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can, therefore, be no doubt that he is a ready and industrious writer.
dance, or work, for gain; but they will not pay to be taught philosophy. People will The first work, which, for the sake of also pay to be pleased; and those who have brevity, we shall call the False Medium,' pleasure to sell, find a ready market. A is dedicated "to Edward Lytton Bulwer, a man or woman may have a talent for dancpatriot and a man of genius." As Mr. Bul-ing, for singing, and working, in modes wer was at that time well known to the which people like; but if a man or woman public, it is evident that he had found some has a genius for inventing new dances, or means of thrusting aside the False Medi- songs, or work, of an intrinsically superior um.' The "exordium" in this work, is-kind, but which people have not been accustomed to, the genius must be contented to turn instructor without pay till the new art is rendered popular. Genius varies in That is to say, the stone being placed in its quality. One man originates a new a cabinet, as a specimen, by some one who philosophy; another originates a new mode selects it from a heap of other stones, it is of cheapening pleasure. One will get putaken care of, whereas no one takes care of pils by units, the other gets customers by a man of genius; and Mr. Horne gives in- thousands. But were the originator of the
"A common stone meets with more ready patronage than a man of genius."
stances of men of genius, "poets and phi-new philosophy to complain that he could losophers," from Homer down to Camoens, not sell his philosophy for current coin, we who have been buffeted about the world should be apt to suspect him of false phiduring their whole lives, and only valued losophy, and tell him he had mistaken his after their deaths. "Authors in general," genius. The popular thing is the paying from Demosthenes down to some individual not specified by name, have been an illused race; imprisoned when possessing property, and starved when possessing none. Sir R. Pis accused of neglecting an author, scholar, and man of science, who had been of much service to him, so that "his wife is obliged to wash in one room while he translates Greek in another."
thing: the widest popularity is among the masses; and the greater the refinement, the less is the popularity. It is the essence of high genius to be in advance of its age. The genius of the Greek tragic poets was not in advance of their age. They had cultivated audiences to whom they presented the highest intellectual excitement of the time, but we doubt whether their popu larity was great with the masses of uncultivated slaves.
"Dramatic Authors," Mr. Horne asserts, are as ill-used as all other authors, and but for the "barriers and false medium," the author of 'Paul Clifford' could produce a sterling comedy, in which the philosophy, wit, and humor could only be surpassed by its sound and beneficial moral tendency. Yet Mr. Horne would seem to set little value on the moral principle. Speaking of Edmund Kean, He says
Now we object at the outset to a man of genius being made a dependant on "ready patronage." A man of talents may be subservient to those who require his talents, but a man of genius must be essentially original. He is a guide and not a servant; he points out new paths of excellence; unrecognised at the outset by any one but himself, and to appreciate which, in some cases, even the few require years of instruction, and the many require centuries. If he were not in advance of his time, he would not be a man of genius. We speak now of the genius for great things, the genius which elevates. To expect that people should rush in crowds, to worship that which they neither recognise nor comprehend, is an absurdity; to expect that they should pay for it in ready coin, is a conclusion that no man of great genius ever dreamed of. People do not pay for being taught anything but what they can take to market and sell or exchange away to ad-cred isolature." vantage, or such accomplishments as may tend to personal influence. They will pay Edmund Kean is a most unfortunate into be taught to dance, or sing, or work, instance for Mr. Horne to have chosen. order that they may be enabled to sing, or There is no doubt he possessed genius of a
"They (certain tragedies) contain some of the e'ementary principles of tragedy, which he (Kean) only can feel and portray."
And in a note he remarks
"The great_tragedian is no more; but he can never be dead so long as those live who have once awoke from ordinary existence to appreciate him. A deep continuous feeling is multitude can destroy or even disturb its saworth all your tombs; for no capricious moral
peculiar kind. There is no doubt that by | MSS. offered for publication, who never personal energy he broke through all false judges rightly of the merit of a work; who mediums; and there is no doubt that he invariably rejects all works of genius, and was very highly paid for his services, by a only accepts or approves of the very worst. public to whom his peculiar genius gave This reader is always either " a fool or a great excitement. Unfortunately, also, there knave," and, "in either case, the author is is no doubt that his personal character was the victim." Unmeasured terms of abuse rather that of a savage than of a civilized are heaped on this "reader "-on all man. He was one to gaze on, but not to" readers." associate with. His stage powers were all that he gave to the public in return for their recognition and large pecuniary payment. The "moral multitude" are assuredly rather hardly dealt with by Mr. Horne.
Composers and Musicians, Actors and Singers, all are alike ill-treated.
bitter coteries he can bear down and impress "He lords it dogmatically over the gin-andwith an idea of his knowledge, acute judgment, and literary importance. In the society of capable men over their brandy punch, he is
still as a mouse."
