« VorigeDoorgaan »
granite platform was brought to its level, and the | be distinct in the stormiest night; but as the conHerschel mark refixed and filled in with cement, stant connexion of such apparatus would neither it was necessary to erect heavy shears of large be desirable as concerns the action of the clock, spars, to place the stones of the obelisk, composed nor pleasant to the ear as a companion, a mode of large blocks of Craigleith stone, some weighing has been introduced of readily detaching it altotwo tons. This was accomplished with some gether. By a certain method, which shall be extrouble and expense, and the base of the obelisk plained, the hammers are raised from the tables was laid with the faces corresponding with the at one end, and the arms at the other entirely four cardinal points. The whole was completed disengaged from the anchor at the pallets, without on the 15th of February, 1842, in presence of inconvenience or disturbing action to the clock some of the Committee and several of the sub- itself. The apparatus within is immediately, and scribers and friends of Sir John Herschel, who at pleasure, acted upon through the agency of a attended on the occasion of placing the top stone bolt, which is placed vertically, immediately over of the obelisk. The obelisk has the base 6 feet the 60 minutes, or about two inches back, suffisquare by 6 feet in height, and the pyramidal part ciently long to reach a spring of hard brass, which stands 12 feet above the base. On the east face is about half an inch wide, and which passes is an opening showing the Herschel mark, desig- transversely over the frame-work of the clock, nating the site of the 20-feet reflector. The and is fixed securely to the backboard of the clockopening will be closed with a bronze plate, con- case. Now the mode in which the spring unites taining the inscription of the purpose for which its action with the rest of the apparatus is by slight the obelisk is erected."-Athenæum. cross-bars, which extend to the extremities of the sides of the frame, so that the ends are immediately over the hammers, with which they are connected by silk threads. Therefore, by pressing down the bolt before named, the hammers are allowed to fall into action, and do their duty simultaneously with the teeth of the wheel upon the pallets. While the little hammers are in action, the teeth of the wheel are no longer heard.
"ON LOUD BEATS OF CLOCKS USED IN OBSERVATORIES. A simple and easily applied method of obtaining very loud beats for the astronomical clock. The mode of constructing the apparatus is as follows:- Two pieces of thin brass are placed at the sides of the frame-work of the clock, in length the same as the space between the pillars; in width, about two inches or more at pleasure; these pieces of brass are placed horizontally, at about the same altitude from the base as the axis of the escape-wheel pinion, and at the right angles to it, or nearly so. They should be made of such a size as would insure a sound, tinct, sharp, and short. The little tables can be made to any size. Upon these tables or plates two hammers ply, supported by arbors at the same MICROSCOPE IN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH' On elevation as all the others. The pivots should be the application of the Microscope to Geological made small for easy motion. The hammers are Research,' by Dr. Carpenter, F. R. S. Dr. Carintended to beat upon the middle of each brass penter pointed out how much the progress of table simultaneously with the drop proper of the science depends upon the perfection of the instru escape-wheel through the agency of the pendu-ments employed in the observation of its phenolum, they are lifted alternately by the heels of mena; and that even to geology, whose facts are the anchors of the pallets, assisted by a passing for the most part obvious to the unassisted senses, spring similar to that used in the chronometer the achromatic microscope has afforded, of late escapement. It has just been observed, that the years, the most efficient aid. He noticed the rearbors which support those little hammers are searches of Messrs Witham, Nicol, and others, placed at the same elevation from the base of the on the structure of fossil woods, and the light brass frame-work of the clock as the escape-wheel which these had thrown on the origin of coal. arbor, but at the sides, and as near to the edge as The investigations of Prof. Owen on the structure possible. About the centre, or midway between of teeth were next glanced at, and illustrations of them, are affixed brass collets, about 