« VorigeDoorgaan »
pressed by General Bertrand, of course under only of the malice and vindictiveness which acBonaparte's direction. Again, Sir Hudson tuated him, but also of his ingenious mendacity. never sat in the presence of Napoleon Bona- Napoleon is said to have remarked-in referparte without being requested to do so. His ence to libels against himself, which he was conversations with Bonaparte were all in Ital- urged, while at St. Helena, to answer—“Where ian ; and in addressing him he invariably used are now the libels against Cæsar ? sooner or the third person singular, Lei, which is a polite later all calumny must die.” Sir Hudson Lowe mode of expression, and may be employed in likewise insisted that truth would eventually that language to persons of any rank.
prevail. But he did not consider the force with Sir Hudson Lowe had altogether but four in- which calumnies are propelled by party and poterviews with Bonaparte, and on two of those oc- litical spirit, nor how powerful is prejudice when casions Napoleon's language and manner were once deeply rooted. The caluinnies against not only very violent, but also personally insult- him will assuredly die; but the present generaing to Šir Hudson ; who, however, regarded his tion must first pass away. violence as the roarings of an encaged tiger, and Had Sir Hudson laid a full statement of his calmly suffered his fury to exhale without retort. conduct before the world, he would thereby have Rear-Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm was present changed the tone of historians in reference to it. during the last, and I heard him say that Bona-Writers of general history, as well as Bonaparte wholly forgot the respect which he owed to parte's biographers, necessarily dwell more or himself
, as well as what was due towards a Brit- less upon St. Helena occurrences ; and historiish officer and a gentleman; while the Governor's ans—like all animals—if they cannot obtain conduct was perfect throughout.* Now this I good wholesome food, are compelled to put up heard Sir Pulteney Malcolm mention at his with the best they are able to procure. Possiown hospitable board ; and I think on the same bly Sir Hudson Lowe did not foresee precisely day that the occurrence took place. I was the what would be the full effect of his treasuring only military man present, but many naval offi- up truth for posterity ; but I suspect that each cers must still be alive who can corroborate my successive historian rather unpleasantly restatement.
minded him of what I always considered to be I have not a doubt that Sir Hudson Lowe's his great mistake, and that others of his friends papers will be found to contain nearly verbatim, think as I do, I have reason to know. his conversations with Bonaparte ; and very cu- In justice to Bonaparte, I must here mention, rious ones we shall find them to have been that on his death-bed he felt compunction for the And here I cannot help expressing my deep re- wrongs which his line of policy had done Sir gret that he did not publish a full account of his Hudson Lowe; and it was his dying command Governorship, immediately on his return from to Count Bertrand, who had been the principal the island. I am well aware that he felt very medium, through his public letters, and the supgreat delicacy about publishing certain official port he gave to Mr. O'Meara’s insidious pracdocuments without the sanction of Government, tices, of carrying forward his master's unworthy as he entertained peculiarly strict notions in re- plans, that he should omit no means to become gard to the conduct of a public servant; still, as reconciled to the Governor. Count Bertrand his character had been assailed by systematic accordingly made overtures to him with this calumnies, put forth under the most artiul forms; view, which were met by the generosity and and, as the subject of Napoleon's treatment in good feeling which at all times characterized Sir captivity was of universal interest, I think that, Hudson Lowe. not only in justice to his own reputation, but I must not attempt to draw this paper to a also for the credit of our country, he ought to greater length ; having given a kind of general have spoken out. I am, however, very far from testimony in favor of a revered friend's memory, considering that the libels themselves were wor- I shall refrain from seeking to vindicate it by enthy of a direct reply from himself. Sir Hudson tering more into particulars. Besides, as I have Lowe's conduct, throughout the whole of his on various occasions been admitted to a partial government, had received the most unqualified knowledge of Sir Hudson Lowe's correspondapproval both of his Sovereign and the British ence, and likewise gleaned, in conversation, Ministry; and for a man of his station and char-what were his sentiments and feelings upon acter to descend into the arena of controversy, many points relating to his St. Helena Governand combat such antagonists as were his assail- ment, I think it would be improper in me to anants, would have been,--and Sir Hudson felt it ticipate the labors of his future biographer. 80,-improper and undignified. The Quarterly Review, however, espoused the cause of Sir Hudson Lowe,-and of truth: and, in a very able article which appeared in October, 1822, completely destroyed the credit of the principal
VOLCANOES ; Sandwich Islands - On the 10th libeller, by furnishing documentary proof, not of January last a great volcanic eruption took place
* I am not sure of the fact, but think it was after near the summit of a mountain called Manna Loa, this scene, that Napoleon expressed his disappoint at an elevation of 14,000 feet above the sea, and has ment at his affected passion having failed to provoke since poured out floods of burning lava in terrific the ire of the Governor. " Could I but have made abundance. A similar phenomenon occurred in that man bang the door after him," was his observa- another part of the isiand, near the missionary station. His object, of course
was to make Sir Hud- tion Hillo, in 1840. The Chimneys of this quarter son commit himself in the presence of Sir Pulteney of the Earth seem to be established in and about Malcolm.