The Dramatic Reader at the theatres is
Jordan with a paltry salary of four pounds even worse, so bad, that Mr. Horne is surper week!" Claiming to be a man of prised none of the ill-used authors have genius, Mr. Horne has a strange propensity burned down the patent theatres. to try things by money value. "Pasta furnished with old clothes by the wardrobe women!" "Miss O'Neil brought out at a low salary, the owlish managers doubting her success!"
Novelists, Painters, and Sculptors, fare no better. Men of Science, Original Projectors, and Inventors, still worse.
In treating of the causes of all this, Mr. Horne remarks:
"No man who does write poetry can ever think of doing us any thing but verbal mischief."
Such Mr. Horne affirms to be the opinion of dramatic readers, but he adds
"Our idea of a tragic writer, exasperated by wrongs and want, is not quite so harmless; we are glad, however, of their escape."
It does not appear that Mr. Horne proposes that any one but the writer should sit in judgment on his own compositions, or at
"Napoleon was the greatest patron of genius and art in every possible class that ever lived. Those only who are conscious of superiority in themselves, apart from their station, who possess copiousness of intellect and power to do or suffer, can be above all petty jealousies and fears, and thus fit to govern others." "Shakspeare was treated by Eliza beth as an amusing playwright; and as he never meddled with public spirit' or politics.necessarily associated with defects." she suffered him to continue his labors unmolested."
We incline to think that Napoleon's patronage of any genius adverse to himself, is far from a proved case. He patronized talents that were useful to him. The genius of Carnot never succumbed, and was never forgiven.
Mr. Horne seems quite unable to comprehend that the genius of Shakspeare was above queen or court He would have had him made a duke at least, as a recompense for his writings, and a pension of course, though of pecuniary gains the great man had probably enough for his wishes.
The evil of men of genius who write books, is, according to Mr, Horne, the "false medium" employed by booksellers, in the shape of a "Reader," who peruses
"Few of mankind are prepared to relish the beautiful with that enlarged taste which comprehends all the forms of feeling which genius may assume-forms which may be
This is very like pointing out, that genius must necessarily be its own rewarder, the many not comprehending it.
The remedy "for all these evils, Mr. Horne states to be
"The foundation of a 'Society of English Literature and Art for the encouragement and Permanent support of men of superior ability in all deparments of human genius and know'edge.' * * * The permanent advantages to be derived by those whose claims are recognised by the establishment, should be realized by annuities for life. from 3007. downwards;
* * * this not to extend to gen
lemen who write novels and poems, for which they ought be hung."
When a man has written a fine epic and btained the 3007. a-year for life,
"He has done enough; would you have a
man write epics, and keep him at it, like a fought." Cosmo, nevertheless, asserts that wheelwright with a government order? ** he has been "murdered," and suspects Again, the producer of a powerful tragedy that Garcia knows of it. By way of makwould only be entitled to an annuity of 100%, not that we do not consider such a tragedy as ing sure, he has the dead body placed in an great an effect of human genius as the fines: alcove, with a curtain before it. Garcia is epic, but because there is a manifest difference ushered in; and Cosmo, after charging him in the time and labor employed, and also that with the murder of his brother, draws the a tragic author thus brought with his due honors curtain, shows the body, when Garcia before the public, would have a great chance says, "I did it;" but adds, "it was in selfof emolument from the stage, whose gradual defence." Cosmo insists that the blood is improvement would be a necessary congeflowing afresh at sight of the murderer; quence." but Garcia asserts that it is congealed, and
We e pause to extract one more sentence very naturally appeals to his father "not to from this False Medium.'
"He (Tonson) was the real Milton-he had got all the money" (from the sale of 'Paradise Lost'). Tonson and his nephew died worth 200,000l."
We now turn to the New Spirit of the Age,' and find the following assertion.
harrow his senses till he owns what is not."
"Thon constant God! sanction, impel, direct
"That in the pure element of dramatic com position, they (the unacted dramatists) also Subsequently we are informed that, with consider themselves worthy to be ranked with his own hand, and of course with this brosome of the dramatists of a nobler era, is un-ken sword, the father has taken his son's doubtedly true-and one of them has been heard to set at nought the scoffs of his time. by claiming to rank in the pure elements of tragedy, with the dramatists of the Greek or Eliazbethan ages."
In a note we are informed that this claimant is Mr. Horne himself, the author of Cosmo de' Medici' and 'Gregory the Seventh.'
him that Garcia slew his brother in self-delife, 300n after which an eye-witness informs
Throughout this play the sympathy goes only with Garcia, ill-used on all sides. The man of justice should also be a man of judgment to weigh evidence, and of stern purpose to act only on evidence. The
evidence was in favor of Garcia. His sword was broken, and Giovanni's was "unsheath
and stained, as though he had fought." A father with a heart, would have left no means untried to prove his remaining son innocent, but Cosmo leaves no means unIt is an inquisitor, not a father, nor a mintried to wrest evidence and prove him guilty. ister of justice, who is before us, and with an inquisitor we can have no sympathy. A father, butchering a son with a broken sword, is horror, bordering on the ludicrous.
