This mass was executed on the 12th of Janu-, THERE IS ONE MAGIC CIRCLE; OR, THE ary, 1912, at the royal chapel of the Tuileries;

and at the close of the performance, five thousand
francs, or two hundred guineas, were placed in
the hands of the defeated enemy.

From the Metropolitan.
But this did not suffice. At that period the
Concerts Spirituels were in their glory; and it In yon pile of renown, dear to ages of glory,

Whose walls are enrich'd with the trophies of was the custom to celebrate the festival of Easter with sacred music at the Palace of the Where the windows are blazon'd with legend and

old, Elysée, in a style rivalling the former renowned

story, perfection of the Abbaye de Longchamps. Zin

And cornice and roof are all fretted with gold ; garelli was accordingly commissioned to com- There is one magic circle, where care may not enpose new music for five verses of the Stabal

ter, Mater; and when Good Friday arrived, an or- Where state for a season may throw off its load; chestra, in which, amongst others, figured Cres-The hearth, the bright hearth, is the shrine and the centini, Nourrit, Laës, and Madame Brancher, made its appearance at the Elysée in presence

Of union and bliss in that gorgeous abode. of their Imperial Majesties, to do honor to the new chef-d'æuvere.

In yon cottage of peace, where the smoke is as The effect was miraculous, and rapturous was

cending, the applause of that discerning and most brilliant

The setting sun lingers, and throws his last look ; court. The verse beginning “Vidit Suum dul- There the thrush and the blackbird their wild notes cem natum,” had been assigned to Crescentini,

are blending,

There murmurs the breeze, and there ripples the who, in honor of so august an assembly, chose to

brook. accompany himself on the organ; and so exqui-The rose, in the glory which Nature has lent her, site was his performance, so admirable the ac

Vies there with the brightest, and blossoms as cord between the harmonious tones of the instru

sweet; ment and voice of the sublime musician, that and the hearth, the dear hearth, is the shrine and every breath was suspended while he sang.

the centre A signal given by the emperor that the verse Of union and bliss in that lowly retreat. should be repeated, was hailed with general thankfulness.

Oh! the palace shines brighter, 'mid splendor and Another liberal gratuity was now fowarded to pleasure, Zingarelli, accompanied by an intimation that When these purest of joys are its highest rewhenever he felt disposed to resume his duties at Rome, his passport and travelling expenses

And the cottage is blest, when it boasts for its

treasure were at his disposal ! Now we appeal to the unbiassed opinion of Yes, there's one magic circle, where care may not

These richest of gems, as the glory and crown. the reader, whether, among the numberless ene

enter, mies whom Napoleon honored with a drubbing,

Or if for a season, how soon 'tis forgot! he ever achieved a more complete victory than the hearth, the bright hearth, is the shrine and the over the author of " Romeo e Giulietta !"

Zingarelli, indeed, when bantered on the sub- Of endearment and peace, both in palace and cot. ject of his forced march to Paris, used to exclaim, to the day of his death, “all the same, I did not give way. I was never asked to acknowledge the King of Rome; and the Te Deum was never But no one more truly lamented the downfall WRITTEN FROM A HILL COMMANDING A VIEW OP

THE VALE OF BERKELEY. of the princely patron of the arts by whom he had been so 'nobly forced into a pacification; and though he refused a triumphal song to the

From the Court Journal. birth of a King of the Romans, he poured forth his notes of sadness, unbidden, for the untimely From yonder vale those well-known sounds arise, death of the Duc de Reichstadt.

Which touch the heart, and fill my glance with The greatest joy of the veteran composer, was to witness the growing triumphs of Bellini ! Striking the chord that in my bosom lies, But he could never assign any exact identity to Attuned by all life's early hopes and fears. that ill-fated young man.

While others spoke The meadow gale which breathes upon my brow of the director of the Conservatorio as the "mas- Is fresh and sweet in all its healthful powers, ter of Bellini”—he persisted in believing that As when, in other days, it used to blow the indulgence of Europe was chiefly directed Upon the morn of manhood's dawning hours ! towards the author of "Pirata" and "Norma," Untouch'd, unchang'd, this lovely vale will be, as "the pupil of-Zingarelli !"

Long after I my pilgrimage have done;
Long after lips have ceased to speak of me,
Long after love, light, life, and hope are gone.
It is unwise to seek that which endears,
Or find new friends as old ones fall away;
Both love and friendship end alike in tears,
As death may break or falsehood bring decay.



sung !




