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'We are disposed, dearly beloved brethren, to show all possible moderation in this necessary reformation; though charged to be strict in the fulfilment of our pastoral duties, we are allowed a discretionary power, and can consult your habits, your opinions, and even your prejudices, and all that may conciliate your interests with the glory of God; but woe to us if, blinded by weakness, we lose sight of the experience of past ages, and suffer things still to continue that have till now served, and can only serve, to perpetuate disorder.'-Gatherings, p. 72.

gusting to us in the public exhibition of coffins, such as takes place in the catacombs of the cemeteries, and in some nobleman's vaults, on payment of a fee. Like making a spectacle of an execution, or thronging to the funeral of a suicide or a murderer, this is hardly the healthy Christian contemplation of death, but rather springs from the same morbid feeling that led the Egyptians to introduce a skeleton in their feasts, and Lord Byron to have his drinking-cup made of a skull-not a repose, but an excitement -the substitution, in either case, for the wholesome fear of death, of a braving of

The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon.'

A great deal has been said of late of the unchristian respect of persons' shown by The reasonableness of the injunction, and the ambitious and monopolizing pews of the moderation in effecting it, we earnestly too many of our churches; and certain it is recommend to our spiritual rulers. On the that such distinction of rank in God's other hand, we will not think so ill of our House is very hurtful in many ways, and aristocracy as to believe that family pride that if there is to be an inequality at all, will stand out for the pitiably Pharisaical the tables should be turned, and the best distinction of burying within the church-places allotted to those who have, as is supof all privileges the most unprofitable to the posed, most to learn, and who are the possessors, and unedifying to the people. Church's peculiar care. But surely it is There can be few cases where they far more shocking to right feeling to carry have the shadow of a legal right; and an this inequality into the grave: we mean episcopal injunction might, we suppose, in every case, avail to suppress it. Belial and Mammon are the presiding deities of private vaults; for Christianity, reason, and decency, must, on an unprejudiced view, equally abhor them. The material appearance of a charnel-house is positively more nauseous than that of an earthen grave, and the process of corruption there perhaps the more loathsome of the two. When Allan Cunningham was offered by Chantrey a place in his own new elaborate mausoleum, Allan answered like a man and a poet, No, no, I'll not be built over when I'm dead; I'll lie where the wind shall blow and the daisy grow upon my grave.' His wish was granted; he was laid in the lap of his mother earth, under a simple sod; and, according to a brother poet's prayer; The evening sun

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Shines sweetly on his grave.'

The fact that the tombs most conspicuous in the Cemetery at Kensal Green, where 'Honest Allan' thus reposes, are those of St. John Long, the quack, Ducrow, the equestrian, and Morison, the hygeist, will not perhaps tend to raise the value of granite, and marble, and bronze, in the public mind. There is something, too, very dis

not in monuments, which may result mere-
ly from affection using its proportionate
means, but in the place of burial, so that
the poor man shall have the northern and
unsunned corner of the churchyard, while
the chancel shall hardly be deemed good
enough for the deceased rector. Even the
growing spirit of church decoration may be
perverted, if the foundation be not rightly
laid; for in many cases where the greatest
care is bestowed upon the fabric, it seems
rather to be viewed as a family mausoleum
than as a place of common worship; and
the high principle that is contended for will
be little advanced if the green-baized pew
only gives place to the emblazoned monu-
ment. Let the high clergy and laity follow
Allan Cunningham's example, and give
such directions about their burial that the
poor man may see some little sincerity of
action, as well as warmth of profession,
and have no more repetition of the old but
eloquent epitaph-

Here I lie beside the door,
Here I lie because I'm poor;
Further in the more they pay,
Here I lie as well as they.'

