This mass was executed on the 12th of Janu-] THERE IS ONE MAGIC CIRCLE; OR, THE ary, 1812, at the royal chapel of the Tuileries; and at the close of the performance, five thousand francs, or two hundred guineas, were placed in the hands of the defeated enemy.

But this did not suffice. At that period the Concerts Spirituels were in their glory; and it was the custom to celebrate the festival of Easter with sacred music at the Palace of the Elysée, in a style rivalling the former renowned perfection of the Abbaye de Longchamps. Zingarelli was accordingly commissioned to compose new music for five verses of the Stabal Mater; and when Good Friday arrived, an orchestra, in which, amongst others, figured Crescentini, Nourrit, Laës, and Madame Brancher, made its appearance at the Elysée in presence of their Imperial Majesties, to do honor to the new chef-d'œuvere.

The effect was miraculous, and rapturous was the applause of that discerning and most brilliant court. The verse beginning "Vidit Suum dulcem natum," had been assigned to Crescentini, who, in honor of so august an assembly, chose to accompany himself on the organ; and so exquisite was his performance, so admirable the accord between the harmonious tones of the instrument and voice of the sublime musician, that every breath was suspended while he sang.

A signal given by the emperor that the verse should be repeated, was hailed with general


Another liberal gratuity was now fowarded to Zingarelli, accompanied by an intimation that whenever he felt disposed to resume his duties at Rome, his passport and travelling expenses were at his disposal!

Now we appeal to the unbiassed opinion of the reader, whether, among the numberless enemies whom Napoleon honored with a drubbing, he ever achieved a more complete victory than over the author of " Romeo e Giulietta!"

Zingarelli, indeed, when bantered on the subject of his forced march to Paris, used to exclaim, to the day of his death, "all the same, I did not give way. I was never asked to acknowledge the King of Rome; and the Te Deum was never sung!"


From the Metropolitan.

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But no one more truly lamented the downfall WRITTEN FROM A HILL COMMANDING A VIEW OF

of the princely patron of the arts by whom he had been so nobly forced into a pacification; and though he refused a triumphal song to the birth of a King of the Romans, he poured forth his notes of sadness, unbidden, for the untimely death of the Duc de Reichstadt.

The greatest joy of the veteran composer, was to witness the growing triumphs of Bellini! But he could never assign any exact identity to that ill-fated young man. While others spoke


of the director of the Conservatorio as the " ter of Bellini"-he persisted in believing that the indulgence of Europe was chiefly directed towards the author of "Pirata" and "Norma," as "the pupil of-Zingarelli !"



From the Court Journal.

FROM yonder vale those well-known sounds arise, Which touch the heart, and fill my glance with


Striking the chord that in my bosom lies,
Attuned by all life's early hopes and fears.
The meadow gale which breathes upon my brow
Is fresh and sweet in all its healthful powers,
As when, in other days, it used to blow
Upon the morn of manhood's dawning hours!
Untouch'd, unchang'd, this lovely vale will be,
Long after I my pilgrimage have done;
Long after lips have ceased to speak of me,
Long after love, light, life, and hope are gone.
It is unwise to seek that which endears,
Or find new friends as old ones fall away;
Both love and friendship end alike in tears,
As death may break or falsehood bring decay.


From the Edinburgh Review.

An exceedingly interesting, stirring, keen article, abounding in severity, but exercised on a fair subject, and withal, as we think, from the pen of Macaulay.-ED.

Memoires de Bertrand Barère; publiés par
Chambre des Députés, et DAVID d'Angers,
Membre de l'Institut: précédés d'une No-
tice Historique par H. CARNOT. 4 Tomes.
Paris: 1843.

able dislike, and might have been removed
by reason. Indeed our expectation was, that
these Memoirs would in some measure clear
Barère's fame. That he could vindicate him-
self from all the charges which had been
brought against him, we knew to be impos
sible; and his editors admit that he has not
done so.
that some grave accusations would be refuted,
But we thought it highly probable
and that many offences to which he would
have been forced to plead guilty would be
greatly extenuated. We were not disposed
to be severe. We were fully aware that temp-
tations such as those to which the members
of the Convention and of the Committee of
Public Safety were exposed must try severely
the strength of the firmest virtue. Indeed
our inclination has always been to regard with
an indulgence, which to some rigid moralists
appears excessive, those faults into which gen-
tle and noble spirits are sometimes hurried by
the excitement of conflict, by the maddening
influence of sympathy, and by ill-regulated
zeal for a public cause.

