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(Perbuat of the sorereign prieces 2:43s and cities of Gerrmar. 11 5* the congress by the plearbraga in the Dooth of April, is was the Pruss, an plenape 2. Het tot urgans of the costituta 2 Prace de Metternich sa hy na to the preparation of that e libre escupec b's notice, Dom IR ESET Nach Bad Dot been 1920 which had not ob: 210, 1922
aral. Incerd, in his sa President of the congress, fup be *paidt under discus 2012 or general, came belite Irach le gare his best and me 'Su streng, aso, was the me to Les lote of truth and
nevertheless, found time to attend to the de- ed to the ambition of the greater German
with a more enlightened and philosophical atOne of the first measures which came under tention to the permanent interests of the the consideration of the high plenipotentiaries whole of Europe. They will bear the closof the eight powers, parties to the treaty of est investigation, and in proportion as they Paris, was one of universal importance and phi- are studied will they be found to contain the lanthropy. It was in January, 1815, that that most enlarged, noble, and powerful views. question of the abolition of negro-slavery and The treaty between Great Britain and Prusthe annihilation of the slave-trade was brought sia now lies before me, and I find appended under the consideration of the congress of to it the honored signatures of HardenVienna. And how did the Prince de Met- berg,” Humboldt," and
“ Wellington." ternich conduet himself during that memora- Those are names which will be immortal in ble debate ? Did he oppose the cause of the page of history when their detractors emancipation? Did he sanction the long-ex- shall be unknown. isting traffic in human flesh? No. He pro- When the treaties between the great powclaimed, in language worthy of the Christian ers had been signed, the Prince de Metterrepresentative of a great Christian state, that nich felt that the time had arrived to convoke his voice was for the cause of humanity, jus- the representatives of the secondary Gertice, and real civilization. His was no mere man states, in order that they might give adherence to the cause of philanthropy and their adhesion to the principle of those treamercy, but he pleaded with eloquence and ties, and consent to abide by them, at the authority for the abolition of the horrible same time that they should be invited to traffic in negro life and blood. Yet this is offer their opinions relative to the future conthe man whom it has been the habit of de- stitution of the proposed Germanic confedermocracy during forty years to represent as ation. Accordingly, on the 31st March, the an enemy, to freedom and to the human ministers and plenipotentiaries of the Gerrace!
man princes and of the free towns and cities In February, 1815, the representatives of assembled. At length, then, the wishes of the thirty-four lesser German states became the princes of Germany were gratified; but most importunate. They had taken no part the Prince de Metternich required that the in the proceedings of the German constitu- five members of the German constitution tion committee, and they apprehended that committee should form part of the general the Germanic confederation would be formed committee of plenipotentiaries then to be without their consent. They accordingly named. re-addressed the Prince de Metternich, who The ably concerted plan adopted by the assured them that all that had been done by four great powers, first to conclude general the committee was merely preliminary, and treaties between each other, and then to rethat when the whole of their labors should be quire all smaller states and powers to adhere completed, the representatives of the various to their provisions, was, I believe, originally states of Germany would be duly convoked. suggested by the Prince de Metternich. The Prussian government had in the mean- This plan was wholly novel, was calculated time been occupied in preparing two pro- to save a great loss of time, and prevented jects; the one, taking it for granted that the heart-burnings, jealousies, rivalry, and disconfederation would be divided into circles, content. If each of the smaller states of Gerand the others, under the supposition that it many and of Europe had been simply consultwould not so be divided. Prussia was in fa- ed prior to the great and general treaties vor of the division into circles, and yet Prus- being framed and signed, years must have sia protested her desire to see the smaller been consumed simply in the consideration states of Germany maintain their independ of their objections. ence, and not be exposed to become sacrific- At length was presented the project of a
z te all other atit m; ts ar.co szerinted, those wbothrupkillary mragenlied ought to be reen be kad nights wluch were dotate and were likely to be list. di est up their botes, protests, E editoard them to him. A.. "300 with attentive interest.
les tat of the Prince de Meto krem sua bols estused. One Trad: in bis he has he gisen 210 Dobe brite remarkaby *uatios with the pinip »
jer German states. On : 13, thrise sutinis ben,
la parte interested in the it.poslalt og ber led hare since admitBling were the interests, nosa, and soient the passions.