For our own part, when we think over the lives of those who claim chancel-vaults,

Join the party that repose without.' To subsist in lasting monuments,' says Sir Thomas Browne, 'to live in their productions, was large satisfaction unto old expectations. and made one part of their Elysiums. But all this is nothing in the metaphysicks of true belief. To live, indeed, is to be again ourselves, which being not only an hope but an evidence, in noble believers 'tis all one to lie in St. In nocent's churchyard as in the sands of Egypt. Ready to be any thing in the ecstasy of being for ever, and as content with six feet as with the moles of Adrianus.'

and of those who rest in the churchyard | but with increasing ratio; our burialwithout a stone to mark the spot of their grounds are meanwhile almost stationary; interment-like Crabb's old Dibble we and the mind shudders to think of the acwould content ourselves with the humbler cumulating horrors which must ensue from allotment, and a continuance of things as they are. There is no doubt whose prerogative it is to conduct the rites of Christian burial, and whose duty, therefore, it is to come forward at the present moment, and rescue them from their increasing desecration. One year more, and a new concession may be wrested from the Church, and another tie may be broken; and while Churchmen are busied in fine-drawing the Articles in their studies, and carving rood-screens in their workshops, the opportunity of a great practical restoration, at once primitive and catholic, pious, edifying, and popular, may be allowed to slip away, to fall into the hands of speculators and Dissenters. Never—if we may, without irreverence, apply to a minor want of the Church that expression which was more solemnly appropriated of old to her greatest need-never was the Fulness of time for a specific object more signally come. The necessity of the case is not

Though, as we have already said, we differ from Mr. Chadwick as to the hands into which the providing and maintenance of cemeteries should fall, we can have no difficulty, and we think the nation will go along with us, in coming to the same main conclusion with him :

'That on the several special grounds, moral, religious, and physical, and in conformity to the best usages and authorities of primitive Chris-more urgent, than are the means to meet it tianity and the general practice of the most civ- prompt and ample. The antidote as well ilized, modern nations, the practice of inter- as the bane is before us. The very existments in towns in burial places amidst the habit-ence of the Ecclesiastical Commission, unations of the living, and the practice of inter- welcome as it may be to many even in its ment in churches, ought for the future, and improved constitution, offers the fortunate without any exception of places, or acceptation-may we not say, providential-accident of persons, to be entirely prohibited.'-Sup. of a motive power and machinery made to Rep. § 249. hand to carry out the material framework; We also fully agree with him-'That the while the spirit to give life and energy to a necessities of no class of the population movement in the direction of primitive in respect to burial, ought to be abandoned usage, is only not boiling over for want of a as sources of private emolument to commer-vent at which to expend itself. It is not in cial associations ;'-that 'institutions of this only, but in greater matters, that we houses for the immediate reception, and re- want good practical men to guide the presspectful and appropriate care of the dead, ent high-running tide of Church principles under superior and responsible officers, a change for which, on the whole, we should be provided in every town for the cannot be too grateful. No great change use of all classes of the community;'-that of mind, for good or for evil, was ever the 'an abatement of oppressive charges for fu- unassisted work of man. Despite the cries neral materials, decorations, and services,' of old women and the fears of philosophers should be made; and we are sure that he-nay, despite the serious offences of the would meet us with his concurrence in the masters, and the laughable flounderings of suggestions we have tendered for the general diminution of all funeral parade. We cannot take leave of the Report without thanking its able author for the very great public service he has achieved by it.

And now, something must be done in this matter, and that without delay. This day the sun will set in Britain upon a thousand corpses of those who saw the light of yesterday. It will be the same to-morrow,

the disciples, no unprejudiced observer can fail to recognize in the present signs of the times, a more than common reading of 'vor populi, vox Dei.' Let the leaders only, instead of shrinking into irresponsible privacy from the immediate duties to which they have been called, or provoking friends into enemies by one-sided histories and extreme theories, or frittering away their learning on copes and candlesticks, take a

manly and practical view of the present [ and students to the sculpture galleries, was about requirements of the English Church, and 4938 in 1831, 6081 in 1835, 6354 in 1840, 5655

