In point of fact, however, there is as little affinity between the grape and the "seasidegrape," as between the strawberry and the "strawberry-tree." S.



"A few weeks ago, while several boys were amusing themselves in the vicinity of the town, two bats were observed hovering near the ground, and in their daring flights coming so near the boys as to suggest the possibility of their capture. Accordingly handfuls of sand were thrown up to bring the creatures down, which, in the case of one of them, proved effective. The boy who claimed the prize brought it home, and providing it with a cage, carefully attended to its wants. In less than a week the animal gave birth to a young one, which was for two days suckled by its parent. The dam (to speak of it as a quadruped) became domesticated, and readily partook of the food placed in the cage. Before it reached the age of .three days the young bat died, and the parent only survived another day to mourn its loss."-Elgin Courant.

forming moulds round a circular object in separate pieces, into which liquid plaster is afterwards run to make casts ?

The well-known passage in the 44th section of the 35th book of Pliny, beginning "Hominis autem," &c., only proves that Lysistratus invented a process by which likenesses in plaster, taken from nature, were covered with wax and finished in that material; and that he taught the Athenians how to copy (not cast) statues in the same way. This being the correct meaning of the passage, and there being no indication that the ancients understood the modern art of casting in plaster. When was it discovered? Certainly not till after the days of Michael Angelo and Cellini ; who made small models in wax, and larger ones in clay, from which they worked upon the marble. Else, why are there no casts of their time in existence? And why did Cellini risk the original model of his Perseus in the process of bronze casting, and suffer such terrible anxiety as was induced by knowing that if destroyed he would be obliged to recreate it?

I have asked these questions of many artists, and men well versed in artistic matters, both in Italy, France, and England, without getting any satisfactory answer; and now have recourse to your columns in hope of a solution.

C. C. P.

The above is cut from a newspaper. Some cruelty may be prevented if any reader of "N. & Q." conversant with the habits of bats, will say whether they will live in confinement; and if so, how they should be treated. Believing that they feed on insects taken on the wing, I have never tried to keep one, and have procured their liberation wherever my influence has been sufficient. I have heard that they eat milk, cheese, and eggs, but "The Geographical Society of Paris will be no worse have watched without seeing them do so. They off than their brethren of the Institute, who, but a very have generally died within a week after their cap-work which the philosophers of Europe have ever since refew years since, bestowed their highest honours upon a ture. I know an instance of one living about two months, but the weather was cold, and it seemed to sleep. FITZHOPKINS.

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garded as apocryphal; and Charles X. will be much in the same situation as our Most Gracious Sovereign, who, by a barefaced fraud, was led to confer the honour of knighthood upon a pair of the most impudent and consummate quacks.'

These remarks are taken from a review of M.

René Caillie's Journal d'un Voyage à Temboctoo et à Senné, dans l'Afrique Centrale... par M. Jomard, Paris, 1830. The review appeared in the Foreign Quarterly, vol. vi. art. iv., for June

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where I write this Query! I take this oppor-Αλλα ὁ γαϊδαρὸς, καὶ ἄλλα ὁ γαιδουρολάτης,
tunity of thanking the Editor of "N. & Q." for
his kindness in answering two recent inquiries of

HEROD THE GREAT.-As I am engaged on a life of Herod the Great, I shall be much obliged if any of your readers will direct me to, 1st, good reviews of him and his life and times; 2nd, any medal, or coin, giving a personal representation of him, if any such there be.

I shall also be thankful for any information as to the sources from whence he derived such enormous revenues as must have been required in the erection of his numerous, vast, and magnificent towns, forts, palaces, the temple, theatres, &c.; and how these could be paid for, and yet leave him, at his death, possessor of a very large sum in ready money; all this too, without impoverishing his subjects. Are there any coins having the likeness of Cleopatra in tolerable preservation?

Alstonfield, Ashbourne.


