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Farewell, my sovereign.
Farewell, sweet lords." (A little above, in the stage-direction at the commencement of this scene, the folio has “Somerset" instead of " Exeter.")
P. 303. (151)
"stir in" The folio has “stirre vp in."
P. 304. (152)
"water-flowing tears ;" "' Flowing,' quasi shedding? Compare tear-falling pity,' King Richard III. iv. 2.” Walker's Crit. Exam. &c. vol. iii. p. 172. — Capell suggests "waterflowing eyes.”
P. 304. (153)
“A York! A York .!" The folio has “A Lancaster, a Lancaster, "--of which Malone offers a forced explanation, and Mr. Grant White a still more forced one.—The True Tragedie, &c. (in which the present scene is much shorter) has no stage-direction here, nor any mention of "shouts” in the text." · Surely the shouts that ushered King Edward should be. A York! A York !' I suppose the author did not write the marginal directions, and the players confounded the characters." JOHNSON. There can be no doubt that in our early dramas the greater part of the stage-directions was inserted by the actors.
P. 305. (154) “And, lords, towards Coventry," &c. • Warwick," as Mr. M. Mason has observed, “has but just left the stage, declaring his intention to go to Coventry. How then could Edward know of that intention? Our auihor was led into this impropriety by the old play, where also Edward says;
• And now towards Coventry let's bend our course,
To meet with Warwick and his confederates.' Some of our old writers seem to have thought that all the persons of the drama must know whatever was known to the writers themselves or to the audience." MALONE.
P. 305. (155) “ The sun shines hot," &c. • This couplet should stand after Gloster's speech, of which, perhaps, it is part.” W. N. LETTSOM.
P. 307. (156) “If not, the city being but of small defence," Here Pope omitted “but.”. -Walker (Crit. Exam. &c. vol. iii. p. 172) proposes altering "defence” to “fence.”
P. 307. (157)
"an" The folio has "in.”—Corrected in the second folio,
P. 307. (158)
“[Taking the red rose out of his hat.” Here the folio has no stage-direction. But we find in The True Tragedie, &c., “Sound a Parlie, and Richard and Clarence whispers togither, and then Clarence takes his red Rose out of his hat, and throwes it at Warwike.”
P. 308. (159)
“ And set up Lancaster. Why, trow'st thou, Warwick,
That Clarence is so harsh, so blunt, unnatural,” The True Tragedie, &c. has
" And set up Lancaster. Thinkest thou
T'hat Clarence is so harsh unnaturall."Steevens conjectures that the second line should stand
“ Clarence so harsh, so blunt, unnatural.”Walker (Crit. Exam. &c. vol. i. p. 31) proposes, but not confidently,
P. 308. (160)
“Jephtha's," The folio has “Iephah;" which in the third folio became “Iepthah."
P. 309. (161)
“my mangled body shows,
That I must yield mij body to the earth,»
Is there not something wrong here?
P. 309. (162) " Thus yields the cedar," &c. “It were better to read
• Thus to the axe's edge the cedar yields,
Whose arms,' &c. Otherwise. Whose arms' will refer to the axe instead of the cedar." STEEVENS. But the construction in the text is not unusual with our early writers.
P. 310. (163)
" clamour" So The True Tragedie, &c.—The folio has “Cannon.”
P. 310. (164)
“War. Sweet rest his soul !-Fly, lords, and save yourselves ;
For Warwick bids you all farewell, to meet in heaven.” The modern editors have tried (unsuccessfully) various methods of improving this passage; in which the words of The True Tragedie, &c. are retained by our author. (Mr. Knight's note ad l. shows that he is not acquainted with the reading of the old copies.)
P. 311. (165) "The"
P. 313. (166) “I drink the water of mine eyes.”
- of my eye,”—which, with good reason, Malone suspects to be " rather an error in the transcriber than an alteration by Shakespeare."
P. 313. (167)
“Now," The reading of The True Tragedie, &c. “ Lo” is perhaps preferable.
P. 314. (168)
“thou likeness" So the quarto of 1619.—The octavo of 1595 has “ the litnes.”—The quarto of 1600 has "the lightnes.”—The folio has “the likenesse," which Malone calls “the phraseology of Shakespeare's time," and compares, in Julius Cæsar, act v. sc. 3,
“ The last of all the Romans, fare thee well,”— a faulty reading, 'undoubtedly: see note ad l.—Compositors frequently mistook the contraction "q" (thou) for “ Ý" (the).