The number of visits to the print-room was in 1841, 5627 in 1842, and only 4907 in 1843 about 4400 in 1832, 5065 in 1835, 6717 in 1840, 7744 in 1841, 8781 in 1842, and 8162 in 1843. In the manuscript department 805 MSS. and 35 original charters have been added since the last of great biblical and theological importance, the return. These MSS. include 320 vols. of Syriac, greater portion written between the 6th and 9th centuries. The number of printed books recently added to the library is 11,549, of which 545 were presented, 2039 received by copyright, and 8965 purchased. The reading-rooms have been kept open 295 days, and the average number of daily readers has been 244. It appears that each reader consulted, ou an average, nearly five books a day. To the zoological collection have been added during the present year.-Lit21,864 specimens of different classes of animals erary Gazette.

as has been done in one field by the vicar of Leeds, take up such questions as this we have now dicussed-where the want is clear and palpable, and the remedy simple and well defined. 'Going over the theory of virtue in one's own thoughts, talking well, and drawing fine pictures of it;' this may suffice for the philosopher, but not for the Divine. Let it never be said of English theology, as it was of Grecian ethics, that when its written principles were highest, its practical development was at the lowest ebb. Of course we do not mean to apply this personally; we speak of measures, not of men. No great principles were ever yet advanced by the mere speculations of the closet. The benefactors of mankind— those for whose being we have to give God thanks have not been content with putting forth abstract opinions, but, like their great Master, have employed themselves in going had the gratification of a glance at an extremely inabout doing good. It is a commendation teresting collection of correspondence and other MSS., which Mr. Bentley has recently had the in the Gospel, that the love of a disciple good fortune to procure for publication. It conwas deepest shown, in that the work she did sists of letters of King Charles I. and II., and was done 'for burial.' We look to the also of a large number of Prince Rupert's; and Fathers of our Church to draw the conclu- many of them of great personal as well as historical importance. Like the Evelyn, Pepys, sion, and sum up our paper in the words and other literary treasures, these documents of the faithful Borromeo-Morem restit-have been curiously and safely preserved. Mr. uendum curent Episcopi in cemeteriis sepeliendi.'


Bennett, the secretary to Prince Rupert, was their original custodier, and in his family they were handed down till an intermarriage with the family of Mr. Benet, the member for Wiltshire, brought them into his possession. It is remarkable enough that though so nearly alike in name, the ancestor of Mr. Benet was disBRITISH MUSEUM.-The gross total amount of tinguished on the side of the parliamentarians, all receipts from Christmas 1842 to Christmas whilst the ancestor of the female line of Bennett was serving the king; and there was no 1843 was 37,3141.. of which 24,432. arose from sums already received from the Parliamentary We look forward to the appearance of these reconsanguinity, till their descendants were united. grant of 1843-44. The total expenditure during the same period amounted to 35,488., leav-mains with much curiosity, as likely to eluciing a balance in hand of 1,8261. The estimated date many matters belonging to one of the most expenditure for 1843 amounted to 37,5261. The memorable eras in English history. One of the estimated charge from Lady-day 1844 to Lady- papers we looked at was a receipt eigned in a bold day 1845 is 39,4871., and the sum proposed to hand by Prince Rupert for 1500l., his two quarters' pension to Christmas.-Lit. Gaz. be voted by Parliament 37,9871. The total number of persons who were admitted to visit the British Museum, and to view the general collections, during the year 1843, amounted to 517,440, being less by 30,274 than the number who visited the establishment in 1842. number of visitors in former years was as follows, viz. :-in 1838, 266,008; in 1839, 280,050; in 1840, 247,929; and in 1841, 319,374. The number of visits made to the reading-rooms for the purpose of study or research, was about 1950 in 1810, 4300 in 1815, 8520 in 1820, 22,800 in 1825, 31,200 in 1830, 63,466 in 1835, 76,542 in 1840, 69,303 in 1841, 71,706 in 1842, and 70,931 in 1843, exhibiting the enormous increase, between the years 1810 and 1844, of 68,981 readers, or between 35 and 40 times more than in 1810. The number of visits by artists


NAPOLEON RELICS.-M. Marchand, who was valet-de-chambre to Napoleon, has addressed a letter to the Constitutionnel, respecting the sale, by the executors of Sir Hudson Lowe, of various articles described as having belonged to the late Emperor. M. Marchand declares, that some of the articles so described were never in the possession of the Emperor. He mentions particularly the Bréguet watch, the portrait, and the gardenchair; and adds, that although the hair in the medallion may be genuine, the ribands connected with it had never been worn by Napoleon.Athenæum.


