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was sent early to the university; and there which he manufactured his plays. 'Bayes studied hard, and in a short time became a com- -Why, sir, my first rule is the rule of transpetent rhetorician, and no ill disputant. He had version, or regula duplex,-changing verse fearned how to erect a thesis, and to defend it into prose, or prose into verse, alternative, as pro and con with a serviceable distinction. And so, thinking himself now ripe and qualified you please, Smith-Well, but how is this for the greatest undertakings and highest for- done by rule, sir ?Bayes-Why thus, sir; tune, he therefore exchanged the narrowness of' nothing so easy when understood. I take a the university for the town; but coming out of book in my hand, either at home or elsewhere, the confinement of the square cap and the quad-' for that's all one: if there be any wit in't, as rangle into the open air, the world began to turn there is no book but has some, I transverse round with him, which he imagined, though it it; that is, if it be prose put it into verse, were his own giddiness, to be nothing less than · (but that takes up some time,) and if it be the quadrature of the circle. concurring so happily to increase the good opin- 'verse put it into prose.' 'Johnson-Methinks, ion which he naturally had of himself, he thence- Mr. Bayes, that putting verse into prose forward applied to gain a like reputation with should be called transprosing.' 'Bayesothers. He followed the town life, haunted the By my troth, sir, 'tis a very good notion and best companies; and to polish himself from any • hereafter it shall be so.' pedantic roughness, he read and saw the plays

The success of the Rehearsal was instant with much care, and more proficiency than most of the auditory. But all this while he forgot and signal. “After Parker had for some years not the main chance; but hearing of a vacancy entertained the nation with several virulent with a nobleman, he clapped in, and easily ob- ' books,' says Burnet, ‘he was attacked by tained to be his chaplain: from that day you the liveliest droll of the age, who wrote in a may take the date of his preferments and his burlesque strain, but with so peculiar and ruin; for having soon wrought himself dexter- entertaining a conduct, that, from the king ously into his patron’s favor, by short graces and sermons, and a mimical way of drolling upon

* down to the tradesman, his books were read the Puritans, which he knew would take both at l' with great pleasure; that not only humbled chapel and at table, he gained a great authority Parker, but the whole party; for the author likewise among all the domestics. They all lis' of the Rehearsal Transprosed had all the tened to him as an oracle; and they allowed 'men of wit, (or, as the French phrase it, all him, hy common consent, to have not only all the laughers,) on his side.' the divinity, but more wit, too, than all the

In fact, Marvell exhibited his adversary in rest of the family put together. .... Nothing now must serve him, but he must be a mad- so ridiculous a light that even his own party

The man in print, and write a book of Ecclesiastical could not keep their countenances. Polity. There he distributes all the territories unhappy churchman resembled Gulliver at of conscience into the Prince's province, and the court of Brobdignag, when the mischievmakes the Hierarchy to be but Bishops of the ous page stuck him into the marrow-bone. air ; and talks at such an extravagant rate in He cut such a ridiculous figure, that, says the things of higher concernment, that the reader author, even the King and his courtiers could will avow that in the whole discourse he had not one lucid interval.**

not help laughing at him.

The first part of the Rchearsal elicited The work here mentioned, bis Ecclesias- several answers. They were written for the tical Polity, was published in the year 1670. most part in very unsuccessful imitation of But the book which called forth Marvell, was Marvell's style of banter, and are now wholly a Preface to a posthumous work of Archbishop forgotten. Marvell gives an amusing account Bramhall's, which appeared in 1672. In this of the efforts which were made to obtain efpiece Parker had displayed his usual zeal fective replies, and of the hopes of preferment against the Nonconformists with more than which may be supposed to have inspired their usual acrimony, and pushed to the uttermost authors. Parker himself for some time deextravagance his favorite maxims of ecclesias- clined any reply. At last came out his Retical tyranny. Like his previous works on proof to the Rehearsal Transprosed, in which similar matters, it was anonymous, though the he urged the Government to crush the pestiauthor was pretty well known. Marvels dubs ' lent wit, the servant of Cromwell, and the him ‘Mr. Bayes,' under which name the Duke friend of Milton.' To this work Marvell reof Buckingham had ridiculed Dryden in the plied in the second part of the Rehearsal. He well-known play of the Rehearsal ; from the was further spirited to it by an anonymous title of which Marvell designated his book, letter, pleasant and laconic enough, left for The Rehearsal Transprosed.

