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It is through this commission that the English party derive their rights, and those rights were strengthened, and put beyond any questionable source of objection, by the important fact, not noticed by Sutherland, that the Langues of Arragon and Castile lent their full and entire adhesion to the measure of resuscitating the dormant Langue of England,-a fact which is distinctly avouched by the instruments of Convention, given under the common seal at the hotel of the chancellery in Paris, bearing date respectively the 11th day of June, 1826, the 24th of August, and 15th of October, 1827. The steps thus taken for the restoration of the English branch were consummated on the 29th day of January, 1831, in accordance with the deliberations and instructions of the Council Ordinary of the French Langues, which, associated with those of Arragon and Castile, then formed, by a wide majority, a just representation of the TOTALITY of the Order. From the period of the dispersion at Malta to the present hour, no similar assemblage, justly claiming the power of completely representing the will of the greater portion of the members of the Order, has ever taken place; and the English Langue is Now, in consequence of the utter extinction, under the Empire, of the Langues of Provence, Auvergne, and France, and the defalcation of those of Spain and Portugal*, which have become appendages to the crowns of those kingdoms, the sole organised body representing the venerable Council Ordinary or Capitular Commission, established at Paris in 1814; and in which, as we have seen from Sutherland, the whole political, civil, and financial power of the Order was concentrated. ANTIQUARIUS.

*It was shown officially in our Prerogative Court, on the 16th December, 1841, that the Order was suppressed in Portugal in 1834; and by a decree in the Madrid Gazette of the 13th June, 1847, that it was put up for sale in Spain at that date.

LAW OF LAURISTON. (3rd S. iii. 486.)

The document you mention relating to the Laws of Lauriston is curious as a corroborative proof, but the facts it testifies to are well known to the English descendants of Jean Law, the great financier's sister; but I would remark, en passant, that the affinity of Law's mother, Jean Campbell, with the noble house of Argyle, is not so doubtful as your correspondent imagines. The exact link, in the somewhat confused pedigree of the Dukes of Argyle, is not quite manifest; but the M'Callum Mores of that day, the great Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, and his brother the Earl of Islay, who succeeded him as Duke of Argyle, both acknowledged the relationship by calling and treating John Law as their cousin. Jean Campbell's husband and John Law's father, William Law, can hardly, though a goldsmith, be termed a tradesman. He was both goldsmith and banker, and as such ranked among, and associated with, the gentry of Edinburgh. Sir Bernard Burke, in his Vicissitudes of Families (2nd Series), does full justice to John Law and his family, and he does so upon materials and pedigrees, clearly of undoubted authenticity. Indeed the document, whose discovery you record, tallies with what Sir Bernard says in the very letter. The account of John Law's descendants in the article in the Vicissitudes is in effect this:

JOHN LAW, Marquis of Essiat, and ComptrollerGeneral of the Exchequer in France, the famous financier, married Catherine, third daughter of Nicholas, titular Earl of Banbury, and by her (who died his widow in 1747) he had a son, Cornet John Law, of the Regiment of Nassau Friesland, who died unmarried at Maestricht in 1734, aged thirty; and a daughter, Mary Catherine, married to William, Viscount Wallingford, M.P. for Banbury, Major of the first troop of Horse Guards, son of Charles, fourth titular Earl of Banbury. Lord Wallingford died, vitâ patris, 1740; his widow died in London in 1790, aged about eighty. They had no issue. This ended John Law's own line, but his name and family were to continue in France with increased rank and credit. His brother William's descendant was to add a coronet, and the renown of a warrior and statesman to the pedigree of the Laws of Lauriston. William Law of Lauriston, the younger brother of the great financier, was Director-General of the Indian Company in France, and dying 1752, left, with daughters, two sons, both distinFrancis Law, Count de Tancarville, and Chevaguished men; the younger was General James lier de St. Louis, who commanded the French king's troops at Pondicherry, and died in 1767, leaving issue; and from him descend the Laws of Clapernon. The Director-General, William

Law's eldest son, was John Law, Baron of Lauriston (being so admitted in France), Governor of Pondicherry, and Mareschal de Camp, who married Jane, daughter of Don Alexander Carvalho, a Portuguese noble, and with other issue (one son William Law, a naval officer, was lost in the great navigator La Peyrouse's fatal expedition) was father of James Alexander Bernard Law, a marshal of France, and Marquis of Lauriston, one of the celebrated men of modern France. His grandson is the present Marquis of Lauriston, a nobleman of high standing and rank


(3rd S. iii. 436.)