MERCHANT'S MARK.-In one of the lights of the east window of the chapel of St. Mary's Hospital, Ilford, there is inserted an oblong piece of stained glass, containing a merchant's mark; with the initials "I. G.," flanked by four grasshoppers, and surmounted by a head of Queen Elizabeth. I wish to trace how this cognizance could have been introduced into the above church. I believe that one of the Gresham family formerly resided in Becontree Hundred, not far from Barking; and I should be glad to ascertain some particulars respecting him.

J. R.

OSCOTIAN LITERARY GAZETTE. There was published in 1828, vol. i. 2nd ed. of The Oscotian Literary Gazette, edited by students of St. Mary's College, Oscott; published by R. P. Stone, Birmingham, 1828. It contains contributions by the students, tales, essays, dramatic pieces, &c. Can any of your readers who may have a copy give me the titles of the "Dramatic Sketches" in the Gazette, and the name or initials of the authors? ZETA. THE TERMINATION "OT."-What is the meaning of the termination of in some names, both of things and men; such as Cheviot, Teviot, Elliot? Is it British or Celtic? H. B.

POLITICAL CARICATURES.-When did they come into fashion or practice? They were much in vogue in George II.'s time. See Lord Mahon's History, iii. 279. Are not the grotesque figures we see on church pews, and outside of churches, caricatures? Can you Mr. Editor, or any of your readers, throw any light on the subject? F. M.

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donkey means one thing, and the donkey-driver
another." I have searched without success for
an analogous proverb in Latin or other languages,
but the other day I came across its counterpart
in the Fabliau "De la Borgoise D'Orliens (Meon,
iii. 164),—

"Diex, com il savoit or petit,
De ce qu'ele pens et perpensse;
Li asniers une chose pense,

Et li asnes pensse tout el."

This proverb is altogether different from that which exists in so many languages to the effect that "You cannot make a horse drink against his will," as the former gives the control of the animal to the man, whilst the latter makes the will of the animal


The pith of the Greek proverb is contained in the French, "L'homme propose, mais Dieu dispose." Query, whether the old French couplet has not been derived, by tradition, through one of the Phocian colonies in the south, direct from Greece, without passing through the usual Latin medium? JOHN ELIOT HODGKIN. CARDANUS Rider and his BRITISH MERLIN.

I am desirous to see some memoir of this worthy, who annually "compiled for his country's benefit" (and for a period, I believe, of two centuries it has been continued,) a most useful Almanack, in which all the feasts, festivals, and holidays were distinguished as red-letter days; and monthly directions for gardening, and homely advice touching the health of his readers, were also given. COMPUTATOR.

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RIGHT HONOURABLE. Are any persons entitled to this prefix besides Peers of the Realm and Privy Councillors? The son of a Duke, or of a Marquis, is by courtesy a Lord: as Lord Alfred Paget, Lord Arthur Hervey, &c. Is he Right Honourable, or simply the Lord So-and-So? I notice in printed lists of patrons, and in letters, considerable variety in the usage. What is right? F. H. M.

SOMERSETSHIRE CHURCHES.-Warton, in his Observations on the Fairy Queen of Spenser, 1762, p. 229, says:

"Most of the churches in Somersetshire, which are remarkably elegant, are in the style of the florid Gothic. The reason is this: Somersetshire, in the Civil Wars between York and Lancaster, was strongly and entirely attached to the Lancastrian party. In reward for this service, Henry VII., when he came to the crown, rebuilt their churches."

My query is, What authority is there for this assertion? Can it be proved by any public records? H. T. ELLACOMBE.

OLD STAFFORD BALLAD.-I have gone the Oxford Circuit many years, and have seldom been at Stafford without hearing a song, which generally runs thus:

"As I wer a gooin oop Whorley Boonk,
Oop Whorley Boonk, oop Whorley Boonk,
Coomin down:

The cart stud still and the wheel went round,
Coomin down,

A gooin oop Whorley Boonk." "Coomin down" is shouted more loudly than the rest. I have inquired as to the meaning, but the only answers have been: "We always sing it," and "They sung it afore I was born." Is it so old that the words have survived the meaning, or had it ever any? I heard it again last night. AN INNER TEMPLAR.