The latter him at a friend's house, signed 'T. G.,' and word was suggested by the scene in which concluding with the words—If thou darest Mr. Bayes gives an account of the manner in to print any lie or libel against Dr. Parker,

by the eternal God, I will cut thy throat ! * Rehearsal Transprosed-Vol. I. pp. 62-69. He who wrote it, whoever he was, was igno

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rant of Marvell's nature, if he thought there to his great friend, John Milton. Parker, by to intimidate him into silence. His in- with his customary malignity, had insinuated trepid spirit was but further provoked by this that the poet, who was then living in cauinsolent threat, which he took care to publish tious retirement, might have been the author in the title-page of his Reply. To this pub- of the Rehearsal—apparently with the view lication Parker attempted no rejoinder. An- of turning the indignation of Government thony Wood himself tells us, that Parker upon the illustrious recluse. Marvell had judged it more prudent to lay down the always entertained towards Milton a feeling cudgels, than to enter the lists again with an of reverence akin to idolatry, and this stroke untowardly combatant, so hugely well versed of deliberate malice was more than he could and experienced in the then but newly re- bear. He generously hastened to throw his fined art, though much in mode and fashion shield over his aged and prostrate patron. ever since, of sporting and jeering buffoonery. About three years after the publication of It was generally thought, however, by many the second part of the Rehearsal, Marvell's of those who were otherwise favorers of chivalrouslove of justice impelled him again to Parker's cause, that the victory lay on Mar- draw the sword. In 1675, Dr. Croft, Bishop vell's side, and it wrought this good effect on of Hereford, had published a work entitled Parker, that for ever after it took down his · The Naked Truth, or the true state of the great spirit. And Burnet tells us, that he Primitive Church, by a humble Moderator.' withdrew from the town, and ceased writing This work deserved the character of that for some years. Of this greatest work of sermon which Corporal Trim shook out of Marvell's singular genius it is difficult, even the volume of Stevinus. 'If you have no obif we had space for it, to present the reader jections,' said Mr. Shandy to Dr. Slop, with any considerable extracts. The allu- 'Trim shall read it.' 'Not in the least,' resions are often so obscure—the wit of one plied Dr. Slop,' for it does not appear on page is so dependent on that of another— which side of the question it is wrote; it may the humor and pleasantry are so continuous be a composition of a divine of our church --and the character of the work, from its as well as of yours, so that we run equal very nature, is so excursive, that its merits risks.' 'Tis wrote upon neither side,' quoth can be fully appreciated only on a regular Trim, 'for it is only upon conscience, an’ perusal. We regret to say, also, that there please your honors.' Even so was it with are other reasons which render any very the good Bishop's little piece. It was writlengthened citations undesirable. The work ten on neither side. It enjoined on all rehas faults which would, in innumerable ligious parties the unwelcome duties of forcases, disguise its real merit from modern bearance and charity; but as it especially readers, or rather deter them from giving it exposed the danger and folly of enforcing a a reading altogether. It is characterized by minute uniformity, it could not be suffered to much of the coarseness which was so preva-pass unchallenged in that age of high church lent in that age, and from which Marvell was intolerance. It was petulantly attacked by Dr. by no means free; though, as we shall en- Francis Turner, Master of St. John's Coldeavor hereafter to show, his spirit was far lege, Cambridge, in a pamphlet entitled, from partaking of the malevolence of ordi- Animadversions on the Naked Truth.' This nary satirists. Some few instances of felici- provoked our satirist, who replied in a pamtous repartee, or ludicrous imagery, which phlet entitled, Mr. Smirke, or the Divine we have noted in a reperusal of the work, in Mode.' He here fits his antagonist with will be found further on.

a character out of Etherege's • Man of Yet the reader must not infer that the Mode'-as he had before fitted Par) er only, or even the chief, merit of the Rehear- with one from Buckingham's · Rehearsal.' sal Transprosed consists in wit and banter. The merits and defects of this pamphlet Not only is there, amidst all its ludicrous are of much the same order as those of levities, a vehemence of solemn reproof, his former work—it is perhaps less disand an eloquence of invective, that awes one figured by coarseness and vehemence. Of with the spirit of the modern Junius ;'* but Dr. Croft's pamphlet, he beautifully expresses there are many passages of very powerful a feeling, of which we imagine few of us can reasoning in advocacy of truths then but ill have been unconscious when perusing any understood, and of rights which had been work which strongly appeals to our reason shamefully violated.