Our opinion then is this, that Barère ap

THIS book has more than one title to our serious attention. It is an appeal, solemnly made to posterity by a man who played a conspicuous part in great events, and who represents himself as deeply aggrieved by the rash and malevolent censure of his contemporaries. To such an appeal we shall always give ready audience. We can perform no duty more useful to society, or more agreeable to our own feelings, than that of making, as far as our power extends, reparation to the slandered and persecuted benefactors of mankind. With such feelings we read this book, and We therefore promptly took into our conside- compared it with other accounts of the events ration this copious apology for the life of Ber- in which Barère bore a part. It is now our trand Barère. We have made up our minds; duty to express the opinion to which this inand we now propose to do him, by the bless-vestigation has led us. ing of God, full and signal justice. It is to be observed that the appellant in proached nearer than any person mentioned this case does not come into court alone. in history or fiction, whether man or devil, to He is attended to the bar of public opinion by the idea of consummate and universal depravtwo compurgators who occupy highly honor- ity. In him the qualities which are the propable stations. One of these is M. David of er objects of hatred, and the qualities which Angers, member of the Institute, an eminent are the proper objects of contempt, preserve sculptor, and if we have been rightly inform- an exquisite and absolute harmony. In almost ed, a favorite pupil, though not a kinsman, of every particular sort of wickedness he has had the painter who bore the same name. The rivals. His sensuality was immoderate; but other, to whom we owe the biographical pre- this was a failing common to him with many face, is M. Hippolyte Carnot, member of the great and amiable men. There have been Chamber of Deputies, and son of the celebra- many men as cowardly as he, some as cruel, a ted Director. In the judgment of M. David few as mean, a few as impudent. There may and of M. Hippolyte Carnot, Barère was a also have been as great liars, though we never deserving and an ill-used man, a man who, met with them or read of them. But when we though by no means faultless, must yet, when put every thing together, sensuality, poltroondue allowance is made for the the force of cir-ery, baseness, effrontery, mendacity, barbarcumstances and the infirmity of human nature, ity, the result is something which in a novel be considered as on the whole entitled to our we should condemn as caricature, and to esteem. It will be for the public to deter- which, we venture to say, no parallel can be mine, after a full hearing, whether the editors found in history. have, by thus connecting their names with It would be grossly unjust, we acknowthat of Barère, raised his character or lower-ledge, to try a man situated as Barère was ed their own. by a severe standard. Nor have we done so. We are not conscious that, when we open- We have formed our opinion of him by comed this book, we were under the influence of paring him, not with politicians of stainless any feeling likely to pervert our judgment. character, not with Chancellor D'Aguesseau, Undoubtedly we had long entertained a most or General Washington, or Mr. Wilberforce, unfavorable opinion of Barère; but to this or Earl Grey, but with his own colleagues of opinion we were not tied by any passion or the Mountain. That party included a considby any interest. Our dislike was a reason-erable number of the worst men that ever