That the practice of whipping in ladies' schools was common in the early part of this century, I can testify. At that time, whilst a boy, I was taken by the women servants, during the absence of the schoolmistress of a first-rate ladies' school, into her dressing-room; there, in terrorem, a draw was opened, wherein were about a dozen heavy birch rods, most of which had evidently been used unsparingly for purposes of punishment. The servants said that they had witnessed the infliction that morning on two pupils for talking at breakfast. In the following holidays I asked one of the young ladies if this was so, and she told me that it was almost a daily practice of her governess for every fault, however trivial, to order the culprit into her dressing-room where their cries could not be heard; the answer to their entreaties for pardon being-"Yes, Miss, after proper punishment." More than twenty years afterwards I used to meet this stern preceptress in society, as she had retired upon an independency acquired in her school; and was generally admired for her stately deportment and fund of information. She was a large powerful woman, fully capable of inflicting severe punishment, and also from her dictatorial manner,

"Jean Law, a sister of the famous financier, and second daughter of William Law of Lauriston and his wife, Jean Campbell, of the house of Argyle, was married in 1668, in Scotland, to Dr. Hay of Lethim, a scion of the great families of Nisbets of Dirleton, and the Hays, Marquesses of Tweedale. Dr. Hay's only child and heiress, Margaret, was married to the eminent physician Dr. William Carruthers of Edinburgh, whose family are the Carruthers of Dumfriesshire and Dorsetshire, and whose grandson Dr. G. E. Carruthers (now represented by his youngest daughter and coheir) obtained a share in the proceeds of the sale (for want of heirs male not aliens) of Lauris

ton Castle. There thus still survives a British connection with these Laws of Lauriston, whose fame and fortunes took such historic root abroad, and grew into that

goodly tree, which still flourishes in France, verdant and equally capable of lecturing sternly at intervals

unfading, unhurt by revolution, adversity, or change." E. Ö. R.

during its infliction.

in Paris.

With regard to the English descent in the female line from John Law, Sir Bernard Burke

further relates thus:

As a descendant collaterally of John Law of Lauriston, the great financier and comptroller of the Exchequer in France, I shall feel obliged if, in justice to his memory, you will correct two or three mistakes which occur in your recent interesting article about him. In the first place, Lauriston was not a little but a large estate; and its seat, Lauriston Castle, has continued a residence of consequence down to the present day. It was not long ago inhabited by the late lamented Earl and Countess of Eglinton, and is now the mansion of Charles H. C. Inglis, Esq. Secondly, John Law's father was not what should be called a tradesman; he was a goldsmith and banker, and, during his life, a man of rank in Edinburgh. Thirdly, the relationship of Jean Campbell, his wife, John Law's mother, with the noble House of Argyll, was no dream. The great Duke of Argyll and Greenwich always acknowledged John Law to be his cousin, and as such visited him in Paris. Indeed, the Campbells of Argyll have no reason to disclaim their relationship with the House of Law; which has honourably flourished in England, and is at this day ennobled for its merit in France. E. M. C.

The following extract from a poem entitled The Terrors of the Rod, is from a small collection of poems printed solely for private distribution, by the late Francis Newbery, Esq. in 1815. It records the practice in question still nearer to the present period; but, probably, some of your numerous correspondents may bring proofs of its existence yet closer to our own times:

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"The Muses smiled, and gave consent:-
When, whisk, at once away I went!
And, what was still more odd, and risible,
I found myself become invisible;
And slily seated on a stool,
Among a pack of girls at school!
All tongues! as fast as they could chatter!-
Sure never was there such a clatter!-
But one, much louder than the rest,
Amused them with a mighty jest

A word! she had picked up in the street!
A word! the bard will not repeat.
Now, hushed at once the little band,
Behold! the Governess, so grand,
The school-room enters! - not a word,
Where all was riot, now is heard!
Each head, by her majestic look,
Bent down on sampler, or on book!
When lo! the gloomy, lowering eye,
Prognosticates a storm is nigh:-

Too sure a presage! - Says the dame,
What girl, as down the stairs I came,
Dared utter that vile naughty word,
Which never in my school was heard?

If now this instant you wo'n't own
Who 'twas-I'll whip you every one.'