1-8 of an their application to the determination of fossile inch in thickness, and 1-4 of an inch in diameter. were given. The identification of the LabyrinTwo slender pieces of spring are secured to the thodon as the gigantic Batrachian, whose footcollets by screws passing through square holes steps are preserved to us in the sandstone of the formed longitudinally, to secure power of adjust-Stourton quarries, was noticed as one of the most ment for bringing the arms into proper contact interesting results of this kind of investigation; with the anchor of the pallets. The little ham-and a sketch was given of the train of reasoning mers beat upon the plates or tables at one end, by which Prof. Owen has established the true and at the other the lifting action takes place, as- character and habits of the Megatheroid quadru sisted by the passing spring. The strokes upon peds. Dr. Carpenter then gave a summary of the these brass tables have a peculiar sharpness of researches, on which he has been himself entone, which can be accounted for in some measure, gaged, on the structure of the shells of the Molwhen it is considered that they are very different lusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. With the from the sounds produced by the teeth of the aid of highly-magnified delineations, he explained wheel itself; in the dead-beat escapement the the cellular organization of the shells of Pinna, teeth have a sliding motion in the moment of and other allied genera belonging to the family drop, but not impulse, for it is well known that Margaritacae, by which the fossil forms of that that is subsequent to the sound. By such appli-group are at once distinguished (even by the excation it is proposed to obtain sound, so loud as to amination of the minutest fragment) from all
The Astronomer Royal declares by letter, that he has examined the plan, and is enabled to say that it answers completely for its proposed purpose; and that it appears likely to be very useful. Moreover, that the rate of the clock will not necessarily be disturbed during the time of its condis-nexion-though that will greatly depend on certain conditions.-Athenæum.
to cool a little, and after having poured off the liquid, it is dried by the usual process of cotton and rouge. The white coating deposited by the mercury is now to be polished. With a ball (tampon) of cotton and saturated with oil and rouge, this coating is rubbed just sufficiently for the plate to be of a fine black. This being done, the plate is again placed upon the horizontal plane, and the solution of gold and platina is poured over it. The plate is to be heated, and then left to cool, and the liquid having been poured off, the plate is dried by means of cotton and rouge. In doing this, care must be had that the plate be merely dried, not polished. On this metallic varnish, M. Daguerre has succeeded in taking some very fine impressions of the human figure, which were exhibited.-Athenæum.
others; the very curious plicated membranous | and forms a white covering. The plate is allowed structure, which is characteristic of Terebratula and its allies, and distinguishes them from all others; the true character of the lines upon nacre, to which its iridescence is due ;-and the tubular structure, analogous to the dentine or ivory teeth, which is found in certain other genera, and is distinctive of them. After describing the peculiar cancellated structure of the shells of the Rudistes, and stating that, by his microscopic test, the perplexing Cardium hibernicum should be referred to that group, he briefly explained the structure of the shells of the Crustacea, the inner portion of which is tubular, and strongly resembles dentine, whilst its surface (beneath the horny structureless epidermis) is covered with a layer of cells, in which the coloring-matter is deposited; and gave a brief account of the structure of the shells, spines, &c. of the Echinodermata, pointing out the difference of pattern between the stems of different species of Pentacrinus, which rendered the microscope a very easy means of distinguishing them. The lecture concluded with a notice of the researches of Ehrenberg on Fossil Animalcules; of which the siliceous remains form a large proportion of the chalk-marls of Southern Europe, besides abounding in other deposits; whilst the calcareous species make up a great portion of the chalk itself in many localities. Of these species, whose minuteness is almost inconceivable, many of those now living appear to be identical with those which existed at the early part of the tertiary epoch.-Athenæum.