the Sandwich group. Lit. Gaz,
ANDREW MARVELL. his studies with diligence. About this period
he lost his father under circumstances pecuFrom the Edinburgh Review.
liary affecting The Life of Andrew Marvell, the celebrated these little domestic tragedies-not. infre
The death of this good man forms one of Patriot; with Extracts and Selections from his Prose and Poetical Works., By self can scarcely add one touching incident, quent in real life-to which imagination it
, John Dove. 12mo. London : 1832.
and which are as affecting as any that fiction ANDREW Marvell was a native of King- can furnish. It appears that on the other side ston-upon-Hull, where he was born Nov. 15, of the Humber lived a lady (an intimate friend 1620. His father, of the same name, was of Marvell's father) who had an only and lovemaster of the grammar school, and lecturer ly daughter, endeared to all who knew her, and of Trinity Church in that town. He is de- so much the idol of her mother that she could scribed by Fuller and Echard as ' facetious,' scarcely bear her to be out of her sight. On 80 that his son's wit, it would appear, was he- one occasion, however, she yielded to the imreditary. He is also said to have displayed portunity of Mr. Marvell, and suffered her considerable eloquence in the pulpit; and daughter to cross the water to Hull, to be even to have excelled in that kind of oratory present at the baptism of one of his children. which would seem at first sight least allied to The day after the ceremony, the young lady a mirthful temperament—we mean the pa- was to return. The weather was tempestuthetic. The conjunction, however, of wit and ous, and on reaching the river's side, accomsensibility, has been found in a far greater panied by Mr. Marvell, the boatmen endeavnumber of instances than would at first sight ored to dissuade her from crossing. But, be imagined, as we might easily prove by ex- afraid of alarming her mother by prolonging amples, if this were the place for it: nor her absence, she persisted. Mr. Marvel would it be difficult to give the rationale of added his importunities to the arguments of the fact. Both, at all events, are amongst the the boatmen, but in vain. Finding her inmost general, though far from universal ac- flexible, he told her that as she had incurred companiments of genius.—The diligence of this peril to oblige him, he felt himself' bound Mr. Marvel's pulpit preparations has been in honor and conscience' not to desert her ; celebrated by Fuller in his ' Worthies’ with and, having prevailed on some boatmen to characteristic quaintness. He was a most hazard the passage, they embarked together. excellent preacher,' says he, 'who never | As they were putting off, he flung his goldbroached what he had new brewed, but preach- headed cane on shore, and told the spectators ed what he had pre-studied some competent that, in case he should never return, it was time before, insomuch that he was wont to say, to be given his son, with the injunction 'to that he would cross the common proverb, remember his father.' The boat was upset, which called Saturday the working day and and both were lost. Monday the holyday of preachers. The les- As soon as the mother had a little recoversons of the pulpit he enforced by the persuased the shock, she sent for the young orphan, sire eloquence of a devoted life. During the intimated her intention to provide for his edupestilential epidemic of 1637, we are told that cation, and at her death left him all she poshe distinguished himself by an intrepid dis- sessed. charge of his pastoral functions.