lived; but we see in it nothing like Barère. [brings himself to inflict misery on his fellowCompared with him, Fouché seems honest; creatures with indifference, with satisfaction, Billaud seems humane; Herbert seems to rise and at length with a hideous rapture, deserves into dignity. Every other chief of a party, to be regarded as a portent of wickedness; says M. Hippolyte Carnot, has found apolo- and such a man was Barère. The history of gists; one set of men exalts the Girondists; his downward progress is full of instruction. another set justifies Danton; a third deifies Weakness, cowardice, and fickleness were Robespierre; but Barrère has remained with-born with him; the best quality which he out a defender. We venture to suggest a received from nature was a good temper.very simple solution of this phenomenon. These, it is true, are not very promising All the other chiefs of parties had some good materials; yet out of materials as unpromqualities, and Barère had none. The genius, ising, high sentiments of piety and of honcourage, patriotism, and humanity of the Gi- or have sometimes made martyrs and herondist statesmen, more than atoned for what roes. Rigid principles often do for feeble was culpable in their conduct, and should minds what stays do for feeble bodies. But have protected them from the insult of being Barère had no principles at all. His charcompared with such a thing as Barère. acter was equally destitute of natural and of Danton and Robespierre were indeed bad acquired strength. Neither in the commerce men; but in both of them some important of life, nor in books, did we ever become acparts of the mind remained sound. Danton quainted with any mind so unstable, so utterwas brave and resolute, fond of pleasure, of ly destitute of tone, so incapable of indepenpower, and of distinction, with vehement dent thought and earnest preference, so ready passions, with lax principles, but with some to take impressions and so ready to lose kind and manly feelings, capable of great them. He resembled those creepers which crimes, but capable also of friendship and must lean on something, and which, as soon of compassion. He, therefore, naturally finds as their prop is removed, fall down in utter admirers among persons of bold and sanguine helplessness. He could no more stand up, dispositions. Robespierre was a vain, en- erect and self-supported, in any cause, than vious, and suspicious man, with a hard heart, the ivy can rear itself like the oak, or the weak nerves, and a gloomy temper. But we wild vine shoot to heaven like the cedar of cannot with truth deny that he was in the Lebanon. It is barely possible that, under vulgar sense of the word, disinterested, that good guidance and in favorable circumstanhis private life was correct, or that he was ces, such a man might have slipped through sincerely zealous for his own system of poli-life without discredit. But the unseaworthy tics and morals. He, therefore, naturally finds admirers among honest but moody and bitter democrats. If no class has taken the reputation of Barère under its patronage, the reason is plain: Barère had not a single virtue, nor even the semblance of one.

craft, which even in still water would have been in danger of going down from its own rottenness, was launched on a raging ocean, amidst a storm in which a whole armada of gallant ships was cast away. The weakest and most servile of human beings, found himIt is true that he was not, as far as we are self on a sudden an actor in a Revolution able to judge, originally of a savage disposi- which convulsed the whole civilized world. tion; but this circumstance seems to us only At first he fell under the influence of humane to aggravate his guilt. There are some un- and moderate men, and talked the language happy men constitutionally prone to the dark-of humanity and moderation. But he soon er passions, men all whose blood is gall, and found himself surrounded by fierce and resoto whom bitter words and harsh actions are lute spirits, scared by no danger and restrainas natural as snarling and biting to a fero-ed by no scruple. He had to choose whether cious dog. To come into the world with he would be their victim or their accomplice. this wretched mental disease is a greater ca- His choice was soon made. He tasted blood lamity than to be born blind or deaf. A man and felt no loathing: he tasted it again, and who, having such a temper, keeps it in sub-liked it well. Cruelty became with him, first jection, and constrains himself to behave ha- a habit, then a passion, at last a madness. bitually with justice and humanity towards So complete and rapid was the degeneracy those who are in his power, seems to us worthy of the highest admiration. There have been instances of this self-command; and they are among the most signal triumphs of philosophy and religion. On the other hand, a man who, having been blessed by nature with a bland disposition, gradually

of his nature, that within a very few months after the time when he had passed for a goodnatured man, he had brought himself to look on the despair and misery of his fellow-creatures, with a glee resembling that of the fiends whom Dante saw watching the pool of seething pitch in Malebolge. He had many as