BARERE'S MEMOIRS. able dislike, and might have been removed
From the Edinburgh Review.

by reason. Indeed our expectation was, that

these Memoirs would in some measure clear An exceedingly interesting, stirring, keen arti

Barère's fame. cle, abounding in severity, but exercised on a

That he could vindicate himfair subject, and withal, as we think, from the self from all the charges which had been pen of Macaulay.-ED.

brought against him, we knew to be imposMémoires de Bertrand Barère ; publiés par done so. But we thought it highly probable

sible; and his editors admit that he has not MM. Hippolyte Carnot, Membre de la that some grave accusations would be refuted, Chambre des Députés, et David d'Angers, and that many offences to which he would Membre de l'Institut : pri cédés d'une No- have been forced to plead guilty would be tice Historique par H. Carnot. 4 Tomes. greatly extenuated. We were not disposed Paris : 1843.

to be severe. We were fully aware that tempThis book has more than one title to our tations such as those to which the members serious attention. It is an appeal, solemnly of the Convention and of the Committee of made to posterity by a man who played a con- Public Safety were exposed must try severely spicuous part in great events, and who repre- the strength of the firmest virtue. Indeed sents himself as deeply aggrieved by the rash our inclination has always been to regard with and malevolent censure of his contempora- an indulgence, which to some rigid moralists ries. To such an appeal we shall always give appears excessive, those faults into which genready audience. We can perform no duty tle and noble spirits are sometimes hurried by more useful to society, or more agreeable to the excitement of conflict, by the maddening our own feelings, than that of making, as far influence of sympathy, and by ill-regulated as our power extends, reparation to the slan- zeal for a public cause. dered and persecuted benefactors of mankind. With such feelings we read this book, and We therefore promptly took into our conside- compared it with other accounts of the events ration this copious apology for the life of Ber- in which Barère bore a part. It is now our trand Barère. We have made up our minds; duty to express the opinion to which this inand we now propose to do him, by the bless-vestigation has led us. ing of God, full and signal justice.

Our opinion then is this, that Barère apIt is to be observed that the appellant in proached nearer than any person mentioned this case does not come into court alone. in history or fiction, whether man or devil, to He is attended to the bar of public opinion by the idea of consummate and universal deprartwo compurgators who occupy highly honor- ity. In him the qualities which are the propable stations. One of these is M. David of er objects of hatred, and the qualities which Angers, member of the Institute, an eminent are the proper objects of contempt, preserve sculptor, and if we have been rightly inform- an exquisite and absolute harmony. In almost ed, a favorite pupil, though not a kinsman, of every particular sort of wickedness he has had the painter who bore the same name. The rivals. His sensuality was immoderate; but other, to whom we owe the biographical pre- this was a failing common to him with many face, is M. Hippolyte Carnot, member of the great and amiable men. There have been Chamber of Deputies, and son of the celebra- many men as cowardly as he, some as cruel, a ted Director. In the judgment of M. David few as mean, a few as impudent. There may and of M. Hippolyte Carnot, Barère was a also have been as great liars, though we never deserving and an ill-used man, a man who, met with them or read of them. But when we though by no means faultless, must yet, when put every thing together, sensuality, poltroondue allowance is made for the the force of cir- ery, baseness, effrontery, mendacity, barbarcumstances and the infirmity of human nature, ity, the result is something which in a novel be considered as on the whole entitled to our we should condemn as caricature, and to esteem. It will be for the public to deter- which, we venture to say, no parallel can be mine, after a full hearing, whether the editors found in history. have, by thus connecting their names with It would be grossly unjust, we acknowthat of Barère, raised his character or lower-| ledge, to try a man situated as Barère was ed their own.