All-all-were ready then to cry-
"Twas not me, Ma'am - 'Twas Betsy Fry.
'Who-Betsy Fry? - I'm quite ashamed -
Such a great girl!-to hear her named:
But for this crime, a whipping ample
Shall be to others an example.
Indecent wretch! - You, Sally Treacher,
Go run up stairs, and tell the teacher,
To bring that rod she made, just new,
And tied up with a ribbon blue:-
Then such a punishment I'll give;
As you'll remember, while you live.
No begging, Miss, will be of use,
For such a crime there's no excuse-
No further parley!'- Here Miss Glynn
With the grand instrument came in: -
So smartly tied up with a bow,
It might be deemed a rod for show:
Yet though thus elegant the plan,
And wide expanded, like a fan; -
When well applied, each twig apart
Would tend to multiply the smart.

"You know, Miss Glynn, it is my rule, When wicked words invade my school, T' employ this instrument of pain, To whip, and drive them out again:So down with that vile hussy Fry, That I may flog her instantly.'

The ready teacher then, Miss Glynn, (A thorough friend to discipline) Proceeds the culprit straight to seize, Crying, and begging, on her knees:But vain her tears, and vain her prayer!She laid her down across a chair.

The governess now takes her stand: The birchen sceptre in her handWith lofty air, inspiring awe;

And upraised arm to inforce the lawShe shakes the whistling twigs, and then,

Whip whip-whip-whip-inflicts the pain:
Now pauses;-while Miss roars aloud
Sad warnings to the little crowd:-
Crying-Oh! dear Ma'am, pray give o'er,
I never will do so no more.'

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In vain: the rod's reiterations
Produce fresh pauses, fresh orations.
'These stripes I'm sorry to impart;
But 'tis for your own good you smart.
Who spares the rod will spoil the child!
By me the proverb sha'n't be spoiled.'
This brought the conflict to a close;
When quick the smarting culprit rose.

The governess, with awful state, And head erect, resumed her seat: Then calling up her victim, Fry, (Sobbing, and wiping either eye), Descanted, with all due reflection, On crimes provoking such correction: But still, to heighten the impression Of punishment, for this transgression, On a high stool she made her perch; And in her bosom stuck the birch;Warning the school 'gainst crimes, and errors,— By the grand triumph of its terrors."

E. D.


(3rd S. iii. 149, 238, 295, 451.)

I am much obliged to the several correspondents of "N. & Q." for the trouble which they have taken upon this subject. It is one of considerable obscurity. The communication of J. D. on the page last referred to, possesses much inforImation of interest. I am unable, however, to agree with that writer when he pronounces the arms in the housings on the official seal as being entoire of something. I have looked closely into it with a large glass, and although there is unquestionably a border, it seems to me not to be of an armorial character, but simply some trimming to the housing. I venture to think J. D. will agree with me upon a closer inspection. I do not think also that the third crest is a buck statant. It is not attired. Perhaps his engravings may clear it up.

After assigning the several coats quartered in Ralegh's private seal, J. D. says most of these names may be found in the Ralegh pedigree. I shall be much obliged if he will kindly give me a reference to the place where this pedigree may be found, or if he will state what authority it possesses. As mentioned in my notice, in p. 295, the official pedigree of this family recorded at the Heralds' College affords no authority for any quarterings. There is, however, among the Harl. MSS. (No. 1500, 71) a pedigree of considerable length, said to have been compiled by Mr. Joseph Holland. The following is the title:

"The Pedigree of the Right Honorable Sir Walter Ralegh, Knight, Lord Warden of the Stanneries, Lieutenant Generall of the Province of Cornwall, Captayne of her Maties Garde, and Gouernor of the Ile of Jernsey, is here drawn by such Auncient Euidence as doth remayne in the possession of his Lordship at this day, anno Dni 1601."

I conceive this pedigree must be taken as possessing all the authority which Sir Walter Ralegh could produce at that date. It commences with a Wymond de Ralegh, Lord of Nettlecomb and Boleham, and of lands in Wales, whose grandson, or great-grandson, Sir John Ralegh, married Joanna daughter and heiress of William Newton of Fardel, by Elleyn Fitz-Waryn, daughter (and heiress ?) of Juhell Fitz-Waryn, son of Waryn Fitz-Juhell. From this Sir John Ralegh every match, in the direct line to Sir Walter, is given; but, with the exception of Ferrers, not a single name mentioned by J. D. occurs. The match with Ferrers took place temp. Edw. III., but the lady is not described as an heiress. I forbear at present entering more into detail with this pedigree. As, however, the genealogy of a man of so great historical reputation as Sir Walter Ralegh, is worthy of investigation, I hope at some future time to return to the subject.