and conscience, and in which, as we proPerhaps the most interesting passages of ceed, we seem to recognize what we have the work are those in which Marvell refers often thought, but never uttered. 'It is a

book of that kind, that no Christian can pe* D'Israeli.

ruse it without wishing himself to have been

the author, and almost imagining that he is so: sciousness of its political degradation. One the conceptions therein being of so eternal jeu d'esprit-a parody on the speeches of an idea, that every man finds it to be but a Charles II.—in which the flippancy and easy copy of the original in his own mind.' impudence of those singular specimens of

To this little brochure was attached, ' A royal eloquence are happily mimicked and Short Historical Essay concerning general scarcely caricatured, is very characteristic of Councils, Creeds, and Impositions in matters his caustic humor. A few sentences may of Religion. It is characterized by the same not displease the reader. strong sense and untiring vivacity as his other writings, and evinces a creditable acquaint- • I told you at our last meeting, the winter was ance with ecclesiastical history; but it is nei-| the fittest time for business, and iruly I thought ther copious nor profound enough for the so, till my lord-treasurer assured me the spring

was the best season for salads and subsidies. subject.

Some of you, perhaps, will think it danIn 1677, Marvell published his last contro

gerous to make me too rich; but I do not fear versial piece, elicited like the rest by bis dis- it, for I promise you faithfully, whatever you give interested love of fair play. It was a defence me, I will always want; and, although in other of the celebrated divine, John Howe, whose things my word may be thought a slender auconciliatory tract on the ‘Divine Prescience'thority, yet in that, you may rely on me, I will had been rudely assailed by three several an

never break it. I can bear my straits with tagonists. This little volume, which is patience; but my lord-treasurer does protest to

me, that the revenue, as it now stands, will not throughout in Marvell's vein, is now extreme- serve him and me too. One of us must pinch for ly scarce, is not included in any edition of it, if you do not help me. ... What shall we do his works, and was evidently unknown to any for ships then? I hint this only to you, it being of his biographers.

your business, not mine. I know by experience His last work of any extent was entitled, I can live without ships. I lived ten years * An Account of the growth of Popery and abroad without, and never had my health better in Arbitrary Government in England. It first my life; but how you will be without, I will leave

to yourselves to judge, and therefore hint this only appeared in 1678. It is written with much by-the-bye. 'I don't insist upon it. There is anvigor-boldly vindicates the great principles other thing I must press more earnestly, and that of the constitutiɔn-and discusses the limits is this: it seems a good part of my revenue will of the royal prerogative. The gloomy antici- expire in two or three years, except you will be pations expressed by the author were but too pleased to continue it. I have to say for it well justified by the public events which tran- done, unless you resolve to give on as fast as I

pray, why do you give me so much as you have spired subsequently to his death. But the call for it? The nation hates you already for fatal consequences of the principles and poli- giving so much, and I will hate you too if you do cy he denounced, were happily averted by the not give me more. So that, if you do not stick Revolution of 1688.

to me you will not have a friend in England. . A reward was offered by the Government. Therefore look to it, and take notice, that if for the discovery of the author of this ‘libel,' you do not make me rich enough to undo you, it as it was pleasantly designated. Marvell shall lie at your door. For my part I wash my

hands on it ... I have converted my natural seems to have taken the matter very coolly,

sons from Popery. ... 'Twould do one's heart and thus humorously alludes to the subject in good to hear how prettily George can read ala private letter to Mr. Ramsden, dated June ready in the Psalter. They are all fine children, 10, 1678—* There came out about Christmas Good bless 'em, and so like me in their underlast, here, a large book concerning the growth standings! But, as I was saying, I have, to of Popery and arbitrary government. There please you, given a pension to your favorite, my have been great rewards offered in private, I wanted it, as that you would take it kindły. ... I

Lord Lauderdale, not so much that I thought he and considerable in the Gazette, to any one know not, for my part, what factious men would who could inform of the author or printer, have; but this I am sure of, my predecessors but not yet discovered. Three or four print- never did any thing like this, to gain the gooded books since have described, as near as it will of their subjects. So much for your religion, was proper to go, (the man being a member and now for your property. ... I'must now acof Parliament,) Mr. Marvell to have been the quaint you, that by my lord-treasurer's advice, I

have made a considerable retrenchment upon author ; but, if he had, surely he should not have escaped being questioned in Parliament, intend to stop; but will, with your help, look into

my expenses in candles and charcoal, and do not or some other place.'