by a severe standard. Nor have we done so. We are not conscious that, when we open- We have formed our opinion of him by comed this book, we were under the influence of paring him, not with politicians of stainless any feeling likely to pervert our judgment. character, not with Chancellor D'Aguesseau, Undoubtedly we had long entertained a most or General Washington, or Mr. Wilberforce, unfavorable opinion of Barère; but to this or Earl Grey, but with his own colleagues of opinion we were not tied by any passion or the Mountain. That party included a considby any interest. Our dislike was a reason- erable number of the worst men that ever

lived; but we see in it nothing like Barère. I brings himself to inflict misery on his fellowCompared with him, Fouché seems honest; creatures with indifference, with satisfaction, Billaud seems humane ; Herbért seems to rise and at length with a hideous rapture, deserves into dignity. Every other chief of a party, to be regarded as a portent of wickedness; says M. Hippolyte Carnot, has found apolo- and such a man was Barère. The history of gists; one set of men exalts the Girondists; his downward progress is full of instruction. another set justifies Danton ; a third deifies Weakness, cowardice, and fickleness were Robespierre; but Barrère has remained with born with him; the best quality which he out a defender. We venture to suggest a received from nature was a good temper.very simple solution of this phenomenon. These, it is true, are not very promising All the other chiefs of parties had some good materials; yet out of materials as unpromqualities, and Barère had none. The genius, ising, high sentiments of piety and of honcourage, patriotism, and humanity of the Gi- or have sometimes made martyrs and herondist statesmen, more than atoned for what roes. Rigid principles often do for feeble was culpable in their conduct, and should minds what stays do for feeble bodies. But have protected them from the insult of being Barère had no principles at all. His charcompared with such a thing as Barère. acter was equally destitute of natural and of Danton and Robespierre were indeed bad acquired strength. Neither in the commerce men; but in both of them some important of life, nor in books, did we ever become acparts of the mind remained sound. Danton quainted with any mind so unstable, so utterwas brave and resolute, fond of pleasure, of ly destitute of tone, so incapable of indepenpower, and of distinction, with vehement dent thought and earnest preference, so ready passions, with lax principles, but with some to take impressions and so ready to lose kind and manly feelings, capable of great them. He resembled those creepers which crimes, but capable also of friendship and must lean on something, and which, as soon of compassion. He, therefore, naturally finds as their prop is removed, fall down in utter admirers among persons of bold and sanguine helplessness. He could no more stand up, dispositions. Robespierre was a vain, en- erect and self-supported, in any cause, than vious, and suspicious man, with a hard heart, the ivy can rear itself like the oak, or the weak nerves, and a gloomy temper. But we wild vine shoot to heaven like the cedar of cannot with truth deny that he was in the Lebanon. It is barely possible that, under vulgar sense of the word, disinterested, that good guidance and in favorable circumstanhis private life was correct, or that he was ces, such a man might have slipped through sincerely zealous for his own system of poli- life without discredit. But the unseaworthy tics and morals. He, therefore, naturally craft, which even in still water would have finds admirers among honest but moody and been in danger of going down from its own bitter democrats. If no class has taken the rottenness, was launched on a raging ocean, reputation of Barère under its patronage, the amidst a storm in which a whole armada of reason is plain : Barère had not a single vir- gallant ships was cast away. The weakest tue, nor even the semblance of one.