sociates in guilt; but he distinguished him- been within the tropics does not know what self from them all by the Bacchanalian exul- a thunder storm means; a man who has never tation which he seemed to feel in the work looked on Niagara has but a faint idea of a of death. He was drunk with innocent and cataract; and he who has not read Barère's noble blood, laughed and shouted as he butch- Memoirs may be said not to know what it is ered, and howled strange songs and reeled in to lie. Among the numerous classes which strange dances amidst the carnage. Then make up the great genus Mendacium, the came a sudden and violent turn of fortune. Mendacium Vasconicum, or Gascon lie, has, The miserable man was hurled down from the during some centuries, been highly esteemheight of power to hopeless ruin and infamy. ed as peculiarly circumstantial and peculiarThe shock sobered him at once. The fumes ly impudent; and among the Mendacia Vasof his horrible intoxication passed away. conica, the Mendacium Barerianum is withBut he was now so irrecoverably depraved, out doubt, the finest species. It is indeed that the discipline of adversity only drove him a superb variety, and quite throws into the further into wickedness. Ferocious vices, of shade some Mendacia which we were used to which he had never been suspected, had been regard with admiration. The Mendacium developed in him by power. Another class Wrarallianum, for example, though by no of vices, less hateful perhaps, but more des- means to be despised, will not sustain the picable, was now developed in him by pover- comparison for a moment. Seriously, we ty and disgrace. Having appalled the whole think that M. Hippolyte Carnot is much to world by great crimes perpetrated under the blame in this matter. We can hardly sup pretence of great zeal for liberty, he became pose him to be worse read than ourselves in the meanest of all the tools of despotism. It is the history of the Convention, a history not easy to settle the order of precedence which must interest him deeply, not only as among his vices; but we are inclined to think a Frenchman, but also as a son. He must, that his baseness was, on the whole, a rarer therefore, be perfectly aware that many of and more marvellous thing than his cruelty. the most important statements, which these This is the view which we have long tak-volumes contain are falsehoods, such as Cor en of Barère's character; but, till we read neille's Dorante, or Molière's Scapin, or Cothese Memoirs, we held our opinion with the lin d'Harleville's Monsieur de Crac would diffidence which becomes a judge who has only heard one side. The case seemed strong, and in parts unanswerable: yet we did not know what the accused party might have to say for himself; and, not being much inclined to take our fellow-creatures either for angels of light or for angels of darkness, we could not but feel some suspicion that his offences had been exaggerated. That suspicion is now at an end. The vindication is before us. It occupies four volumes. It was the work of forty years. It would be absurd to suppose that it does not refute every serious charge which admitted of refutation. How many serious charges, then, are here refuted? Not a single one. Most of the imputations which have been thrown on Barère he does not even notice. In such cases, of course, judgment must go against him by default. The fact is, that nothing can be more meagre and uninteresting than his account of the great public transactions in which he was engaged. He gives us hardly a word of new information respecting the proceedings of the commitee of public safety; and, by way of compensation, tells us long stories about things which happened before he emerged from obscurity, and after he had again sunk into it. Nor is this the worst. As soon as he ceases to write trifles, he begins to write lies; and such lies! A man who has never

have been ashamed to utter. We are far, indeed, from holding M. Hippolyte Carnot answerable for Barère's want of veracity. But M. Hippolyte Carnot has arranged these Memoirs, has introduced them to the world by a laudatory preface, has described them as documents of great historical value, and has illustrated them by notes. We cannot but think that, by acting thus, he contracted some obligations of which he does not seem to have been at all aware; and that he ought not to have suffered any monstrous fiction to go forth under the sanction of his name without adding a line at the foot of the page for the purpose of cautioning the reader.

We will content ourselves at present with pointing out two instances of Barère's wilful and deliberate mendacity; namely, his ac count of the death of Marie Antoinette, and his account of the death of the Girondists. His account of the death of Marie Antoinette is as follows:- Robespierre in his turn proposed that the members of the Capet family should be banished, and that Marie Antoinette should be brought to trial before the Revolutionary Tribunal. He would have been better employed in concerting military measures which might have repaired our disas ters in Belgium, and might have arrested the progress of the enemies of the Revolution in the west.'-(Vol. ii. p. 312.)