FORCE.-In No. 538 of the Institute is a paper by METHOD OF INCREASING ELECTROMOTIVE Mr. Poggendorf, in which he proposes a method of increasing the electromotive force of a voltaic pair, or which in the old phraseology would be effects into those of intensity. He ranges a certermed a method of converting the quantitative tain number of pairs of platinum electrodes, so that one half are united with the zinc, and the other with the platinum of a Grove's battery. He then, by an arrangement which he does not particularly describe, detaches them from the battery, and unites them in series; they thus form a secondary pile, whereby the intensity of the reacting currents arising from the polarization is increased, with reference to that of a single pair, as the sum PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES --M. Blondeau of the pairs of electrodes employed. We believe de Carolles gave an account of an experiment at which he was present, and in which he saw the land soon after the publication of Mr. Grove's analogous experiments have been made in Engsugar of the cane transform itself into acetic acid, gas-battery, by Mr. Grove and others; in which, under the influence of caseum, without change of for convenience of charging, a number of cells volume either by loss or absorption.-M. Co-were united in a quantitative arrangement to a chaux, civil engineer, presented to the Academy small battery, and then detached and arranged in a large and well-executed model of a drag-ma-series. The point offers no economy of material, chine, which, having been long and successfully as the same amount of zinc is consumed by this used in foreign countries, he recommends for method of producing intensity as would be if an adoption in France, for the harbors, rivers, and ordinary battery of the like intensity were arcanals. The machine differs from those in ordi- ranged and charged in the ordinary way; but it nary use by the judicious combination of all its parts and the comparative ease and rapidity with may, in certain cases, add to convenience of manipulation. Lit. Gaz. which it acts. A communication was made by M. Daguerre, relative to some improvements in the Daguerreotype process, chiefly for the purpose of taking portraits, the ordinary mode of preparing the plates not being found sufficient to enable the operator to obtain good impressions. The improvement made by M. Daguerre requires a rather complicated process, but it is a very regular one, and has one decided advantage, for the artist is now enabled to have a good stock of plates on hand, as the new preparation will remain for a very long time in a perfectly fit state for use The new substances of which M. Daguerre makes use are an aqueous solution of bi-chlorule of mercury, an aqueous solution of cyanure of mercury, oil of white petroleum, acidulated with nitric acid, and a solution of platina and chlorure of gold. The process is as follows:-the plate is polished with sublimate and tripoli, and then red oxide of iron, until a fine black be obtained; it is now placed in the horizontal plane, and the solution of cyanure previously made hot by the lamp is poured over it. The mercury deposits itself,
ORIENTAL MSS.-A letter from Mr. N. Bland was read before the Royal Asiatic Society, on the subject of a valuable collection of Oriental Mss. in the library of Eton College, which appears almost entirely to have escaped the notice of Orientalists. This collection was presented to the College above fifty years ago, by Mr. E. Pote, who had been a scholar on the foundation, and who afterwards went to India. It reached England in 1790, together with another collection, of equal value, which was presented by the same gentleman to King's College library, Cambridge, where his education was completed. The Eton collection is rich in historical and lexicographical works, both Persian and Arabie; and contains also many writings on the jurisprudence, theology, traditions, and ecclesiastical history of the Mohammedans, and a few poems. The whole number of volumes is above 200, and altogether constitutes a very valuable Oriental library.Lit. Gaz.
DON AUGUSTIN ARGUELLES.-March 23. Aged 68, Don Augustin Arguelles.
Queen gave insecurity to the head of the govern ment, and the Queen-mother, who had adopted a line of government not liberal enough to please the citizen class, though too liberal to suit the Legitimists, fell from want of any support in any class or party. The Liberals triumphed, and, in want of better, chose Espartero to be Regent.
This most eminent personage of the Spanish Revolution was born in the Asturias in 1775, the younger son of a noble family. He was educated in the university of Oviedo, and proceeded to practise in the provincial court: but, finding this sphere too narrow, he betook himself to Madrid. His elevation displeased the more ambitious Too young for legal functions, he became em- and younger men of the Liberal party, who were ployed in the secretary's office for the interpreta- anxious for a regency of three, and for thereby tion of foreign languages, from which post he was leaving open many avenues to ambition. Argutaken and sent on a mission to Lisbon. He after-elles was one of those who opposed this repetiwards went to London on a diplomatic mission of a similar nature.