The plot of Cosmo is briefly as follows:ed Cosmo, a patron of art, who gives livings and employments to scholars and artists, and professes a love for justice above all other things, has two sons, the elder, Giovanni, a student, described as of most sweet disposition; the younger, Garcia, given to hunting. These two brothers much dislike one another, and the elder exhibits his sweet disposition by constantly scolding the younger. By way of producing an atThere are several prose scenes in this tachment between them, their mother per-play, we presume, intended for humor; suades the elder to join a hunting party they are, indeed, "heavy lightness." There with the younger. In the forest they quar-is also a philosophic sculptor to whom Cos
rel as to which had slain a boar. Some
how this quarrel changes into a dispute about a young lady, and they draw and fight. Garcia, the younger, breaks his sword in half, but yet contrives to kill his brother, whose body he leaves on the spot A courtier finds the body, and the broken sword point, which he conveys to Cosmo, informing him that Giovanni's sword was unsheathed and stained as though he had
death of his sons, as "life-sized figures," of mo gives an order for a monument after the his whole family The philosophical Pas
sato reasons thus:
"The duke is great and generous; yet methinks
To stand upon some cliff that goat ne'er hoof'd,
Companion shadows and commune with Time.
a case, a preponderance of self-esteem would not defeat all previous preparation. A tragic writer who can talk of "burning Scattered through this play there are down a theatre" as a means of redressing passages of great poetic sweetness. In " wrongs and want," cannot well be a dispassionate judge.
power of depicting character, and as a work of art, it is a failure.
With Gregory the Seventh' we neither make nor meddle.
A man of genius, capable of great things and of estimating the Spirits of the Age,' The death of Mar-must, according to our notion, be a very different person. Genius, i. e. the power of creation, we take to be an emanation of the "divinity that shapes our ends," and can no more work for hire than God himself could in the creation of the world. Great genius is ever in advance of its time, and can no more be appreciated by its contemporaries, than God's creation could be appreciated by the megatherian and ichthy
lowe' unquestionably bears considerable resemblance to certain writers of the age of Elizabeth. There is much passion in it, but it merely excites, it does not call for sympathy. It rather reminds us of the tragedies of mad Nat Lee, but it has a life about it, which 'Cosmo' has not.
By his own acknowledgment Mr. Horne considers himself equal to "the dramatists of the Greek or Elizabethan ages," in the osaurian tribes, who inhabited the world production of these "powerful tragedies," and entitled to a permanent annuity of 3007., so that he has already done enough to entitle him to a handsome income, when the "Society of English Literature and Art" shall be in full operation. To wish he may get it would be an easy matter, if we could" meat, clothes, and fire," or in lieu of the satisfy ourselves that he deserved it.
prior to the advent of man. Genius is a prophet where, "out of the fulness of the heart the mouth speaketh." Genius works for the gain of its disciples, not for its own. It works to advance others, not to glorify itself. The earthly body it inhabits, needs
latter a genial climate. Deprived of these After a careful examination we come to things it cannot work, but it needs only the the conclusion that he does not possess the essential, not the adventitious. It does high mind that is ever the attribute of lofty not need a respectable" income, nor a genius. He does not value genius for itself lodging in May Fair: it needs neither costly alone, but for what it will fetch in the mar- clothing, nor modish association, neither ket. "Permanent annuities, due honors, sumptuous fare nor costly wines; it needs further chances of emolument." are the sor-not even "due honors." The blind men did rewards he contemplates, and these off- of genius, Homer and Milton, could have hand, without loss of time, in order that recked little of externals, while they poured authors, like clergymen, may enter on im- forth the spirit from within. And in a very mediate enjoyment of their benefices. All humble residence was the genius of Richter men of genius, he says, are ill-used, all the developed. There is one thing only which public are fools, and those who profit are can reward genius-the sympathy of apprepart and parcel of the False Medium.' ciating spirits. Beyond this, indifferent to He is himself, he considers, ill-used, and of the man of high genius are all externals; course, he is disappointed. His tragedies "homely fare and hodden gray," are as have not been acted, and his epic has been good as turtle and velvet. We can consold for a farthing. Such a mind is not in ceive a man of genius in this our modern harmony, and cannot be fitted to sit in England, dwelling in a union workhouse, judgment on the spirits of the age-is un-clothed in workhouse garb, and fed on workfitted even to distinguish them. A man of house food, teaching, perhaps, the A B C to talent-a man of industry, Mr. Horne is, workhouse children as a quittance for his but assuredly not a man of genius, nor a meat, clothes, and fire, furnished with spare philosopher. We have not seen his Facto- leaves of account books as a reward for dilry Report, but we should expect to find it aigence, and permittted to sit by the kitchen medium of considerable prejudice, inseparable from the mind of the writer. A well appointed home, reputable clothing, and proper breakfasts, dinners, teas and suppers, are evidently essentials to induce in him a quiet mind, and, moreover, "due honors," but we doubt whether even in such
