveyed into his poetry the art he learnt in politicshow to go to the country with a cry. S. H.
I lately read a very interesting article on Scottish Ballads, in the Edinburgh Essays, 1856, 8vo. The author remarks:
"The most profitless work on this planet is the simulation of ancient ballads; to hold water in a sieve is the merest joke to it. A man may as well try to recal yesterday as to manufacture tradition or antiquity with the moss of ages on them. It has been attempted by men of the highest genius, but in no case with encouraging success. There is no modern attempt which could by any chance or possibility be mistaken for an original. You read the date upon it as legibly as upon the letter you received yesterday. However dextrous the workman, he is discovered-a word blabs, the turn of a phrase betrays him."
"Of the way in which ancient ballads have come into existence, there was one example within my own know. ledge. Some mad young wags, wishing to test the critical powers of an experienced collector, sent him a newmade ballad, which they had been enabled to secure only in a fragmentary form. To the surprise of its fabricator, it was duly printed; but what naturally raised his surprise to astonishment, and revealed to him a secret, was, that it was no longer a fragment, but a complete ballad,the collector, in the course of his industrious inquiries among the peasantry, having been so fortunate as to recover the missing fragments! It was a case where neither could say anything to the other, though Cato might
wonder-quod non rideret haruspex, haruspicem cum vidisset. This ballad has been printed in more than one collection, and admired as an instance of the inimitable simplicity of the genuine old versions!"
There was once a lady who told her husband, on her deathbed, that one of her children was not his. He asked which, and she answered: you shall never know," and quietly expired, leaving the poor man with all his children doubtful. I hope Mr. Burton will read this, and feel pricked
A. DE MORGAN.
SIR PHILIP HONYWOOD.
Philip, the fifteenth of the twenty children of Sir Robert Honywood of Pett, in Charing, in the county of Kent, by Alice, daughter of Sir Martin Barnham, was born at Charing, Dec. 26, 1616.
It is probable that he served in the wars in the Low Countries; and that he is the Captain Honywood mentioned in an order of the House of Commons of Dec. 9, 1641, authorising forty recruits to be sent abroad for supply of his com
In 1645, when he had the rank of Major, he was in command of a small garrison of the King's near Newark. It is designated, in contemporary accounts, as Wirton, Whatton, Wareton, and Worton House. We believe Wyverton, a house belonging to Lord Chaworth, is intended by these various appellations. Thither, at the close of October in the same year, came the Princes Rupert and Maurice, and other cavalier officers who had laid down their commissions and left Newark in discontent, having previously presented a memorable petition or remonstrance to the King, whereto the name of Philip Honywood is found subscribed.
He obtained from the Parliament, on Dec. 13 following, at which period he is termed Colonel, a pass to go beyond seas.
Immediately after the Restoration, he presented a petition to Charles II., praying for some mark of the royal favour. In this petition he stated, that he had served the king and his father for twenty-five years at sea, and in both the northern expeditions; and had had a company at Portsmouth, but was obliged to leave it for his loyalty.
In Nov. 1661, he had a pass, with servants and three horses, to the Prince of Orange; and in April, 1662, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the forces in the garrison at Portsmouth, under Sir Charles Berkeley, the Lieut.-Governor. He was shortly afterwards knighted, and appears to have been ultimately Governor of Portsmouth, where he built a mast dock. In 1667, he had the superintendence of the fortifications at that place.
We infer, from a somewhat obscure passage in Hasted's Kent, that he survived his elder brother
Sir Robert Honywood (who died in 1686), and had an only daughter Frances, who married George Sayer, Esq.
It should be mentioned that, contemporary with him, was a Colonel Honywood, who lost his life by an accident in January, 1662-3. It would seem, from Pepys's Diary, that he was a brother of Sir Peter Honywood and Dr. Michael Honywood, Dean of Lincoln. Lord Braybrooke states the three brothers mentioned by Pepys to have been the sons of Robert Honywood, who married the celebrated Mary Waters, or Attwaters. This is a mistake. They were his grandsons, being the sons of his son Robert Honywood, the antiquary, who died in 1627. (See Topographer and Genealogist, i. 398, 399.) Another Sir Philip Honywood, who was K.B. and Governor of Portsmouth, died in 1752. He was, we imagine, descended from Sir Thomas Honywood of Essex, one of Cromwell's Lords, who died in 1660.
We shall be glad to be informed, when the first named Sir Philip Honywood died, and whom he married. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. Cambridge.