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"An Austrian army, awfully arrayed,
Boldly by battery besieged Belgrade;
Cossack commanders cannonading come,
Dealing destruction's devastating doom.
Every endeavour engineers essay

For fame, for fortune,-fighting, furious fray: -
Generals 'gainst generals grapple-gracious God!
How honours Heaven heroic hardihood!
Infuriate, indiscriminate in ill,

Kinsmen kill kinsmen,-kinsmen kindred kill!
Labour low levels loftiest, longest lines;

Men march 'mid mounds, 'mid moles, 'mid murderous

Now noisy, noxious numbers notice nought
Of outward obstacles opposing ought:
Poor patriots, partly purchased, partly pressed,
Quite quaking, quickly quarter, quarter quest.
Reason returns, religious right redounds,
Suwariow stops such sanguinary sounds:
Truce to thee, Turkey-triumph to thy train!
Unjust, unwise, unmerciful Ukraine!
Vanish vain victory! vanish victory vain!
Why wish we warfare? Wherefore welcome we
Xerxes, Ximenes, Xanthus, Xaviere?

Yield, ye youths! ye yeomen, yield your yell!
Zeno's, Zarpatus', Zoroaster's zeal,

And all attracting-arms against appeal."]

GONDOLA. The following is extracted from All the Year Round of July 11, 1863, p. 480, and may probably elicit a reply in " N. & Q."

"In summer, the black awning forms the most delightful of sun-shades. But why is it black? Tell me, Venetian antiquaries. Tell me, chatty correspondents of Notes and Queries. I was always given to understand

that black absorbed heat, and that white was the only wear for hot climates."


[Jal, in his Glossaire Nautique, informs us that black became, except in a few cases, the uniform habit of the gondola by a law of the Venetian senate; and that this law was passed towards the termination of the Middle Ages, in consequence of the extreme luxury and splendour with which in those days the gondola was often adorned: :-"Les gondoles furent à Venise, à la fin du Moyen Age, des objets d'un luxe si extravagant, que le sénat fut contraint de rendre un loi qui, en fixant un type pour la gondole, défendit que personne, le doge et les ambassadeurs étrangers exceptés, se fît construire une barque plus riche, plus élégante, mieux décorée à l'extérieur que celle dont le modèle était donné. C'est de cette époque que date l'uniformité des gondoles peintes en noir."-P. 789; see also p. 791.]

Cook's CASTLE, NEAR SHANKLIN, ISLE OF WIGHT.-In the neighbourhood of this ruin I have been unable to ascertain anything regarding its history. It is on a hill on Shanklin Downs, commanding a view of almost the whole island. What remains of ruins is simply two or three pieces of wall covered with ivy, apparently towers, between which a modern tower has been built in the distance, the only erection visible amongst the trees. J. S. A.


[The artificial imitation of a ruin, called Cook's Castle, was erected by the late Sir Richard Worsley, which, as he himself states in his History of the Isle of Wight, p. 219, serves as a point of view from his seat, Appuldurcombe." Standing on the summit of a fine rocky cliff, it commands a most splendid prospect of the island and the opposite coast.]


"Gaspar de Navarre says that, in Germany, many witches were marked by the demons on the inside of their skins, and that the marks were invisible till brought out by due exorcisms: all so marked could bear tortures, some being rendered cold and insensible to pain, others were protected by the interposition of the demons, who stretched the cords of the rack, and made the hinges creak, though the witches remained unhurt."—An Enquiry into the present State of Demonology, by G. M. London, 1714.

The author refers for the above to Delrio and Spengle. I know Delrio, but who were Gaspar de Navarre and Spengle? S. S.