time, that but for the t
a honless of the Prince de i
Cerasummate tact, there
2.0. The first point he in- H
on the acances Praed to the lime grad be adliered to, and
Cosbuc be tren without
Wrond of Use Midce; ng the Prince of Blu
in the lower Rhine, under has thise of Wellington."
it sta ti hiling,
la few words and re
pact of confederation of the sovereign princes From day to day the plenipotentiaries met. and of the free towns and cities of Germany. Prince de Metternich admitted of no delay. It was laid before the congress by the pleni- In vain did some attempt to defeat his plan potentiaries of Prussia in the month of April, by protests, memoirs, and notes. The pro1815. But although the Prussian plenipo-ject of the treaty of alliance and of accession tentiaries were the organs of the constitution with the princes and free cities and towns of committee, the Prince de Metternich was hy Germany was another of the important lano means foreign to the preparation of that bors of this extraordinary man, whose eyes, document. Nothing escaped his notice, no- thoughts, mind, seemed to possess the attrithing was submitted which had not been bute of ubiquity. laid before him, and which had not obtained, And now the name of Buonaparte once at least, his general approval. Indeed, in his more resounded in the ears of Europe. The capacity as president of the congress, for he war against the man who had forfeited his was nothing less, every point under discus- word, broken all his engagements, and escapsion, either special or general
, came before ed from Elba, called into the field the most him, and to each he gave his best and most ardent spirits of all ranks, ages, and classes, valuable attention. So strong, also, was the and Europe armed against the despot and the general feeling as to his love of truth and usurper. justice, that when all other attempts and In all the arrangements necessary to be measures had failed, those who thought they made for that purpose, Austria and the had suffered wrongs which ought to be re- Prince de Metternich decidedly took the lead, dressed, or that they had rights which were and Europe owes to that distinguished man, kept in abeyance and were likely to be lost, simply for his talent, skill, judgment, forewere sure to draw up their notes, protests, sight, and energy in this matter, a debt of or memoirs, and forward them to him. All gratitude she will be unable to repay. of these he examined with attentive interest. The separate articles agreed on between
The matchless tact of the Prince de Met- Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, ternich can never be too highly extolled. On on the 25th April, 1815, upon the exchange very many occasions in his life has he given and ratification of the treaty of the 25th proof of this; but on none more remarkably March of the same year, were also partly the so, than in his negotiations with the plenipo- work of the subject of this memoir; as was tentiaries of the smaller German states. On also the treaty of accession of the 27th April the 12th April, 1815, those sittings began, between the four great powers just mentioned and all who were interested in the important on the one part, and the princes of states and debates to which they led have since admit- free towns and cities of Germany on the ted that so conflicting were the interests, other part. strong the jealousies, and violent the passions, The complaints of some petty princes that of all parties at that time, that but for the their rights were not respected, their privimoderation and firmness of the Prince de leges conceded, and their independence asMetternich, and his consummate tact, there sured, became, towards the close of these would have been interminable and even sub- negotiations, very numerous and loud. The versive discussions. The first point he in- Prince de Metternich examined and consisted on was that the alliances formed by the sidered them ; but as he was from principle four great powers should be adhered to, and opposed to the multiplication of power, to that this adhesion should be given without the establishment of new governments, and long debates or unnecessary delay .
to the resuscitation of governments which
had long since ceased to exist, he supplied * The treaties must be acceded to," said the
no favorable answer to the various claimants. prince; “ each power must pledge itself to guarantee their execution, contingent forces must be
The projected constitution for the Gerfixed on to secure the fulfilment of the guaran- manic confederation was during the whole tee, and special conventions must be signed to of this time the subject of discussion and conprovide for the maintenance of those contingent sideration, and on the 1st May, 1815, the troops. Three armies will assemble; one on Prussian plenipotentiaries submitted to the the Upper Rhine, under the orders of the Prince Prince de Metternich a new project, revised de Schwarzenberg; the second on the Middle
and corrected. The prince at once underRhine, under the orders of the Prince of Blucher; and the third on the Lower Rhine, under took the task of examining this document, the command of the Duke of Wellington."
and in the course of the month presented a
proposed basis for a future constitution. Here was a plan the most magnificent and The treaty of Paris of the 18th May, 1815, pet minute, explained in a few words and re- and the events which rendered it necessary, duced to a few lines of writing.