From the Westminster Review.

[but rarely statesmen or legislators. The world rarely sees the "spirit" which moves the external agency of a wise and beneficent Practical men gain the reputation, the power, the wealth. The "spirit" rests from its work contentedly, unknown, and says "it is good."

A New Spirit of the Age. Edited by H. Horne. Smith Elder and Co. A TITLE of large promise. Amidst all that is even now stirring all human things to their deepest depths, the announcement of All art, invention-i. e. original art-is a yet newer spirit is pregnant with high but the embodiment of "spirit" in some interest. For it is, after all, the "spirit" form directly or indirectly useful to man. which can alone give value to the material. Art is but the combination or arrangement of The aspiring, the upward, and the onward, natural principles to produce new results; are all encircled in the term spirituality. and the organization of bodies of men or It is synonymous with progress, with the bodies of matter are, in all cases, operations growth of man from the savage state, with of the "spirit." The art by which Mimatted hair, projected muzzle, high cheek chael Angelo found the statue in the marble bones, and prominent eyes, up to the high-block, and the art by which Oliver Cromest forms of human beauty; it is synony- well found a cavalry regiment in a rude mous with the release of man from physical mass of men and horses, were alike operadrudgery to mental exercise-his intellect gaining knowledge, and his spirituality teaching him, or impelling him to, its right ful application in the purposes of benefi


tions of the "spirit." The spirit of Watt could discern the form of the steam-engine in the metallic ore, with the dim vista of countless thousands of human beings set free from drudgery in the hewing of wood Through the whole range of human pur- and the drawing of water; and the spirit of suits, we find constant traces of this ad- Arkwright beheld the forms of various kinds vancing spirit, more rife at the present than of matter combining into a mill for grindat any former period of the world's out clothing by miles These men put And the reason for this is obvious. There forth their "spirit" in actual forms, to the is a large leisure class who have time to cognizance of the world. Other spirits, as think, who are clothed, fed, and lodged Homer and Shakspeare, gave their creations while thinking, with more or less freedom to the world in written descriptions; their from anxiety, and their thoughts are direct-ideal embodied their actual. Michael Aned to the processes best adapted for guid- gelo, Oliver Cromwell, Watt, and Arking the work of the workers, and shaping it wright, actualized their ideal. But there to the most useful ends. The workers have it is, the self-same "spirit" in all, making more supervisors over them, and produce itself obvious to man's apprehension in one better results; they waste less labor. A or other of the various modes by which society of all workers would do little more man holds converse with his fellows, of than realize their own physical consump-greater or lesser significance. tion. A sailing vessel, with a large crew What then is there new in the spirit of and no captain, would be lost, with all its the present age? Development has mightpower of physical labor. Converted into a ily increased, but we can discern no change steam-moving vessel by the long studies of in the quality. Wisdom is but wisdom now, men of leisure, the drudgery of the mass of as it was in the earliest ages. The spirit the crew is dispensed with, and a very small of benevolence existed from the time that minority do the work. They are set free the first man possessed more provisions to become men of leisure or workers at than he could eat, The benevolence grew other things. All that is greatest in the his- in proportion as wants were supplied, and tory of human actions, has been produced, its retardation has been caused only by the not by the workers, but by the thinkers. wants outgrowing the supply. The aristoThe changes that take place are the result cratic Greeks of old could be benevolent to of thoughts of individual minds, practical- each other; but the slaves of the mill who ised by the more active workers of greater ground corn for their bread, they regarded physical energy. Even the law-makers are only as lower animals. Benevolence in the This work has been lately republished in present day has greatly increased, because this country by J. C. Riker in a neat12mo edi-intellect, discovering steam, has diminished tion, and by Harper and Brothers in a cheap wants, and the spirit of man speaks out


more freely.