One of his biographers informs us that Having given early indications of superior young Marvell took his degree of B. A. in talents, young Andrew was sent, when not the year 1638, and was admitted to a scholarquite fifteen years of age, to Trinity College, ship.* If so, he did not retain it very long. Cambridge, where he was partly or wholly Though in no further danger from the Jesuits, maintained by an exhibition from his native he seems to have been beset by more formidatown. He had not been long there, when, ble enemies in his own bosom. Either from like Chillingworth, he was ensnared by the too early becoming his own master, or from proselyting arts of the Jesuits, who, with sub- being betrayed into follies to which his lively tilty equal to their zeal, commissioned their temperament and social qualities readily exemissaries specially to aim at the conversion posed him, he became negligent in his studies; of such of the university youths as gave indi- and having absented himself from certain cations of signal ability. "It appears that he 'exercises, and otherwise been guilty of sunwas inveigled from college to London. Hav- dry unacademic irregularities, he, with four ing been tracked thither by his father, he was others, was adjudged by the masters and discovered after some months in a bookseller's shop, and restored to the university, Cooke, in the life prefixed to Marvell's poems. During the two succeeding years he pursued | 1726.
seniors unworthy of receiving any further this period was spent, and a considerable benefit from the college,' unless they showed though indeterminate portion at the close of just cause to the contrary within three months. it
. The record referred to is a recommendaThe required vindication does not appear to tory letter of Milton to Bradshaw, dated Feb. have been found, or at all events was never 21, 1652. It appears that Marvell was then offered. The record of this transaction bears an unsuccessful candidate for the office of date September 24, 1641.
assistant Latin Secretary. In this letter, after Soon after this, probably at the commence- describing Marvell as a man of singular dement of 1642, Marvell seems to have set out sert,' both from 'report' and personal 'conon his travels, in the course of which he verse,' he proceeds to say— He hath spent visited a great part of Europe. At Romne he four years abroad, in Holland, France, Italy, stayed a considerable time, where Milton was and Spain, to very good purpose, as I believe, then residing, and where, in all probability, and the gaining of those four languages; betheir lifelong friendship commenced. With sides, he is a scholar, and well read in the Latin an intrepidity, characteristic of both, it is and Greek authors, and no doubt of an apsaid they openly argued against the supersti- proved conversation ; for he comes now lately tions of Rome within the precincts of the Va- out of the house of the Lord Fairfar, where tican. It was here, also, that Marvell made he was entrusted to give some instructions in the first essay of his satirical powers in a lam- the languages to the lady, his daughter.' poon on Richard Flecknoe. It is now re- Milton concludes the letter with a sentence membered only as having suggested the terri- which fully discloses the very high estimation ble satire of Dryden on the laureate Shad- he had formed of Marvell's abilities—This, well. At Paris he made another attempt at my lord, I write sincerely, without any other satire in Latin, of about the same order of end than to perform my duty to the public in merit. The subject of it was an Abbé named helping them to an humble servant; laying Lancelot Joseph de Maniban, who professed aside those jealousies and that emulation to interpret the characters and prognosticate which mine own condition might suggest to the fortunes of strangers by an inspection of me by bringing in such a coadjutor.' their handwriting.
In the following year, 1653, Marvell was After this we have no trace whatever of appointed tutor to Cromwell's nephew, Mr. Marvell for some years; and his biographers Dutton. Shortly after receiving his charge, have, as usual, endeavored to supply the de- he addressed a letter to the Protector, from ficiency by conjecture-some of them so idly, which we extract one or two sentences charthat they have made him secretary to an em- acteristic of his caution, good sense, and bassy which had then no existence.
conscientiousness. I have taken care,' says Mr. Dove* says, that this lack of informa- he, 'to examine him [his pupil] several times tion respecting Marvell extends over eleven in the presence of Mr. Oxenbridge, as those years—not quite, however, even on liis own who weigh and tell over money before some showing; for the very next record he supplies, witness ere they take charge of it; for I tells us at least how the first four years of thought there might be possibly some light
ness in the coin, or error in the telling, which * We gladly admit that Mr. Dove's little volume hereafter I should be bound to make good.' is a tolerably full and accurate compilation of what is known to us of Andrew Marvell's bistory, and
• He is of a gentle and waren contains some pleasant extracts from his writings. disposition; and God be praised, I cannot But we must express our regret that lie has been, in say he hath brought with him any evil ima trifling degree, misled, by adhering too literally to pression, and I shall hope to set nothing into the etymology of the word compilation. It is true his spirit but what may be of a good sculpthat compilation comes from compilatio, and equally true that compilatio means pillage ;' but it ture. He hath in him two things that make does not follow that compilation ’ is to be literally youth most easy to be managed-modesty, . pillage.' A considerable number of his sentences, which is the bridle to vice-and emulation, sometimes whole paragraphs, are transferred from which is the spur to virtue. . Above Mr. D’Israeli's Miscellanies, and from two articles on Andrew Marvell which appeared in the Retro- all, I shall labor to make him sensible of his spective Review some twenty years ago, without al. duty to God; for then we begin to serve teration and without any sort of acknowledgment faithfully when we consider He is our masHad they been printed between inverted commas, ter.' and the sources specified, we should have called it compilation' but no pillage '-as it is, we must
On the publication of Milton's second call it pillage, and not compilation. Mr. Dove may, ' Defence,' Marvell was commissioned to it is true, have been the author of the articles in present it to the Protector. After doing so, question. If so, there was no conceivable reason he addressed a letter of compliment to Milwhy he should not have owned them, and we can only regret that he has omitted to do it. If not
, ton, the terms of which evince the strong we cannot justify the usé he has made of them.