The late embezzlements of my dripping-pans and Marvell also published, during the latter kitchen-stuff, of which by the way, upon my conyears of his life, several other political pamph- science, neither my lord-treasurer nor my Lord lets, which, though now forgotten, were doubt- Lauderdale are guilty.'* less not without their influence in unmasking corruption and rousing the nation to a con- * Marvell's Works.-Vol. 1. p.428, 429.

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Marvell's intrepid patriotism and bold writ- gests ludicrous images and analogies is asings had now made him so odious to the cor- tonishing; he often absolutely startles us by rupt court, and especially to the bigoted heir the remoteness and oddity of the sources from presumptive James, that he was compelled which they are supplied, and by the unexpectfrequently to conceal himself for fear of as- ed ingenuity and felicity of his repartees. sassination. He makes an affecting allusion His forte, however, appears to be a grave to this in one of his private letters. - Magis ironical banter, which he often pursues at such occidere,' says he, metuo quam occidi ; non a length that there seems no limit to his ferquod vitam tanti æstimem, sed ne imparatus tility of invention. In his endless accumumoriar.'t

lation of ludicrous images and allusions, the He died August 16, 1678, the very year untiring exhaustive ridicule with which he that his obnoxious work on the growth of will play upon the same topics, he is unique ; Popery and Arbitrary Government appeared; yet this peculiarity not seldom leads him to and as he was in vigorous health just before, drain the generous wine even to the dregsstrong suspicions were entertained that he to spoil a series of felicitous railleries by some had been poisoned.

far-fetched conceit or unpardonable extravaIn person, according to the description of gance. Aubrey, who knew him well, Marvelló was of But though Marvell was so great a master a middling stature, pretty strong set, round- of wit, and especially of that caustic species ish-faced, cherry-cheeked, hazel-eyed, brown- which is appropriate to satirists, we will venhaired. In his conversation he was modest, ture to say that he was singularly free from and of very few words. He was wont to say, many of the faults which distinguish that irhe would not drink high or freely with any ritable brotherhood. Unsparing and mercione with whom he could not trust his life.' less as his ridicule is, contemptuous and ludiCaptain Thompson gives a somewhat differ- crous as are the lights in which he exhibits ent account of his complexion and the color his opponent; nay, further, though his invecof his eyes; but, as is too often the case, he tives are not only often terribly severe, but does not mention his authority. It seems in compliance with the spirit of the age) ofprobable that he has been giving us a de- ten grossly coarse and personal, it is still imscription from the impression conveyed by his possible to detect a single particle of maligportraits, of which there are two, without al- nity. His general tone is that of broad lowing for the effects of time; so that we laughing banter, or of the most cutting invechave but the picture of a picture.

tive; but he appears equally devoid of malerOf the editions of Marvell's collected works, olence in both. In the one, he seems amusthat of 1726, in two volumes duodecimo, con- ing himself with opponents too contemptible tains only his poems and some of his private to move his anger; in the other to lay on letters. That of Captain Thompson, in three with the stern imperturbable gravity of one volumes quarto, was published in 1776. Yet who is performing the unpleasant but neceseven this, as already said, omits one treatise. sary functions of a public executioner. This The Captain's diligence is indeed worthy of freedom from the usual faults of satirists may commendation, and his enthusiasm may be be traced to several causes ; partly to the pardoned. But he was far from being a cor- bonhommie which, with all his talents for sarect or judicious editor ; and is often betray- tire, was a peculiar characteristic of the man, ed by his indiscriminate admiration into ex- and which rendered him as little disposed to cessive and preposterous eulogy. The only take offence, and as placable when it was ofseparate biography is, we believe, the little fered, as any man of his time; partly to the volume mentioned at the head of this article. integrity of his nature, which, while it

prompted him to champion any cause in The characteristic attribute of Marvell's which justice had been outraged or innogenius was unquestionably wit, in all the va- cence wronged, effectually preserved him from rieties of which-brief sententious sarcasm, the wanton exercise of his wit for the gratififierce invective, light raillery, grave irony, cation of malevolence; partly, perhaps prinand broad laughing humor-he seems to have cipally, to the fact, that both the above qualibeen by nature almost equally fitted to excel. ties restricted him to encounters in which he To say that he has equally excelled in all had personally no concern. If he carried a would be untrue, though striking examples of keen sword, it was a most peaceable and geneach might easily be selected from his writ- tlemanly weapon; it never left the scabbard ings. The activity with which his mind sug- except on the highest provocation, and even

then, only on behalf of others. His magnaniCooke's Life of Marvell, prefixed to his Poems, mtiy, self-control, and good temper, restrained

him from avenging any insult offered to him

p. 14.