The title of this book is a manifest mis- ture of the mind which assumes to do this, nomer of unphilosophic construction-a is a proper subject for inquiry; for it must title indicative of the littérateur spirit which be a mind of no light capacity to be capaso commonly sacrifices meaning for the pur- ble of weighing and looking through so pose of catching the eye and ear-a bookselling title, not conveying the spirit of the book itself. We turn to the preface, to enable ourselves to correct the defect of the title.

It appears that Mr. Horne, thinking Hazlitt's 'Spirit of the Age' nearly obsolete by the lapse of twenty years, wishes to make the public aware of the peculiarities of—

"A new set of men, several of them animated by a new spirit, who have obtained eminent positions in the public mind, the selection not being made from those already 'crowned' and their claims settled, but almost entirely from those who are in progress and midway to fame.

"The selection therefore which it has been thought most advisable to adopt, has been the names of those most eminent in general literature, and representing most extensively the spirit of the age, and the names of two individuals, who in this work represent those phi lanthropic principles now influencing the minds and moral feelings of all the first intellects of

the time."

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many minds, to discover the spirit within them. Such a mind is in itself a great spirit of the age, and we are disposed to welcome its advent in a reverential mood. Such a mind would not enter on its task without due knowledge added to intuitive judgment. Knowing that men of even the highest powers are subjected to the occasional trammels of the mechanical routine of the bookselling trade, we may assume that the philosophical perceptions of the editor were overruled by the title-making propensity of the bookseller, and acquit him of any intention of misleading.

Had the work been anonymous, we must have been content to form our estimate of the capabilites of the writer from its internal evidence. But we have a catalogue of works bearing the name of Mr. Horneprima facie evidence of an industrious writer-and abundant material to test his general capacity as a spirit of the age, and also of his fitness for estimating the spirits of the age. His first acknowledged work pub

the False Medium and Barriers excluding Men of Genius from the Public.' Subsequently he became editor of a periodical, The Monthly Repository.' In 1837 he published Cosmo de' Medici, an Historical Tragedy.' In the same year he put forth the 'Death of Marlowe, a Tragedy in One Act.' In 1840 appeared 'Gregory the Seventh, a Tragedy.' Subsequently he edited a publication in monthly numbers, entitled The Life of Napoleon; and in 1843 appeared an epic, entitled 'Orion.' In his preface to the Spirit of the age,' Mr. Horne states that during the last seven or eight years he has "contributed to several quarterly journals," probably to monthlies also. In addition he has published a report of his proceedings as a factory commissioner, and was an occasional lecturer at the meetings of the Syncretic Association,* of which he was a zealous member. He has also edited an edition of Chaucer. There

Further on Mr. Horne professes his in-lished in 1833, was entitled Exposition of tention at some future period to make the present work complete-if the sale be good -by adding to it, 'The Political Spirit of the Age,'The Scientific Spirit of the Age,' The Artistical Spirit of the Age,' The Historical, Biographical, and Critical Spirit of the Age,' and the Educational Spirit of the Age.' That is to say, the preface negatives the title, by showing that the book is not the spirit of the age, but a selection of certain literary men whom Mr. Horne considers "the most eminent in general literature,' and "two individuals of philanthropic principles," whose "claims" he proceeds to "settle," for the purpose of "crowning" them. The promised New Spirit' we must look further for. The 'Spirit of the Age' turns out to be, not the general progress of man on the globe we inhabit, not even the spirit of Europe, but the spirit of a very small class of men in a very small corner of Europe, and that not in "general literature," but in particular literature, chiefly confined to poetry and fic* An association composed of unacted dramattion, with a considerable infusion of theists and others, impressed with the idea that they drama. were unfairly treated by managers of theatres and Mr. Horne claiming to be an "author of others. One result of this association was the prothe last ten or fifteen years," assumes the the Lyceum, where it was received by the public duction of a rejected, tragedy, Martinuzzi,' at capacity to sit in judgment, and pass senin a manner to confirm the judgment of the mantence on contemporary writers. The struc-agers who had rejected it.

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