admiration with which his illustrious friend * Marvell's Letters, p. 302.
had inspired him. His eulogy of the 'De- | not too late.'* In one letter we find him fence' is as emphatic as that of the Paradise saying—'I am something bound up, that I Lost, in the well known recommendatory cannot write about your public affairs; but lines prefixed to most editions of that poem. I assure you they break
In 1657, Marcell entered upon his duties Of his minute attention to all their local as assistant Latin Secretary with Milton. interests, and his watchful care over them, Cromwell died in the following year; and these letters afford ample proof; and in this from this period till the Parliament of 1660, respect are well worthy of the study of honorwe have no further account of him. We have able members of the present day. He ususeen it stated that he became member for ally commences each session of Parliament Hull in 1658. But this is not true, and would by requesting his constituents to consider, be at variance with the statement in his epi- whether there were any local affairs in which taph, where it is said that he had occupied they might more particularly require his aid, that post nearly twenty years. Had he been and to give him timely notice of them. His first elected in 1658, he would have been prudence is equally conspicuous in his abstimember somewhat more than that period. nence from any dangerous comments on pub
During his long parliamentary career, lic affairs; he usually contents himself with Marvell maintained a close correspondence detailing bare facts. This caution was abwith his constituents-regularly sending to solutely necessary at a period when the offithem, almost every post night during the cials of the Post-office made no scruple of sittings of Parliament, an account of its pro- breaking the seal of private correspondence, ceedings. These letters were first made pub- for the purpose of obtaining information for lic by Captain Thompson, and occupy about the Government. On one occasion this seems four hundred pages of the first volume of his to have been done in his own case, as he edition of Marvell's works. They are writ- tells his constituents that a letter of his had ten with great plainness, and with a business- been shown about town. They vehemently like brevity, which must have satisfied, we disclaimed all knowledge of any breach of should think, even the most laconic of his trust, in a very complimentary reply. In merchant constituents. They are chiefly acknowledging this letter, he says~ I am valuable now, as affording proofs of the very well satisfied, gentlemen, by your letter, ability and fidelity with which their author that it was none of you; but it seems, theredischarged his public duties; and as throw-fore, that there is some sentinel set both upon ing light on some curious points of parlia- you and upon me, and to know it therefore is mentary usage and history. Some few sen- a sufficient caution: the best of it is, that tences, interesting on these accounts, may be none of us, I believe, either do say or write worth extracting. Of his diligence, the co-any thing, but what we care not though it piousness and punctuality of the correspond- be made public, although we do not desire ence itself are themselves the best proofs; it.'! He, notwithstanding, repeatedly caubut many of the letters incidentally disclose tions them not to let his letters be seen by others not less significant. The following any but themselves. In this respect, there evidence of it, few members now-a-days is a striking yet perfectly natural contrast would be disposed to give, and no constitu- between the cautious statements of facts in ency, we should imagine, would be unrea- his public correspondence, and the lively sonable enough to expect :-'Sir, I must comments upon them in his private letters; beg your excuse for paper, pens, writing, and in which bis indignant patriotism expresses every thing; for really I have by ill chance itself with characteristic severity against the neither eat nor drank from yesterday at noon corruptions of the court. Thus in a letter till six o'clock to-night, that the House rose.'* to a friend in Persia, we find the following And again— Really the business of the memorable passage--Now, after my usual House hath been of late so earnest daily, and method, leaving to others what relates to 80 long, that I have not had the time and business, I address myself, which is all that scarce vigor left me, by night, to write to I am good for, to be your gazetteer. The you; and to-day, because I would not omit King having, upon pretence of the great preany longer, I lose my dinner to make sure of parations of his neighbors, demanded three this letter.'t On another occasion he says hundred thousand pounds for his navy, -"'Tis nine at night, and we are but just (though, in conclusion, he hath not set out now risen ; and I write these few words in any,) and that the Parliament should pay
his the Post-house, for sureness that my letter be debts, (which the ministers would never par
* Marvell's Letters, p. 106.