and most servile of human beings, found himIt is true that he was not, as far as we are self on a sudden an actor in a Revolution able to judge, originally of a savage disposi- which convulsed the whole civilized world. tion ; but this circumstance seems to us only At first he fell under the influence of humane to aggravate his guilt. There are some un- and moderate men, and talked the language happy men constitutionally prone to the dark- of humanity and moderation. But he soon er passions, men all whose blood is gall, and found himself surrounded by fierce and resoto whom bitter words and barsh actions are lute spirits, scared by no danger and restrainas natural as snarling and biting to a fero-ed by no scruple. He had to choose whether cious dog. To come into the world with he would be their victim or their accomplice. this wretched mental disease is a greater ca- His choice was soon made. He taste blood lamity than to be born blind or deaf. A man and felt no loathing : he tasted it again, and who, having such a temper, keeps it in sub- liked it well. Cruelty became with him, first jection, and constrains himself to behave ha- a habit, then a passion, at last a madness. bitually with justice and humanity towards So complete and rapid was the degeneracy those who are in his power, seems to us of his nature, that within a very few months worthy of the highest admiration. There after the time when he had passed for a goodhave been instances of this self-command; natured man, he had brought himself to look and they are among the most signal triumphs on the despair and misery of his fellow-creaof philosophy and religion. On the other tures, with a glee resembling that of the fiends hand, a man who, having been blessed by whom Dante saw watching the pool of seethnature with a bland disposition, gradually ing pitch in Malebolge. He had many associates in guilt; but he distinguished him- been within the tropics does not know what self from them all by the Bacchanalian exul- a thunder storm means; a man who has never tation which he seemed to feel in the work looked on Niagara has but a faint idea of a of death. He was drunk with innocent and cataract; and he who has not read Barère's noble blood, laughed and shouted as he butch- Memoirs may be said not to know what it is ered, and howled strange songs and reeled in to lie. Among the numerous classes which strange dances amidst the carnage. Then make up the great genus Mendacium, the came a sudden and violent turn of fortune. Mendacium Vasconicum, or Gascon lie, has, The miserable man was hurled down from the during some centuries, been highly esteemheight of power to hopeless ruin and infamy. ed as peculiarly circumstantial and peculiarThe shock sobered him at once. The fumes ly impudent; and among the Mendacia Vasof his horrible intoxication passed away. conica, the Mendacium Barerianum is withBut he was now so irrecoverably depraved, out doubt, the finest species. It is indeed that the discipline of adversity only drove him a superb variety, and quite throws into the further into wickedness. Ferocious vices, of shade some Mendacia which we were used to which he had never been suspected, had been regard with admiration. The Mendacium developed in him by power. Another class Wrarallianum, for example, though by no of vices, less hateful perhaps, but more des- means to be despised, will not sustain the picable, was now developed in him by pover- comparison for a moment. Seriously, we ty and disgrace. Having appalled the whole think that M. Hippolyte Carnot is much to world by great crimes perpetrated under the blame in this matter. We can hardly suppretence of great zeal for liberty, he became pose him to be worse read than ourselves in the meanest of all the tools of despotism. It is the history of the Convention, a history not easy to settle the order of precedence which must interest him deeply, not only as among his vices; but we are inclined to think a Frenchman, but also as a son. He must, that his baseness was, on the whole, a rarer therefore, be perfectly aware that many of and more marvellous thing than his cruelty. the most important statements, which these

This is the view which we have long tak- volumes contain are falsehoods, such as Cor. en of Barère's character; but, till we read neille's Dorante, or Molière's Scapin, or Cothese Memoirs, we held our opinion with the lin d'Harleville's Monsieur de Crac would diffidence which becomes a judge who has have been ashamed to utter. We are far, only heard one side. The case seemed strong, indeed, from holding M. Hippolyte Carnot and in parts unanswerable: yet we did not answerable for Barère's want of veracity. know what the accused party might have to But M. Hippolyte Carnot has arranged these say for himself; and, not being much inclin- Memoirs, has introduced them to the world ed to take our fellow-creatures either for an- by a laudatory preface, has described them gels of light or for angels of darkness, we as documents of great historical value,

and could not but feel some suspicion that his has illustrated them by notes. We cannot offences had been exaggerated. That sus- but think that, by acting thus, he contracted picion is now at an end. The vindication some obligations of which he does not seem is before us. It occupies four volumes. It to have been at all aware; and that he ought was the work of forty years. It would be ab- not to have suffered any monstrous fiction to surd to suppose that it does not refute every go forth under the sanction of his name withserious charge which admitted of refutation. out adding a line at the foot of the page for How many serious charges, then, are here the purpose of cautioning the reader. refuted ? Not a single one. Most of the im- We will content ourselves at present with putations which have been thrown on Barère pointing out two instances of Barère's wilful he does not even notice. In such cases, of and deliberate mendacity; namely, bis accourse, judgment must go against him by de- count of the death of Marie Antoinette, and fault. The fact is, that nothing can be more his account of the death of the Girondists. meagre and uninteresting than his account His account of the death of Marie Antoinette of the great public transactions in which he is as follows :— Robespierre in his turn prowas engaged. He gives us hardly a word of posed that the members of the Capet family new information respecting the proceedings should be banished, and that Marie Antoinof the commitee of public safety; and, by ette should be brought to trial before the Rev. way of compensation, tells us long stories olutionary Tribunal. He would have been about things which happened before he emer- better employed in concerting military meaged from obscurity, and after he had again sures which might have repaired our disassunk into it. Nor is this the worst. As soon ters in Belgium, and might have arrested the as he ceases to write trifles, he begins to write progress of the enemies of the Revolution in lies; and such lies! A man who has never the west.'—(Vol. ii. p. 312.)