[Gaspar or Caspar Navarro, wrote a work entitled Contra Superstitiones. "Gaspar Navarro inscribitur auctor libri: Contra Superstitiones, Oscæ, anno 1631, editi."— Anton. Bib. Hisp. Nova. This appears to be all that is known of him. Osca, Huesca in Arragon. We are not acquainted with any writer bearing the name of Spengle. There was a Spengel, and there were also two or three Spenglers.]

TANJIBS.-Cambric muslin manufactured for certain foreign markets (African, I believe) goes in the trade by the name of Tanjibs. What is the origin of the word?

P. P.

[The origin of the word seems to be eastern. Chambers, in his Cyclopædia, 1788, says, "There are various kinds of muslins brought from the East Indies, chiefly

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To bellow through the vast and boundless deep." 3. "Aurea prima sata est ætas, quæ vindice nullo, Sponte sua sine lege fidem rectumque colebat.' Whence the lines? REGIMENTAL.

[1. Young's Night Thoughts, Night I. line 212. Alluding to three deaths in his own family occurring within a short time of each other.

2. Milton's Paradise Lost, book i. lines 176, 177. 3. Ovid, Metam. i. 89, 90.]

SIR ROWLAND Heyward, Lord Mayor of London, circa 1490, was buried in the church of St. Alphage, London Wall. What was his coat of arms? J. R. [Sir Rowland Heyward was Lord Mayor in 1570, and died Dec. 5, 1593. His arms are thus described in Wright's edition of Heylyn's Help to English History, p. 528: "Six coats, 1. G. a lion rampant guardant, ar. crowned, or. 2. Ar. two pallets ingrailed, sable. 3. Ar. on a saltier ingrailed, G. five fleur-de-lis, or. 4. G. a lion rampant guardant, and in chief two mullets, or. 5. Per fess indented, or and arg. an eagle displayed, sable. 6. As first."]

BISHOP FOWLER.-Have new editions been published within the last few years of any of Bishop Fowler's Works? MELETES.

[Two of Bishop Fowler's works have been reprinted in the recent edition of Gibson's Preservative, 1848-9. In vol. iii. "Bellarmine Examined: 4th Note, Amplitude, or multitude, and variety of Believers." In vol. vi. "The texts examined which Papists cite for the obscurity of Scripture."]



(1 S. iv. 339; v. 227; vi. 103, 183; vii. 237, 269, 364, 459; 2nd S. iii. 410, 473; vii. 131.) Being struck by the account (1st S. vi. 183) that Lambert, who would have been supposed to be painting flowers at Guernsey, was in 1678 solving equations at Plymouth, I inquired of my old friend MR. P. S. CAREY, now High Bailiff of Guernsey, what evidence could be found as to the removal and its cause. In due time I received the following extracts, which I think well worth transmitting to "N. & Q." They might no doubt be shortened; but there is something of a picture in the whole. The very great importance attached to the safe-keeping of the prisoner, the necessity of reporting to the Secretary of State the exclamation of an angry girl, the direction to shoot the prisoner on the appearance of an enemy before

the island, &c. are straws of history worth noting. I suppose it will be clear that the removal of Lambert to Plymouth was the consequence of his daughter's marriage with the son of the Governor of Guernsey. A. DE MORGAN. Extracts from Papers relating to Col. Lambert. 1. State Paper Office, Various, Warrant Book, No. 576 D. fol. 26.

The like Warrants for John Lambert, commonly called Coll. John Lambert, to bee carried by Capt. Hugh Hide in the Ship called ye Adventure, close prissoner to Guernsey-ye same date.

Oct. 21, 1666. [Evidently a mistake, probably for 1660.1

2. Mus. Brit. Add. MS. 10,116, fol. 266b. Rugge's Diary.

Nov. 1661 They (i. e. the Parliament) also or dered that the King's Majesty be desired to send for John Lambert, Esq. and Sir Henry Vane, Coll. Collet, and Sir Hardress Waller backe again to the Tower of London that they may atend the House when they are called for, for these persons was sent some two months before, some into Gurnsey and som into Jernsey, &c.