tion of the French triple Consulate. When the Duke of Victory became Regent, the care of the young Queen's person and education was entrusted to Arguelles, who dismissed the mere courtier tribe, and endeavored to accustom the infant ear of Royalty to some other language than the whispers of flattery and intrigue. These ar rangements, more than all else, offended the court of the Tuileries, and the overthrow of Arguelles and Espartero became the great aim and effort of that court and its agents. Nearly three years were taken to effect it. An attempt to carry the palace by a coup de main, under the patronage of the French Chargé d'Affaires, Pageot, fail
He was at Cadiz on the French invasion in 1808, and was appointed member of the first Cortes; and he was unanimously selected as the person to draw up the Constitution. This document, with his report preceding it, are both too famous to need being characterized. He was rewarded, like other patriots in 1814, by a condemnation to the galleys at Ceuta. The tribunal indeed refused to sentence him, but Ferdinand VII. volunteered to inscribe the sentence with his own hand. During six years the illustrious Arguelles partook of the labor of the galley-slave. When a statue is erected by his countrymen to their great-ed. est name, the fetters of Arguelles will prove the fittest decoration.
Slower modes of operation were adopted. More than a score journals were founded by the French in Madrid and in the provinces, all utterThe revolution of 1820 liberated Arguelles, ing the most nefarious calumnies against England and opened a scene for his eloquence. He be- and the Regent. French emissaries circulated came Home Minister, and, as such, took that po- them in every garrison town, and insinuated themsition which he ever since maintained, of a mod- selves into every officer's mess. The republican erate and practical statesman of the thoroughly party at Barcelona and elsewhere were taken liberal or Exaltado party. But the French Bour-into pay; the political rivals of the Regent were bons stepped in to crush those liberties which the Spanish Bourbons wers not alone able to stifle; and Arguelles became an exile in England. The death of Ferdinand again opened to him a return to his country, and the voice of Arguelles was once more heard in his native Cortes. Age and events had now still more tempered his youthful ardor and though a stern opponent of Zea's despotismo illustrado, as well as of Toreno's aping of and leaning upon France, the views of Arguelles were as far removed from wild republicanism as from the servile and impracticable aim of setting up a constitution in the likeness of absolu
His principles and party prevailed, attained power, enforced its views of internal government in the constitution of 1837, and persevered in those efforts which finally expelled Don Carlos and his party from Spain. But it is seldom that the party which conquers and establishes freedom is allowed to profit by it. The minority of the
cajoled, and won over in Paris and in Madrid; and, when all was ripe for execution, the batteries were unmasked. Barcelona again rose in insurrection. Committees were formed at Perpignan and Bayonne. Money in great abundance was forwarded from Paris, whilst the funds which the Regent expected from bankers there were cut off. In short, the conspiracy succeeded. The Duke of Victory was driven from the kingdom, and Arguelles, appointed tutor by a decree of the Cortes, was deprived of his office by the simple order of General Narvaez. In the few months which have since elapsed Arguelles lived retired; he saw the interment of the constitution by Narvaez; and might say, with Grattan, he had watched over the cradle of bis country's liberties, and had followed them to the grave. Morning Chronicle.
The funeral of Arguelles took place at Madrid on the 25th of March. The multitudes that as sembled and accompanied his remains in solemn
procession to the tomb, have no parallel in the annals of that capital. It was an almost universal tribute to the memory of a man whose name had never been sullied with intrigues for place, power, or wealth. As guardian to the royal children, during the regency of Espartero, he was entitled to above 14,000l. a year. Of this he would only accept the tenth part, and at his death just 22 dollars were found in his house, and old claims on the Government for 7,000 dollars. All that the Heraldo could find as matter of reproach against Arguelles was, that, being a bachelor, he was unfit to exercise a fatherly care over the royal orphans; and, further, that he had no merit in refusing nine-tenths of his salary, for he cleaned his own boots and had no wants.' Would that Spain had left a few more honest shoeblacks, to put to the blush the hordes of adventurers, political and military, who degrade her in the eyes of Europe! As the Queen-Mother was making her triumphal entry into the capital, a partisan rode up to her carriage with the joyful news-the happy coincidence-the hand of Providence displayed in the death of her enemy, Arguelles.' Hush!' said Maria Christina, do not Tet the children hear it, for they loved him!'Gent's Mag.
the surrounding scenery, are beautiful pieces of art, as worthy the praise of the amateur in painting as of the antiquary. The general view of Palinque is also a most artistical performance, and gives a perfect idea of the country. Los Monjas at Uxmal* is another superb panorama, but more architectural. But where every example is either so rich, characteristic, picturesque, or singular, it is vain to speak of them separately. It is by the eye only that the excellence and value of Mr. Catherwood's labors can be appreciated; and we shall only repeat, that they make us intimately acquainted with the antiquities, present appearance, scenery, and native habits and looks, in Central America.-Lit. Gaz.
Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, to Sir Horace Mann, his Britannic Majesty's Resident at the Court of Florence, from 1760 to 1785. Now first published from the Original MSS. Voluines III and IV. Bentley.
Catherwood's Views in Central America, Chiapas, tection without further offence to the King; a and Yucatan. Large folio.
and principally about his writings; together with WALPOLE's own description of Strawberry Hill and its curiosities.
The letters in these concluding volumes of the series commence in 1776, when WALPOLE was about sixty, and beginning to talk of old age, and end in 1786, the year of Sir HORACE MANN'S death. The Bentleian edition of WALPOLE is rendered more complete by various addenda : some epistles to GEORGE SELWYN from the late publication of the Selwyn Correspondence; a few miscellaneous letters; a paper of suggestions to the Duke of GLOUCESTER, (who had offended GEORGE the Third by marrying WALPOLE'S niece,) pointing out the best course to be pursued in appealing to Parliament for an income and promemoir by WALPOLE touching his sinecures, THE frontispiece executed by Owen Jones in written at a time when the financial distress of the "chromolith," and the rest on stone by several American War induced a call for their abolition; efficient hands, these views of the ancient monu- an autobiography, to 1779, under the title of ments in Central America remind us of the beau-"Short Notes of my Life," confined to mere facts, ty and splendor of Lord Kingsborough's Mexico, or Vyse's Egypt. They are the fruits of Mr. Catherwood's two expeditions into the country, the majority of them belonging to his second The time of these letters embraces great politijourney, in 1841. Referring to Stephens, Pres- cal events: the full-blown corruption and miscott, and other authors, for general information government of India, on which WALPOLE falls relative to these extraordinary remains, the artist into the common cry; the middle and close of the gives a particular description of each plate. All American War; the first appearance of the youngbears out the fact of an early civilization, and a er PITT, both as orator and statesman; the coalisplendor which could only spring up amongst a tion of Fox and NORTH, with its downfall and the powerful people. We may take to the Literary destruction of the family Whig oligarchy. The Gazette the merit of having first brought this inte- leading incidents of these topics are touched upon resting subject into European notice, by publish- in the volumes before us, and at varying lengths; ing the correspondence of Colonel Galindo, de- but more in the character of observer than actor. scribing the ruins of Copan and Palinque in Chi-At an earlier period of life WALPOLE mingled in apas, many years ago; and we were glad to find that Messrs. Stephens and Catherwood had taken their cue from him, and opened their campaign on the field he pointed out. Their course of exploration further embraced Quirigua, Uxmal, and other immense remains which are figured with truly artistic skill and ability both in their broad-a er features and their remarkable details. Pyramids, idols, palaces, courts, fragments, ornaments, doorways, arches, mighty temples, wells, castles, &c. &c., all admirably displayed, fill the space of this splendid work; to which a clear useful map, marking out their sites, is a valuable addition and key. Turning the first leaves, the tinted pictures of the great idol at Copan, with
the world of politics, and his accounts had the narrative air which is derived from first-hand knowledge. More confined to the house by gout and advancing years, and dependent upon the information of others, his present notice of events has rather the character of a commentary, and of commentator not uninfected by the "lauditor temporis acti."-Spectator.
* Plate XV. here is one of the most striking illustrations of the natives. They are delightfully grouped in this drawing: but still more so in Plates XVIII., XIX., and XX., the wonderful Well of Bolouchen.-Ed. L. G.
North British Review, No. I A new Quarterly | SELECT LIST OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. Review. Edinburgh, Kennedy; London, Hamilton, Adams, and Co.