embers in the still night, and even thus producing works despised by existing publishers and an existing public, and destined to be hailed by future men as the gift of a great benefactor. We know of one earnest man, not of genius, but a devoted linguist, who saved his lodging by lying on the bare floor
of empty houses, to take care of them while (large upon it. The 'Spirit of the Age,' wanting tenants-earning his food by copy-if meant to express any particular kind of ing MSS. Not being enough "man of the spirit, should express the general preworld" for this lodging work, he was dominating spirit of the world as to some obliged to seek his nightly rest by the shel-particular branch of progress. In this view tered sides of brick-kilns, and a few oc- it is an entire failure, for the prominent casional pence by singing at low public- characteristic of the present age is physical houses, and with these appliances he actu- progress, i. e. progress in all arts tending to ally accomplished the publication of the diminsh human drudgery, and ultimately to two first numbers of a Dictionary on a new extinguish it-arts, also, tending to enlarge system. At one time this man had an in- the sphere of human pleasures. In the come of five pounds per week for teaching petty spirit of caste, Mr. Horne, a profes languages, but he was shouldered out of sional writer, deems that written books are employment by people of greater energy of more importance than things; that writ than himself. ers of things are greater men than the doers of things. It is true that contemplation must be the creator of great action, but it may print the results of its thoughts as indelibly on things and events as on paper.
Let it not be alleged that a man of genius requires a library and appliances. The man of original genius is not essentially a man of cultivated art. Homer was not a student of books. Earth, sea, and sky, and all on and in them were his themes, and In this view the strong Saxon spirit of out of his own soul he spoke or sung; and George Stephenson, the "Hengist of Railif it be asserted that in this our England ways," is a spirit of the age that has written men of genius need the appliances of art, a work whereon those who ride may read there are the museum and library called glad tidings of man's rescue from the bonthe "British," to which garreteer or cellar- dage and thraldom of ignorance; of his dweller may alike obtain access, though power of unison with his fellows for the they be clothed in frieze, baize, or sack-purpose of conquering and civilizing the cloth; there are the eternal realities of men earth, reclaiming its swamps and morasses, and women, and streets, houses, churches, and adding to its beauties. Prometheus, in and parks, and the never-ending river, car- the elder mythus, brought fire from heaven rying bodies, souls, and imaginations over to earth to aid man's uses. George Stephenthe watery highway to the furthermost parts son may be the hero of some future mythus, of the earth, and there is ever work to be which will tell how he harnessed fire to done of the task kind, for him who earn- chariots of iron, which became swifter than estly seeks it, to supply the body's bare ne- the winds of heaven. Isambart Kingdon cessities. A judge, of repute in the United Brunel is a spirit of the age that would not States, obliged to live in a city while at- be content with the work of George Stephentending in the courts without any practice, son, but made a yet greater work in adand with only a supply of money for a given vance of the spirit of his age, refusing to period, at the rate of a few cents per day, submit to the set patterns even of the great hired a garret, for which he paid the whole originator. David Napier, the restless planterm in advance, and laid out the remain-ner of steam-boat after steam-boat, each der of his money in sea biscuit, which he himself wheeled home in a borrowed barrow, and stored up in his garret, and on that and water he subsisted for many months, while pursuing his studies. And this in a city where the commonest mechanic ate three meals of meat per diem.
swifter than the last, and the planner of the great Bristol iron steamer, are spirits of the age. Clegg, of the railway air traction,— the rope of wound-off-wind; Smith, of Deanston, the physician of diseased land; Liebig, the multiplier of human food by chemic science, are all spirits of the age. Genius is essentially unconscious. Art- Marshall, of Leeds, the greatest of the ists, when mere imitators of genius, are captains of industry," he who spins flax self-conscious, and hence the petty squab- for half the world, and when profits become bles amongst men and women of talent," too large, voluntarily cuts them down, and poetasters, dramatizers, actors, and musi-"builds another mill" to keep up his annual cians, who make their art a trade; for revenues-he who works to underwork cot"two of a trade can never agree." ton cloth and replace it by cloth of linen; he, too, is a spirit of the age.
Mr. Horne has done rashly in taking up Hazlitt's ill-chosen title, and trying to en