3. S. P. O. Domestic, Various, 576 D, fol. 164. Licence to Mrs. Lambert with her 3 Children and 3 maid servants to goe and remain with her Husband. To Sir Hugh Pollard or other the present Governor of Guernsey or his Deputy, 17 Feb. 1661/2.

[The King's Hand.]

4. Idem, fol. 238.

Letter to the Duke of York to send two ships for Vane and Lambert, first of Aprill, 1662.

Warrant to the Governor of Guernsey to deliver Lambert to such person or persons as the Duke of York shall appoint. 1 Aprill, 1662.

[N.B. This was in order that he might be brought to trial. The trial took place in June, 1662.]

5. Warrant.

CHARLES R. Our Will and Pleasure is that you take into your custody the person of John Lambert, commonly called Collonel Lambert, and keepe him a close Prisoner, as a condemned Traytor, until further order from us. For which this shall be your warrant. Given at our Court at Hampton Court this 25th day of July, 1662. By His Majesty's Command, EDWARD NICHOLAS.

To our Trusty, &c. ye Lord Hatton, Governor of our Island of Guernsey and to the Lieutenant Governor thereof, or his Deputy.

Lambert to Guernsey.

6. CHARLES R. Our will and pleasure is that from sight hereof you give such Liberty and indulgence to Collonel John Lambert your prisoner within ye precincts of that our Island, as will consist with the security of his person, and as in your discretion you shall think fitt, and that this favour be continued to him till you receive our order to the Contrary, &c.

Given at our Court at Whitehall, November 18, 1662. By His Majesty's Command, (Signed) HENRY BENNET.

To our right Trusty, &c. the Lord Hatton, our Governor, &c.

Liberty of the Island to Mr Lambert

7. S. P. O. Letter from Mr Robert Walters to Sir H. Bennett, Sec. of State.

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Guernsey, April 3, 63. SIR,-Since my arrival in Guernsey, I have not found a quicker opportunity of acquaintinge you therewith, yet I have been here about 15 days.. The prisoner in the Castle is very melancholy, trobled at many things he hears saith some scandalous toungs have traduced him to his Matie as guilty of some new thoughts of sedition, which he utterly disavows, giving very great protestations of his innocence, and says he can never be so wicked to act nor think the least thing that might be prejudicial to such a prince who soe mercifully had bestowed life upon him, who so little deserved it; he lays the fault of his close confinement upon the Lá Hatton, and seems to wonder much at his severitie. My Lord has given him the libertie of the Castle, having the Porter of the place for his Guard, a person so odious (I know not upon what occasion) to the prisoner, as he refuseth all stirrings abroad rather than to have his Kep for a Companion, nor doe his Children stirr abroad, though they have libertie granted to come into the Island. I would sometimes invite them to me if I had encouragement soe to doe. I pitee their restreainte-but I will not without licence first had

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8. S. P. O. (Extract.) Letter from Mr Robt Walters to Sir Henry Bennett.

Guernsey, April 18, 1663. SIR, I have not been wanting to performe your commards in writinge to you, but the wind hath been so contrary as noe vessel has stirred out of this port allmost thes 3 weeks The prisoner yett continues his retirement in his chamber nor will accept of the little liberty proferred him to walk aboute the Castle with a Kep given him by the Lord Hatton. The other day I was invited to the Castle to heare an accusation brought in against a kinswoman of his who lives with him. The accuser was the same Kep, who avered she told the Centinel in his hearinge she served as good a Master as he (the Centinell)-about some angry discourse betwixt them, she having throwne some water wher he would not have had her. She told him he was a saucie common soldier to teach her what she had to doe. The Centinell replied his Maties' service was not so common,-whereupon she replied, she served as good a Master, to her own content. She is a young Girl, and we judged she spoke she knew not what herselfe. I write this to assure you nothing of the least concernment shall passe of which you shall not have a particular account