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Now, it is notorious that Marie Antoinette self. It is clear, then, that Barère attributed was sent before the Revolutionary Tribunal, his own mean insolence and barbarity to one

not at Robespierre's instance, but in direct who, whatever his crimes may have been, was Det har i opposition to Robespierre's wishes. We will in this matter innocent. The only question

cite a single authority, which is quite deci- remaining is; whether Barère was misled by

sive. Bonaparte, who had no conceivable his memory, or wrote a deliberate falsehood. Menu motive to disguise the truth, who had the best We are convinced that he wrote a deliberor GT opportunities of knowing the truth, and who, ate falsehood. His memory is described by en beter after his marriage with the Archduchess, nat- his editors as remarkably good, and must ntial ey urally felt an interest in the fate of his wife's have been bad indeed if he could not rememhe Masse kinswoman, distinctly affirmed that Robes- ber such a fact as this. It is true that the veriau pierre opposed the trying of the queen.* number of murders in which he subsequentEes

. Las Who, then, was the person who really did ly bore a part was so great, that he might threas propose that the Capet family should be ban- well confound one wiih another, that he h we try ished, and that Marie Antoinette should be might well forget what part of the daily hectried ? Full information will be found in the atomb was consigned to death by himself

, Moniteur.t From that valuable record it and what part by his colleagues. But two

appears that, on the first of August 1793, an circumstances make it quite incredible that Series

orator deputed by the Committee of Public the share which he took in the death of MaSafety addressed the Convention in a long rie Antoinette should have escaped his recol

and elaborate discourse. He asked, in pas-lection. She was one of his earliest victims. han versionate language, how it happened that the She was one of his most illustrious victims.

enemies of the republic still continued to hope The most hardened assassin remembers the

for success. • Is it,' he cried, because we first time that he shed blood; and the widow SOL have too long forgotten the crimes of the Aus- of Louis was no ordinary sufferer. Ifthe ques.

trian woman? Is it because we have shown tion had been about some milliner butchered so strange an indulgence to the race of our for hiding in her garret her brother who had

ancient tyrants? It is time that this unwise let drop a word against the Jacobin club-if Semes apathy should cease; it is time to extirpate the question had been about some old nun,

from the soil of the republic the last roots of dragged to death for having mumbled what Wer royalty. As for the children of Louis the were called fanatical words over her beads, godite la conspirator, they are hostages for the Repub- Barère's memory might well have deceived

lic. The charge of their maintenance shall him. It would be as unreasonable to expect be reduced to what is necessary for the food him to remember all the wretches whom he and keep of two individuals. The public slew, as all the pinches of snuff that he took. treasure shall no longer be lavished on crea- But though Barère murdered many hundreds tures who have too long been considered as of human beings, he murdered only one privileged. But behind them lurks a woman Queen. That he, a small country lawyer, who, who has been the cause of all the disasters of a few years before, would have thought himFrance, and whose share in every project ad- self honored by a glance or a word from the verse to the Revolution has long been known. daughter of so many Casars, should call her National justice claims its rights over her. It the Austrian woman, should send her from jail is to the tribunal appointed for the trial of to jail, should deliver herover tothe executionconspirators that she ought to be sent. It is er, was surely a great event in his life. Whethonly by striking the Austrian woman that you er he had reason to be proud of it or ashamed can make Francis and George, Charles and of it, is a question on which we may perhaps William, sensible of the crimes which their differ from his editors; but they will admit, we ministers and their armies have committed.' think, that he could not have forgotten it. The speaker concluded by moving, that Ma- We, therefore, confidently charge Barère rie Antoinette should be brought to judg- with having written a deliberate falsehood; ment, and should, for that end, be forthwith and we have no hesitation in saying, that we transferred to the Conciergerie; and that all never, in the course of any historical rethe members of the house of Capet, with the searches that we have happened to make, fell exception of those who were under the sword in with a falsehood so audacious, except only of the law, and of the two children of Louis, the falsehood which we are about to expose. should be banished from the French territo- Of the proceeding against the Girondists, ry. The motion was carried without debate. Barère speaks with just severity. He calls

Now who was the person who made this it an atrocious injustice perpetrated against speech and this motion ? It was Barère him- the legislators of the republic. He complains * O'Meara's Voice from St. Helena, ii, 170.

that distinguished deputies, who ought to † Moniteur, 2d, 7th, and 9th of August, 1793.

have been readmitted to their seats in the JU NE, 1844. 16

de Creu

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