I am aware that the coat, az. three lozenges, arg., is borne by the family of Freeman of Northamptonshire. John Freeman of Great Billing died, 1614, leaving two daughters his heirs (Baker, vol. i. p. 20); but I am surprised to learn that it is found on a monument to one of the family of Hele of Devon. It is very singular, as the arms of Hele of Fleet, co. Devon, were arg. five lozenges in pale ermine, the very coat borne on the other seal of Sir Walter Ralegh, mentioned by J. D.; except that in the Hele coat the centre lozenge is charged with a cross and faced or. What makes the matter still more remarkable is the fact, that the Heles of Fleet possessed the manor of Helland, and the advowson of the parish church, in the window of which, the shield which formed the subject of my inquiry, p. 295, is found. This manor was parcel of the possessions of Humprey Arundel the rebel, which, being forfeited, were granted to Sir Gawen Carew, Knt., who had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion and were by him demised, under licence from the crown, to Nicholas Hele (Parl. Rolls, 1 Mary, Parl. 7 m. 29.) The family of Hele, in this line at least, became extinct between 1716 and 1734, when this and other lands passed to the any of Friese (Triese) family. Can readers your tell me how? whether by purchase or inheritance?


The variations in the arms used by Sir Walter Ralegh would lead to the inference that he was not very certain which arms he was really entitled

sary. The Alnwick edition, printed by Davidson, has only eighty-five ballads.

The autobiography is said to be an "abridgement of the memoir originally written by himself;" which means only, I suppose, that some passages have been omitted; for there can be no doubt that the whole of what is printed is verbatim his. He says:

to use.

One word with regard to the supporters. MR. WOODWARD states (p. 335), that "Sir Walter Ralegh used supporters by virtue of his office as Lord Warden of the Stanneries." I have not been able to ascertain that the office in question entitles its holder to the dignity of supporters. Assuming, however, that it does so, I presume that a person not otherwise entitled could not assume them without authority. A newly created peer is entitled to supporters, but they must be duly granted, and registered in the Heralds' College. I have ascertained that no such grant, or registration, exists in the case of Sir Walter Ralegh. JOHN MACLEAN.



(3rd S. iii. 492.)

A much more complete edition of Anderson's Cumberland Ballads than either of those referred to was printed without date, at Wigton, by William Robertson. It contains one hundred and ninety-five ballads, besides sixteen by other writers; a memoir by himself, notes, and a glos

"At six o'clock on the snowy morning of February 1st, 1770, I beheld the light of the world at the Damside, in the parish of St. Mary, in the suburbs of the ancient city of Carlisle. I was a poor little tender being, scarce worth the trouble of rearing. Old Isbel, the midwife, who had assisted at the birth of hundreds, entertained many fears that I was only sent to peep around me, and leave them to shed tears for my loss. Accordingly, Ere twelve times I'd seen the light, to the church they hurried me;' and I have not unfrequently had reason to exclaim, 'Oh! that near my fathers they that day had

buried me?' I was the youngest of nine children, born of parents getting up in years; who, with all their kindred, had been kept in bondage by poverty, hard labour, and crosses. . . . . At an early age, I was placed in a Charity School; supported at that time by the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, for the education of children only. Blessed be the Founders and Supporters of such Seminaries. . . . Still do I remember the neat dress, slow speech, placid countenance, nay, every feature of good old Mrs. Addison the teacher; unlike her namesake, the immortal author of Cato-who published lessons of wisdom to the world that will last for ages-she only taught lessons in reading and plain sewing: yet, as Shenstone observes, 'Right well she knew each temper to descry,' and guided those committed to her charge with great tact and judgement."


Afterwards he says he was "turned over to a long, lean, needy pretender to knowledge. figure was similar to that of the mad knight of La Mancha: never have I perused that inexhaustible treasury of humour without having my tutor in view." And lastly, he was placed in a "Quaker's school, under Mr. Isaac Ritson, a very learned and ingenious man." About the expiration of his tenth year, it was found necessary that he should quit the school, "in order to try and earn a little by hard labour," which was with his brother, a calico-printer; and "well do I remember," he says, "the happiness it afforded me to present my wages (one shilling and sixpence) to my beloved father." Afterwards he was bound apprentice to a pattern drawer, and before the expiration of his apprenticeship obtained an engagement in London.