P. 315. (169)
swoon ?" So the fourth folio. — The earlier eds. have “swound," "swowne," and swoun.” See note 93 on The Winter's Tale.
" The" P. 315. (170) Is accidentally omitted in the folio.
P. 316. (171)
“What, wilt thou not ?—Where is that devil's butcher,
Thou art not here:'
"What wilt y not? Where is that diuels butcher Richard ?
Thou art not heere." But that “Richard” is an accidental addition we have proof in the corresponding passage of the original play;
“Whears the Diuels butcher, hardfauored Richard,
Richard where art thou? He is not heere," &c. (Qy.
Richard, where art thou, Thou art not here ?" i.e. Richard, where art thou, that thou art not here?)
P. 316. (172)
“ London. A room in the Tower.
King Henry is discovered," &c. Here the stage-direction in The True Tragedie, &c. is "Enter Gloster to king Henry in the Tower.”—The folio has “Enter Henry the sixt, and Richard, with the Lieutenant on the Walles :" — which is at variance with Richard's words in the concluding couplet of the present scene,—"I'll throw thy body in another room."
The Cambridge Editors remark; “We have retained the stage-direction of the Folios 'on the walls' instead of adopting Capell's alteration a Room in the Tower,' as it seems likely that the mistake lies in the expression 'another room,' which was retained from the older play, the author forgetting that he had changed the scene to the walls." This is not the only note in which the Cambridge Editors account for some strange mistake by attributing it to a constitutional forgetfulness on the part of Shakespeare.- Nearly all the headings of scenes and the stage-directions throughout the folio were doubtless added by the players.
P. 317. (173)
Why, what a peevish fool was that of Crete,
And yet, for all his wings, the fowl was drown'd.” The folio has - the Foole was drown'd” (which, according to what precedes, would mean Dedalus).-The passage stands thus in The True Tragedie, &c.;
“Why, what a foole was that of Creete ?
That taught his sonne the office
P. 317. (174)
"fate, And Words added in the second folio.-On these two lines and the two preceding ones Mr. W. N. Lettsom observes, “I can make nothing out of them but that they are corrupt.”
P. 317. (175)
“ discord" So the older play. The folio has “Discords.”
P. 317. (176) “An indigested and deformed lump,” The True Tragedie, &c. has
“ To wit: an vndigest created lumpe." The folio has
“ To wit, an indigested and deformed lumpe :" But I have no doubt that the words “ To wit” were retained in the folio contrary to Shakespeare's intention,-he having expanded the rest of the original line into a complete verse. (In The Sec. Part of King Henry VI. act v. sc. 1 (p. 191), Richard is called, as in the present passage, "foul indigested lump.")
P. 317. (177) $ Thou cam'st
Glo. I'll hear no more :-die, prophet, in thy speech:
For this,' &c. The True Tragedie, &c. has
" Thou camst into the world
Glo. Die prophet in thy speech, Ile heare
No more, for this,” &c. Theobald printed
“ Thou cam'st into the world with thy legs forward.
Glo. I'll hear no more : die, prophet, in thy speech;
For this,” &c. “Had our editors,” he observes, "had but a grain of sagacity or due diligence, there could have been no room for this absurd break [" Thou cam'st —"], since they might have ventured to fill it up, with certainty too. The old 4to would have led them part of the way,
Thou cam'st into the world And that the verse is to be completed in the manner I have given it, is in. contestable ; for unless we suppose King Henry actually reproaches him with this his preposterous birth, how can Richard in his very next soliloquy say,
Indeed, 'tis true that Henry told me of;
I came into the world with my legs forward' ? I can easily see that this blank was caused by the nicety of the players, to suppress an indecent idea [?]. But, with submission, this was making but half a cure, unless they had expunged the repetition of it out of Richard's speech too."
P. 318. (178)
keep'st" So the third folio.—The earlier eds. have “keptst” and “keeptést."
P. 319. (179)
top" The folio has “tops” (and so the older play).
P. 319. (180)
"renown'a For hardy and undoubted champions ;" So The True Tragedie, &c. ("renowmd" and "renownd"). — The folio has “Renowne,” &c.—Here Capell conjectured, and Mr. Collier's Ms. Corrector reads, “redoubted champions."
P. 319. (181) “Work thou the way,—and thou shalt execute." So The True Tragedie, &c.—“The folio reads and that shalt execute.' But as the word 'shalt' is preserved, the other must have been an error of the transcriber or compositor.” MALONE. _“I suppose he speaks this line, first touching his head, and then looking on his hand.” STEEVENS.