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self;—his chivalrous love of justice instantly as little disguise the malice of their nature, roused all the lion within him on behalf of as Marvell, with all his coarseness, can make the injured and oppressed. It is perhaps us doubt his benevolence. Through the veil well for Marvell's fame that his quarrels were of their language (of beautiful texture, but not personal : had they been so, it is hardly too transparent) we see chagrin poorly simprobable that such powers of sarcasm and ulating mirth; anger struggling to appear irony should have been so little associated contempt, and failing; scorn writhing itself with bitterness of temper.

into an aspect of ironical courtesy, but with This freedom from malignity is highly grim distortion in the attempt; and sarcasms honorable to him. In too many cases it urged by the impulses which, under different must be confessed that wit has been sadly circumstances, and in another country, would dissociated from amiability and generosity. have prompted to the use of the stiletto. It is true, indeed, that there is no necessary It is impossible, indeed, not to regret the connexion between that quality of mind and coarseness, often amounting to buffoonery, of the malevolent passions, as numberless illus- Marvell's wit; though, from the consideratrious examples sufficiently prove. But where tion just urged, we regard it with the more wit is conjoined with malevolence, the latter forbearance. Other palliations have been more effectually displays itself; and even adverted to, derived from the character of his where there is originally no such conjunc- adversaries, the haste with which he wrote, and tion, wit is almost always combined with that the spirit of the age. The last is the strongconstitutional irritability of genius which it so est

. The tomahawk and the scalping-knife readily gratifies, and which, by gratisying, it were not yet discreditable weapons, or thrown transforms into something worse. Half the aside as tit only for savage warfare; and it is tendencies of our nature pass into habits only even probable, that many of the things which from the facilities which encourage their de- we should regard as gross insults would then velopment. We will venture to say, that there pass as pardonable jests. It is difficult for is not a tithe of the quarrels in the world that us, of course, to imagine that callousness there used to be when all men were accus- which scarcely regards any thing as an insult tomed to wear arms; and we may rest as- but what is enforced by the argumentum sured, that many a waspish temper has be-baculinum. Between the feelings of our come so, principally from being in possession forefathers and our own, there seems to have of the weapon of satire. Not seldom, too, it been as great a difference as between those must with sorrow be admitted, the most ex- of the farmer and the clergyman, so ludiquisite sense of the ridiculous has been crously described by Cowper, in his ‘Yearly strangely combined with a morbid, gloomy, Distress :'-saturnine temperament, which looks on all things with a jaundiced imagination, and sur

“0, why are farmers made so coarse,

Or clergy made so fine ? veys human infirmities and foibles with feel

A kick that scarce would move a horse, ings not more remote from those of compas- May kill a sound divine." sionate benevolence than of good-humored mirth. Happy when, as in the case of Cow- The haste with which Marvell wrote must per, the influence of a benign heart and un- also be pleaded as an excuse for the inequalfeigned humility, prevents this tendency from ties of his works. It was not the age in degenerating into universal malevolence. which authors elaborated and polished with There are few things more shockingly in- care, or subunitted with a good grace to the congruous than the ghastly union of wit and lima labor ; and if it had been, Marvell almisanthropy. Wit should be ever of open lowed himself no leisure for the task. The brow, joyous, and frank-hearted. Even the second part of the 'Rehearsal,' for example, severest satire may be delicious reading, was published in the same year in which when penned with the bonhommie of Horace, Parker's 'Reproof' appeared.---We must or of Addison, or the equanimity of Plato, profess our belief, that no small portion of or of Pascal. Without pretending that Mar- his writings stand in great need of this apolvell had aught of the elegance or the delicacy ogy. Exhibiting, as they do, amazing vigor of any of those inmortal writers, we firmly and fertility, the wit is by no means always believe he had as much kindly feeling as any of the first order. of them. Unhappily the two by no means go We must not quit the subject of his wit, together; there may be the utmost refine- without presenting the reader with some few ment without a particle of good-nature; and of his pleasantries; premising that they form a great deal of good nature without any refine- but a very small part of those which we had ment. It were easy to name writers, who marked in the erusal of his works; and with the most exquisite grace of diction can that, whatever their merit, it were easy to

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