for some time occupied the mind of the
a ponge Bat was not this 2012prince; but he did not lose sight of the divid- plenipotentiaries for the purpose of avoiding
Fagers Prussja miatt bare et ed condition of the “ Fatherland,” nor was an act so really felonious; and the Prince de
PE, 2 Austria was cap he so engrossed by the mighty facts then Metternich was at once so anxious to pre
€ Bud De beste transpiring as to be indifferent to the ques- serve peace, and yet so resolved not to be
Loteut it was then tl tion of the Germanic confederation. The any party to an act of spoliation, that the line
s Prasian pipetpatrul.Si preparation of the separate treaties to be of conduct he had to pursue was very difficult
. signed by all the lesser powers of Europe Prussia remained for a long time firm in
be rece of En: 150 W with the four greater, also steadily proceeded; her determination not to yield on this point
derces and use it and on the 23rd May, 1815, the conferences to the court of Austria, and she represented again commenced at Vienna relative to the that the faith of treaties required that she
pe c Ber...cc, and
C. Ab' to boom en establishment of the Germanic confederation. should have as large a territory as was necesThese conferences were continued from day sary to defend herself against Austrian or
weariness, and to day, and the observations and objections other aggressors. The Prince de Metterof every prince and free town or city were nich met these statements by statistical heard and examined. On the 8th June, tables ; had accounts of the population of
7 of the kir cu of Sat 1815, the memorable act by which the fede- each province and district collected and arral constitution of Germany was assured was ranged, and demonstrated by figures that her a gare, homme duly signed, and the act of the congress of population was greater in point of numbers
A to the P:. Vienna for settling the whole of Europe and than it ever had been, besides being made establishing it on a permanent basis of order, up of flourishing and most productive counjustice, and liberty, as well as of hereditary tries. To this mode of attack Prussia replied right, bears date the following day.
by similar statistical tables with regard to The representatives of the King of Wir- Austria, and showed that the court of Vienna temberg gave much, but fruitless trouble to had, at any rate, nothing to complain of with the Prince de Metternich, during the whole regard to the arrangements which had been progress of the negotiations relative to the made in her favor, and which vastly increased future states of the confederation, the consti- the population of the Austrian dominions. tution of that confederation, and to various The Prince de Metternich then suggested a other questions of importance. The con- scheme by which the King of Saxony might duct of the government and court of Wir- preserve a portion of his dominions, the rest temberg the prince did not approve, and he being given to Prussia. This was one of took occasion several times to make them the least able moves of which the prince was feel that they were evidently not sufficiently ever guilty; and it drew down upon him not aware of the numerous advantages secured only the retort of Prussia " that, as the printo Wirtemberg by the treaties to which they ciple of not depriving the King of Saxony of were the last to adhere. It was not, how- any part of his dominions was now abanever,' until the period for adhesion had ex- doned, it was better that he should have a pired that the plenipotentiaries of Wirtem- powerful kingdom assigned to him in Italy, berg yielded ; hut at last they did so with a than one of inadequate dimensions in Gervery bad grace, and Metternich was victori- many;" whilst Viscount Castlereagh, the
Prince de Talleyrand, and the Emperor AlexOne of the most interesting but difficult ander, alike fell upon this scheme with all questions which for a long time occupied the their nerve and talent wholly to destroy it. mind of the prince related to the boundaries The correspondence which took place on which should be assigned to Prussia, espe- this subject was most admirable.