"Unfortunately, I had engaged myself to a wretch of the most unprincipled character. I was compelled to arrest him for wages, and the distress occasioned me by his villany was of no inconsiderable amount. For some months I was confined to a wretched garret; and, but for the kindness of a sister, I must have perished of want and misery. Fortunately, I afterwards got employment under a master as remarkable for his goodness as my

former one had been remarkable for his wickedness. By him I was used more like a companion than a servant. It was during my sojourn in London, that my first attempt at poetical composition was made. This was the

song called 'Lucy Grey;' which, with four others, I wrote one day after being at Vauxhall Gardens with a friend. These, and some others, were afterwards set to music, and sung by Mr. Phelps at Vauxhall in 1794.. My poor father, whom I had regularly supported, now paid me an unexpected visit. He was in his seventysixth year; and walked from Carlisle to London, a distance of 301 miles in six days. Tears of joy greeted our meeting; but such was his aversion to the noise and tumult of London, that I could only prevail on him to remain with me seven days; at the end of which time he returned to Carlisle."

The son followed, and afterwards spent many years in Ireland, at Brookfield, near Belfast: "There," he says, "I must plead guilty to many irregularities of conduct, which often ended in misery." He ultimately returned to Carlisle; and a public dinner was given in honour of his return, "at which a numerous and respectable party attended."

To this memoir the editor adds:

"He was very far from comfortable in his circumstances in the latter years of his life, having fallen into the vice of intemperance, which robs men of their purses as well as their senses-and made him 'poor indeed.' True, it may be urged in palliation of his dissipation, that he was a great favourite amongst his fellow citizens, and his company was much courted at the convivial board. At any rate it is well known that, for some years before his death, he became sadly changed. His mind became goured and distempered, and his person presented a hapless picture of indigence and misery. The fear that he would end his days in the workhouse haunted his imagination to an extent almost to induce the belief that he was a monomaniac in this respect. The writer of these few remarks has frequently heard him express his dread that such would be his fate. However, such a misfortune was spared him. A few of his best friends entered into a subscription to provide for him,"--and so on, nearly in the words quoted in “N. & Q.,” 3rd S. iii. 492.

But though Anderson's life was far from correct, and the rural manners and customs which he so vividly depicted were anything but refined, there is little in his ballads that can be morally objected to; and much to be admired, both in the poetry and the sentiment. Hence, I cannot but think that a new edition of them, better printed than the homely Alnwick and Wigton editions the only ones that I have seen-with notes more numerous and less common-place (and especially a better glossary, which in both those editions is very imperfect), would be well received. The Cumbrian is one of the best marked varieties of the Northumbrian dialect; which, Mr. Garnett says (Quarterly Review, lv. 357) "is undoubtedly the most important and the most pleasing of our provincial forms of speech, especially as spoken in the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire." And though he thinks the Cumberland pronunciation "less pure" than that of some other varieties of the dialect, natives of the county are probably of a different opinion.

The following may be given as a specimen of Anderson's compositions. It is less poetical than

many others, but it is also less dialectic, and contains little or no local allusions; it will, therefore, be better understood by southern readers.


"Tho' weel I leyke ye, Jwohny lad,
I cannot, munnet, marry yet!
My peer auld mudder's unco bad,

Sae we a wheyle mun tarry yet;
For ease or comfort she has neane-
Leyfe's just a lang, lang neet o' pain;
I munnet leave her aw her leane,
And wunnet, wunnet marry yet!'

"O Jenny! dunnet brek this heart,

And say, we munnet marry yet; Thou cannot act a jillet's part

Why sud we tarry, tarry yet?
Think, lass, of aw the pains I feel;
I've leyk'd thee lang, nin kens how weel!
For thee, I'd feace the varra de'il -

O say not, we mun tarry yet!'
"A weddet leyfe's oft dearly bowt;
I cannot, munnet marry yet;
Ye ha'e but little-I ha'e nowt,

Sae we a wheyle mun tarry yet!
My heart's yer awn, ye needna fear,
But let us wait anudder year,

And luive, and toil, and screape up gear-
We munnet, munnet marry yet!

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THE COUNCIL OF TEN (3rd S. iii. 510.)—The periodical to which your correspondent ZETA alludes, must I think have been one published by the late Rev. James Shergold Boone, A.M., once a student of Christ Church; he was very much distinguished in his early day, having won both the University prizes for Latin and English verse in 1817, that for Latin prose in 1820, Craven Scholar, and nominated a select preacher before the University at the time of his death, which took place about the year 1859. He then held, I think, a curacy at Paddington. Of his assistants in the work I can give no account.


IRISH AT CRESSY (3rd S. iii. 407.) — The statement of six thousand Irish having fought at the battle of Cressy is to be found in p. 424 of Rapin's History of England, fol. edit. 1732. The scorching of the bull, at the siege of Boulogne, is in Holinshed.

Could any of your correspondents inform me what the Irish force at Agincourt in 1415 was, and by whom they were led?

M. P.

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