For the Rt Hon ble


Sir Henry Bennett, Principal Sec. of State, &c. 9. Letter from Mr Lambert to Mr Williamson. March ye 8th. SIR,-I was last night very late with Mr Secretary whoe hath promised mee that within tow or three days I shall have an order for more liberty for my husband, as allsoe a Letter to the Governor of Garnsey consarning myselfe and famile. I am sensible that Sir Henry Bennett hath multitude of business which may make him forgett mine. Therfor my request to you is to mind him of itt, and to intreat him to add to his obligations (which I most ever acknowledge are alreed great) that the order and Letter may be drawne as much to our advantage as he can:-For the letter which concerns mee and my famile, I humbly desire him that itt may be that wee may have liberty to take a house in the Island, and to goe and come to my husband freely. And for the order that con

sarns him that he may have the liberty of the Castle, and what other liberty my Lord Hatton shall thinke fitt within the precincts of that Island: which contains noe more than what was formerly granted at my request. Sir Henry Bennett hath promised to give these papers into your hand. I was very desirous to have spoken with you, but nott finding you within is the occasion that I give you this trouble, which I beseech you to excuse. From, &c. FRANCIES LAMBERT.

If these favours be granted, I assure you they shall not be abused by mee nor mine.

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[In dorso.] 8th March 1663/4, Mr Lambert, [Addressed] for Williamson, Esq.

10. S. P. O. Extract from a Letter from Lord Hatton to

Mr. Williamson.

Cornett Castle, 7 May, 1664. SIR, I receaved your letter which gave me a kind explication of Mr Secretaries letter in the case of the pri soner here CHR. HATTON.

To my much valued Freand Mr Williamson at Mr Secretary Bennetts lodging in White hall.

11. S. P. O. 1666. Advis à M. le Lieutenant de l'Isle de Guernesey [Extract.]

MONSIEUR,-Je suis informé de certain par un Gentilhomme de grande qualité affectionné au party, que le Roi de France a dessein sur les Isles de Guerncyé et Jersé D'ailleurs il est certain que Mons" de Matignon et le Gouverneur du Havre ont la main en cette affaire

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12. S. P. O. The King to the Governor of Guernsey,
1666. [Draught.]

Trusty and well beloved, wee greet you well. Wee have seen your despatch from our Castle Cornett in that our Island of Guernsey of the 14 June, giving account of the seizure and examination of Jean François de Briselance, Sr de Vaucourt, native of Normandy in France, Commander in the Island of Chouzey upon the Coast of Normandy under the Sr de Matignon, and of severall other particulers relateing to a designe treacherously and perfidously carried on by the said de Vaucourt for effecting the escape of John Lambert, prisoner in that our island, for debauching our good subjects there from their duty and allegiance to us, and for the raising and fomenting a rebellion in this our Kingdome:-Which having taken into our serious consideration, and well weighing the dangerous consequences of such practises, especially in this conjuncture, wee have thought fit hereby to signify our royall will and pleasure to you that forthwith upon receipt hereof you give order that the said Vaucourt, as also the Master of the Ship seized with him, be immediately without further forme of processe hanged as spyes, and that you cause the said John Lambert to be henceforth kept close prisoner soe as you remaine answerable for his detention at your utmost perill. And if at any time hereafter an enemy shall chance to appeare before that our island with an appearance of invading it, our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby sufficiently authorize and require you immediately to cause the said Lambert to be shot to death, he being already a condemned person by the Law, for having contrary to his allegiance and the eminent obligations he hath to our Royall clemency, held correspondence with our enemies without discovering the same to you our Governor there. Whereof you may in no wise fayle-and for so doing, &c. Given at our Court at White hall ye day of July in the 18th year of our raigne.

By his Majesty's Command.


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