The cially with regard to the long-proposed over- Prince de Talleyrand was nerer more logical, throw of the kingdom of Saxony. The powerful, and unanswerable than in this quesprince, far from desiring to circumscribe the tion, which he treated at the same time with limits of Prussia, ardently wished for the the playfulness of a wit, all the attitude and creation of a powerful and influential king- maneuvring of an actor, all the skill of a dom. Not only did he assert the necessity diplomatist, and yet all the high and lofty of this for the sake of Prussia and her mon- notions of a real statesman. arch, but likewise with regard to the bal- The Prince de Metternich rallied all his ance of power in Europe. But to him it ap- energies, and did his very best to destroy or peared, as well as it did to his august master, diminish the impression which his decoythat no act of injustice could be more scandal- duck system had made on Europe. But in ous, after all the spoliations and sacrifices vain. He attempted to show that it was only the King of Saxony had endured and made, in the event of not being able to settle the than to deprive him of his lawful dominions. matter in any other way that then, and then Plan after plan was drawn up at the Austrian only, it was that he would agree to the dochancellerie and submitted to the Prussian minions of the King of Saxony being partly
given to Prussia. But was not this tanta- | a compromise between the Great Powers. mount to saying that Prussia might have her The fact was, that the position of France was own way, as far, at least, as Austria was con- equivocal, her voice could not be heard with cerned, provided she would be obstinately distinctness, England was too far removed resolute?' And undoubtedly it was this that from the spot to have direct influence, and emboldened the Prussian plenipotentiaries. the smaller states of Germany had been kept It was not until the voice of England was in the back-ground. heard-England, generous and unselfish- When the Emperor of Russia addressed England, disinterested and powerful—that the Polish army, he congratulated it that in the government of Berlin yielded, and fin- future it would have its own colors, fight ished by a compromise. Ah! to how much under its own officers, enjoy its own drapeau, of heart-burnings, weariness, and suspicion, and be no longer the army of a foreign power. did this question of the boundaries of Prus- That all this at the time it was written was sia, connected as it was with the dissolution believed and intended, I have no reason to or the integrity of the kingdom of Saxony, doubt, and Prince Constantine himself was give rise.
not the less sincere when he declared that he The Polish question gave, however, even should govern the Poles according to their more trouble and anxiety to the Prince de rights, laws, and customs. I shall not proseMetternich than that to which I have just cute the subject further. The readers of alluded. In the first place, the Austrian go- Regina are not ignorant of the true state of vernment had for a long period of time felt, Poland now. The Prince de Metternich and even expressed, much uneasiness at the was influenced in his final decisions by the territorial aggrandisement of Russia; and love of Austria for territorial aggrandisement. never were fears better grounded than on the The jealousy felt by Austria of Russian present occasion. In the next place, the power and extension of possessions was no Prince de Metternich was of opinion that the secret at the court or in the camp of the Emconstitution of an independent kingdom of peror Alexander, and the arrangements at Poland, under the government of a Prussian last concluded satisfied neither England nor prince, would tend materially to preserve the France. But Russia pacified England by balance of power in Europe. This opinion promises of a national Polish constitution, was likewise held by the British plenipoten- and France was wholly unable to go to war. tiary, and France, when consulted, made a So Poland was sacrificed. strong and most eloquent protest in favor of The conduct of Lord Castlereagh during the nationality of Poland. The Emperor ihe whole of these transactions was entitled Alexander was, I am convinced, sincerely to the highest praise. His diplomatic notes desirous for the happiness of the Poles, but were those which invariably excited the deephe had also fixed his eyes on the duchy of est attention, and commanded the highest Warsaw, and he could not be tempted or per- respect. They were not only manly and elosuaded to relinquish it. On whatever other quent, but argumentative and unanswerable; points he yielded, he would not do so on this, and it was almost exclusively owing to the and the “partition of Poland” was the result. support which his lordship gave by his notes
It is really a very curious and instructive to the views of the Prince de Metternich task to reperuse, as I have done, all the docu- relative to the duchy of Warsaw, that any ments and state papers with regard to this portions of the duchy were detached from the question of Poland. The language of Great future territories of Russia. Britain was protective, magnanimous, grand. With regard to the question of Saxony, The tone of France was enthusiastic. The Lord Castlereagh felt very strongly as to the Prince de Metternich was calm and dignified, conduct of his Majesty. Upon one occasion but most certainly favorable, on all occa- he said that although he should experience sions, to Polish nationality. Yet that very some pain in beholding so ancient a family nationality perished, and Poland now only reduced by the measure of the incorporaexists in name. The reality is destroyed. tion of Saxony with Prussia to a state of proYet the proclamations of the Emperor Alex- found affliction and sorrow, yet, that if ever ander, his address to the army, his letter to a sovereign placed himself in a condition the president of the diet, his despatches and which authorized the sacrifice of his interests those of his ministers, were all positive and for the sake of the future tranquillity of EuI have no doubt sincere, with respect to the rope, that king was the King of Saxony, who, Poles preserving their nationality, and being by his perpetual tergiversations, and by being protected by a constitution. The negotia- not only one of the most devoted, but also tions relative to Poland terminated as did one of the most favored of the vassals of Buothose concerning the kingdom of Saxony, by naparte, contributed with all his power, and May, 1844.