It may seem like a contradiction, but it is nevertheless a truth, that mere authorship, however excellent, will not suffice for a literary periodical Its first purpose is to supply a want or create a desire; and this purpo-e does not seem to be attainable in practice by men of letters and nothing else. BYRON, BULWER, CAMPBELL, and MOORE, have failed egregiously, and others of lesser note in the present and former times have not succeeded particularly well. On the other hand, the most successful periodicals have been planned and produced by men whose first or only vocation
A History of the Church, in Seven Books, from 306 to 445. By Socrates, surnamed Scholasticus or the Advocate. Translated from the Greek, with some AcCount of the Life and Writings of the Author.
History of Holland, from the beginning of the Tenth to the end of the Eighteenth Century. By C. M. Davies.
Historical Collections of the State of
Narrative of the late Victorious Cam
not letters. CAVE started the original Monthly, the Gentlemen's Magazine; GRIFFITH Pennsylvania. projected the Monthly Review, PHILLIPS the New Monthly Magazine; BLACKWOOD the work which bears his name; JEFFREY, BROUGHAM, and SYD-paign in Affghanistan, under General PolNEY SMITH, two lawyers and a divine, establish-lock; with Recollections of Seven Years' ed the Edinburgh; the Quarterly, though urged Service in India. By Lieut. Greenwood, by SCOTT out of soreness for JEFFREY's criti-H. M. 31st Regiment. cisms, was published as the organ of a party, to be supported by their ablest official men. Even the Westminster, though inferior both in ability and influence to the two great organs of Whigs and Tories, was intended as a channel for the circulation of certain views in politics and philosophy, and received its color from minds deeply imbued with the opinions it advocated, (though they might be assisted by mere literary men,) and whose main object was to give utterance to a
From this impulsive character arises much of the originality of influential and very successful periodicals. No matter whether it be an observing caterer for the public supplying avowed or latent longings, or men impressed with new principles to which they are impelled to give utter
ance in either case vitality and novelty of spirit are the consequence; and they guide aud stimulate their more professional collaborateurs In many cases this living and social character impresses novelty upon the style and form of their publications. The original Monthly Magazine, the original Monthly Review, and the original Quarterly Review, were all new in form as well as substance: even their style of typography and getting-up was novel. Some of the Magazines and Reviews of the last century, as well as the Quarterly, were imitations of periodicals existing, so far as form was concerned; but they appeared for the most part as opponents in principles as, well as rivals in trade.
The Progress of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in France, Belgium, and England. Illustrated by 100 Engravings.
Factories and the Factory System, from Parliamentary Documents and personal Examination. By W. Cooke Taylor, L.L. D.
Black's General Atlas; comprehending Sixty-one Maps from the latest and most authentic sources. Engraved on steel, by Sidney Hall Hughes, &c.
The Three Kingdoms: England, Scotland, and Ireland. By the Viscount D'Arlincourt.
The Idolatry of the Church of Rome. By the Rev. A. S. Thelwall, A. M., of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Hebrew-English Lexicon; containing all the Hebrew and Chaldee Words in the Old Testament Scriptures, with their Meanings in English.
Köllner, Dr. Ed. Symbolik aller christlichen Confessionen. 2 Th.: Symbolik der heil. apostolischen römischen Kirche. Ham
Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des
ronymus, herausg und mit Anmerkungen begl. v. Joh. Kirchhofer. Zurich.
Something of this is visible in the North Brit-burg. ish Review. Having a theological object in opposing Puseyism, with a general design of infus- neutestamentlichen Canons bis auf Hieing a religious tone into literature and politics, it has so far a living principle; but the general form is imitative or common. There is a good enough selection of topics so far as variety is concerned; they are handled with good although not striking ability; but they have no distinctive marks, except an occasional want of cultivated skill in some of them. Beyond this peculiarity, which is not an advantage, the papers might be placed in any periodical without attracting particular attention unless for an occasional religious strain.—Ibid.
Kohl, J. G., Reisen in Schottland. Dresden.
Beha-eddin's Essenz der Rechnenkunst.
Grimm J., Deutsche Mythologie. 2 stark verm. u. verb. Ausg. Abth. I. Göttingen. Agassiz, L., Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Soleure.