# Ibid. p. 262.
ut Ibid. p. 83.
ticularize to the House of Commons,) our Marvell's stainless probity and honor every House gave several bills. You see how far where appear, and in no case more amiably things were stretched, though beyond reason, than in the unhappy misunderstanding with there being no satisfaction how those debts his colleague, or ‘his partner' as he calls were contracted, and all men foreseeing that him, Colonel Gilby, in 1661, and which what was given would not be applied to dis- seems to have arisen out of some electioneercharge the debts, which I hear are at this ing proceedings. With such unrivalled talday risen to four millions; but diverted as ents for ridicule as Marvell possessed, one formerly. Nevertheless, such was the num-might not unnaturally have expected that this ber of the constant courtiers increased by dispute would have furnished an irresistible the apostate patriots, who were bought off temptation to some ebullition of witty malice. for that turn-some at six, others ten, one But his magnanimity was far superior to at fifteen thousand pounds in money, besides such mean retaliation. He is eager to do his what offices, lands, and reversions to others, opponent the amplest justice, and to put the that it is a mercy they gave not away the fairest construction on his conduct. He is whole land and liberty of England.'* fearful only lest their private quarrel should
In the same letter he thus speaks of the be of the slightest detriment to the public shamelessness with which the Parliament service. He says—' The bonds of civility emulated the profligacy of the court-prosti- betwixt Colonel Gilby and myself being untuting its own and the nation's honor as happily snapped in pieces, and in such manvilely as the royal mistresses it enriched had ner that I cannot see how it is possible ever prostituted theirs :-They have signed and to knit them again: the only trouble that I sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to have is, lest by our mis-intelligence your the Duchess of Cleveland, who has likewise business should receive any disadvantage. near ten thousand pounds a-year out of the ... Truly, I believe, that as to your new farm of the country excise of beer and public trust and the discharge thereof, we do ale, five thousand pounds a-year out of the each of us still retain the same principles Post-office, and they say, the reversion of all upon which we first undertook it; and that, the King's leases, the reversion of all places though perhaps we may sometimes differ in in the Custom-house, the green wax, and in- our advice concerning the way of proceeding, deed what not? All promotions, spiritual yet we have the same good ends in the genand temporal, pass under her cognizance.'+ eral ; and by this unlucky falling out, we On the King's unwelcome visits to the House shall be provoked to a greater emulation of of Peers, he says— Being sat, he told them serving you.'* Yet the offence, whatever it it was a privilege he claimed from his ances- was, must have been a grave one, for he says tors to be present at their deliberations. That at the conclusion of the same letter—'I would therefore they should not, for his coming, not tell you any tales, because there are nainterrupt their debates, but proceed, and be kednesses which it becomes us to cover, if it covered. They did so. It is true that this be possible; as I shall, unless I be obliged has been done long ago; but it is now so to make some vindications by any false reold that it is new, and so disused that at any port or misinterpretations. In the mean time, other but so bewitched a time as this, it would pity, I beseech you, my weakness; for theré have been looked upon as an high usurpation are some things which men ought not, others and breach of privilege. He indeed sat still, that they cannot patiently suffer.'t for the most part, and interposed very little, Of his integrity even in little things of sometimes a word or two.
After his desire to keep his conscience pure and three or four days continuance, the lords were his reputation untarnished—we have some very well used to the King's presence, and striking proofs. On one occasion he had been sent the Lord Steward and Lord Chamberlain employed by his constituents to wait on the to him (to know) when they might wait, as Duke of Monmouth, then governor of Hull, a House on him, to render their humble with a complimentary letter, and to present thanks for the honor he did them! The him with a purse containing 'six broad pieces' hour was appointed them, and they thanked as an honorary fee. He says—' He had before him, and he took it well. So this matter, of I came in, as I was told, considered what to such importance on all great occasions, seems do with the gold; and but that I by all means riveted to them and us, for the future, and to prevented the offer, I had been in danger of all posterity.
The King has being reimbursed with it.' In the same ever since continued his session among them, letter he says—'I received the bill which and says it is better than going to a play. 'I * Marvell's Letters, p. 405.
* Marvell's Letters, p. 33, 34.
# Ibid. # Ibid. p. 417-419.