also with much zeal, in his double quality of mountable obstacle to the arrangement of the chief of the German and chief of the Polish federation act, that we condemn the entire incorstates, to urge on the usurper in his course poration of Saxony with Prussia, and not at all of invasion, even his expedition into the very sia would be augmented. The incorporation of
on the ground that by it the dominions of Prusheart of Russia. This declaration of Lord the whole of Saxony with Prussia is an obstacle Castlereagh produced a profound impression to our union, because the principles of the emon the mind of the Prince de Metternich, but peror, the closest family ties, and all our relathe latter still continued to struggle, and tionships of neighborhood and of frontiers are eventually with success, for the restoration opposed to the measure. It also presents anoof the kingdom of Saxony. To no man at ther obstacle not less difficult to surmount with the congress of Vienna did Prince de Metter-regard to the arrangement of the affairs of Ger
many, because the principal powers have denich ever defer with so much real respect clared that they would not join the federal act and profound admiration as he did to Lord it
' so menacing a basis to their own personal Castlereagh. For that eminent statesman security as states should be adopted, as would he invariably professed to the end of his days be the incorporation of the powerful German his sincerest homage; and when his lord-states, effected by one of the powers called on ship’s tragic end was communicated to the to protect the common country." prince, he shed many and bitter tears. The conduct of Lord Castlereagh during the The court of Vienna was occupied with whole of the most important negotiations at two great points: the first was, to prevent, the congress, left an impression upon all by all means, and at all risks, the incorporaminds which was never obliterated.
tion of the whole of the duchy of Warsaw The Prince de Metternich could not, how- into Russia; and the second was to prevent ever, agree with Lord Castlereagh with re- the incorporation of the whole of Saxony into gard to the question of Saxony. Whilst his Prussia. The plan of Austria was successlordship thought it a matter of comparative ful—but thanks to whom? most assuredly to indifference whether the kingdom of Saxony none other than the Prince de Metternich. should be reconstructed, when compared to The admission of the Prince de Talleyrand the vast importance of rendering Prussia a as a member of the Polish and Saxon Comlarge, powerful, and independent kingdom, mittee of the Congress, was due to the reitethe Prince de Metternich thus wrote on the rated declarations of Lord Castlereagh and same subject :
the Prince de Metternich, that such a mea
sure was only just and wise. It was then “The reconstruction of the Prussian monarchy 'that the Emperor of Russia proposed, 1st. has appeared so necessary to the Emperor of To deliver to Austria half of the property of Austria, that he adopted it as one of the bases the celebrated salt springs and works of Wieof the triple alliance. Austria does not indulge liska, as well as the district of Tarnapol, &c. any feeling of jealousy against Prussia. She regards this power, on the contrary, as one of 2d. To deliver up a portion of the duchy of the most useful weights in the balance of the Warsaw to the court of Berlin. 3d. To renforces of Europe. Of all the powers of Europe der the cities of Cracow and of Thorn free. it is the one which has most in conformity with And, 4th. That the rest of the duchy of Austria. Placed like herself between the grand Warsaw should devolve to the crown of Rusempires of the East and the West, Prussia and sia as an united state, to which the sovereign Austria complete their systems of respective of the empire reserved himself the right of defence. United, these two monarchies form an insurmountable barrier against the enterprises giving a national constitution, such as he of any conqueror who may again, perhaps, some should judge suitable. day occupy the throne of France or that of Rus- The Emperor of Russia interceded with sia. Both being German powers, they will find the Emperor of Austria and with the King in their national connection a reciprocal influ- of Prussia, in the 8th article of this memoraence in the German federation, which influence ble project, in behalf of their Polish subjects, will be favorable to the cause of peace.
“Every thing ought then to tend to unite for the purpose of obtaining for them provinthese courts; and most afflicting would it be to cial institutions, which should be of a nature see those powers which are most directly called to respect their nationality, and which would on to cement the peace of Europe, engaged in give them some part in the administration of vain and injurious discussions. Germany should the country. How singular are these facts ! constitute herself a political corps, the frontier The Emperor of Russia promised a constitubetween the great powers ought not to remain tion to Poland, pleaded with Prussia and with and of Prussia ought to be perfect in order that Austria for large and liberal provincial instithe great work may be consummated. It is a tutions for the Poles who were subjects of measure calculated to prevent this union or to those powers; and did not even propose to delay its accomplishment, as well as an insur-hold Poland other than as an independent