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Now, it is notorious that Marie Antoinette | self. It is clear, then, that Barère attributed was sent before the Revolutionary Tribunal, his own mean insolence and barbarity to one not at Robespierre's instance, but in direct who, whatever his crimes may have been, was nete opposition to Robespierre's wishes. We will in this matter innocent. The only question cite a single authority, which is quite deci- remaining is, whether Barère was misled by sive. Bonaparte, who had no conceivable his memory, or wrote a deliberate falsehood. motive to disguise the truth, who had the best We are convinced that he wrote a deliberopportunities of knowing the truth, and who, ate falsehood. His memory is described by after his marriage with the Archduchess, nat- his editors as remarkably good, and must urally felt an interest in the fate of his wife's have been bad indeed if he could not rememkinswoman, distinctly affirmed that Robes- ber such a fact as this. It is true that the pierre opposed the trying of the queen.* number of murders in which he subsequentWho, then, was the person who really did ly bore a part was so great, that he might propose that the Capet family should be ban- well confound one with another, that he wewe ished, and that Marie Antoinette should be might well forget what part of the daily hectried? Full information will be found in the atomb was consigned to death by himself, Moniteur.t From that valuable record it and what part by his colleagues. But two appears that, on the first of August 1793, an circumstances make it quite incredible that orator deputed by the Committee of Public the share which he took in the death of MaSafety addressed the Convention in a long rie Antoinette should have escaped his recoland elaborate discourse. He asked, in pas-lection. She was one of his earliest victims. sionate language, how it happened that the enemies of the republic still continued to hope for success. 'Is it,' he cried, because we have too long forgotten the crimes of the Austrian woman? Is it because we have shown so strange an indulgence to the race of our ancient tyrants? It is time that this unwise apathy should cease; it is time to extirpate from the soil of the republic the last roots of royalty. As for the children of Louis the conspirator, they are hostages for the Republic. The charge of their maintenance shall be reduced to what is necessary for the food and keep of two individuals. The public treasure shall no longer be lavished on creatures who have too long been considered as privileged. But behind them lurks a woman who has been the cause of all the disasters of France, and whose share in every project adverse to the Revolution has long been known. National justice claims its rights over her. It is to the tribunal appointed for the trial of conspirators that she ought to be sent. It is only by striking the Austrian woman that you can make Francis and George, Charles and William, sensible of the crimes which their ministers and their armies have committed.' The speaker concluded by moving, that Marie Antoinette should be brought to judgment, and should, for that end, be forthwith transferred to the Conciergerie; and that all the members of the house of Capet, with the exception of those who were under the sword of the law, and of the two children of Louis, should be banished from the French territory. The motion was carried without debate. Now who was the person who made this speech and this motion? It was Barère him


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She was one of his most illustrious victims. The most hardened assassin remembers the first time that he shed blood; and the widow of Louis was no ordinary sufferer. If the question had been about some milliner butchered for hiding in her garret her brother who had let drop a word against the Jacobin club-if the question had been about some old nun. dragged to death for having mumbled what were called fanatical words over her beadsBarère's memory might well have deceived him. It would be as unreasonable to expect him to remember all the wretches whom he slew, as all the pinches of snuff that he took. But though Barère murdered many hundreds of human beings, he murdered only one Queen. That he, a small country lawyer, who, a few years before, would have thought himself honored by a glance or a word from the daughter of so many Casars, should call her the Austrian woman, should send her from jail to jail, should deliver her over to the executioner, was surely a great event in his life. Whether he had reason to be proud of it or ashamed of it, is a question on which we may perhaps differ from his editors; but they will admit, we think, that he could not have forgotten it.

We, therefore, confidently charge Barère with having written a deliberate falsehood; and we have no hesitation in saying, that we never, in the course of any historical researches that we have happened to make, fell in with a falsehood so audacious, except only the falsehood which we are about to expose.

Of the proceeding against the Girondists, Barère speaks with just severity. He calls it an atrocious injustice perpetrated against the legislators of the republic. He complains that distinguished deputies, who ought to have been readmitted to their seats in the

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