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voted the Society's silver medal to Mr Joseph Kirke, for having trees of all these sorts, in a bearing state, growing in his nurseries at Brompton, near London. This collection was procured by Sir George Mackenzie, to whom the thanks of the Council were voted. At the same time, a collection of apples from the orchard of William Brown, Esq. of Tallanten Hall, in Cumberland, was exhibited, and highly approved of.
The Committee for Prizes reported, That the ungenial season had been peculiarly unfavourable to the production of fruits. A collection of the Clydesdale apples had been received, and the medal voted to Mr George Skead, gardener at Coltness, who transmitted them; but they were in general of much smaller size than usual, and not fully ripe. No collection had been received of the Carse of Gowrie apples. The Committee, therefore, recommended, that the premium should still be offered for collections from both districts next season, which was agreed to.
The Committee mentioned, that a prize having been offered for the best three sorts of apples lately introduced, or not generally known in Scotland, two sets had been produced, each of such merit as to deserve a medal, and they therefore proposed, that one should be awarded to Mr James Macdonald, gardener to his Grace the 'Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, and another to Mr Robert Purves, gardener to Sir William Cuning'hame of Caprinton. The medal for
The following Members were add
the three best sorts of pears in gener-ed to the Society at this meeting:al, was also voted to Mr Macdonald.
The prize for the best three Colmar pears was voted to Mr James Stewart, gardener to Sir John Hope of Pinkie, Bart.; and for the best three Crassane pears, to Mr James Arklie, gardener at Rockville. The medal for the best twelve heads of celery was also awarded to Mr Arklie. For the best six heads of endive,
the prize was assigned to Mr John Heriot, gardener to Mrs Mitchell at Parson's Green; and for the best twelve onions, from seed saved in Scotland, to Mr George Fowler, gardener to Sir Alexander Hope, at Luffness.
Medals were awarded for fine seedling apples: 1st, To John Dalyell, Esq. of Lingo, in Fife; and, 2d, To Mr James Bogie, gardener to Mrs Maxwell, of Terraughtie, Dumfriesshire.
A medal was voted to Mr Burns, Causewayside, near Paisley, for transmitting no fewer than twenty-three sorts of seedling potatoes; and also to Mr George Fraser, gardener at Coul, for his new seedling potato, called the Ross-shire Kidney, the qualities of which have been proved by five years culture to be very supe
Several beautiful drawings of apples having been exhibited, the Committee reported, that medals should be assigned to Miss Farquharson of Howden, for a drawing of the Ribston Pippin, and to Miss Sophia Agness Young, 48 Queen Street, for a drawing of the Paradise Pippin.
At this meeting two communications were read. 1. On the advantages of anointing the stems and branches of fruit trees with oil, with the view of destroying insects and their ova; by Sir George Mackenzie, Bart. 2. On the management of the grape vine, by Mr Robert Ingram, at Torry.
Robert Whyte Melville, Esq. of Mount
titious instruction. In such a condi tion the mental powers are narrowed and benumbed in the extreme. To calculate the degree to which they are capable of being enlarged and enlivened is impossible. Body and mind are both strengthened and enlarged by a due degree of exercise, properly adapted to each of this, daily observation and experience affords both evidence and illustration. Husbandmen and mechanics, engaged in active labour, are capable of greater and more protracted corporeal exertions than such men as live entirely idle, or are employed solely in sedentary professions. The powers of the mind may also be enlarged and invigorated to an incalculable, and almost inconceivable degree, and in some measure
Mr Andrew Gibson, gardener to J. A. Stewart, Esq. Glasserton.
Mr Robert Kennedy, gardener to the Earl of Galloway, Galloway House
Mr James Hanna, gardener to the Duke of Buccleugh, Drumlanrig
Mr George Paterson, gardener to J. -Maxwell, Esq. Kirkconnell
Mr James Bogie, gardener to Mrs Maxwell, Terraughtie
Mr Robert Carrment, gardener to M. C. proportioned to the intensity and con
Maxwell, Esq. Terregles.
tinuance of their application, and the number and variety of objects with which they are conversant. Speculative and scientific men are perhaps as much superior in their intellectual powers to gross savages, and such as make little or no mental exertions, as these are to the brute creation.
Mr Richard Paterson, merchant, Edinburgh
Mr William Smith, gardener to Sir J. Colquhoun, Bart. Rosedoe
Mr Daniel Robertson, gardener to Archibald Campbell, Esq. Walkinshaw
Mr Peter Wells, gardener to the Earl of Cassillis, Cullean Castle
Mr Peter Grierson, gardener to James Graham, Esq. Richardby
Mr John Drummond, gardener to Sir J. Montgomery, Stobo
Mr Robert Purves, gardener to Sir W. Cuningham of Caprinton
Mr Robert Elliot, gardener to Sir Thomas G. Carmichael, Bart. Castlecraig
Mr George Watson, gardener to J. Home Rigg, Esq. Tarvit
Mr John Chalmers, gardener to C. Lyall, Esq. Kinnordy
Mr Alexander Scott, gardener to Thomas Renny, Esq. Seaton
Mr Stewart Murray, gardener to Thomas Hopkirk, Esq. Dalbeath
Mr Ogilvie Neil, gardener to William
Macdonald, Esq. of St Martin's.
Thou sun, said I, fair light!
On the Origin of Fountain Worship. plication to which only, the human mind can be improved and enlarged. The history of our race evinces, reason suggests, and men are unanimous in thinking, that extensive and civilized empires, large and populous cities, are far from being coeval with the human species. The annals of every people may be traced to an era when their numbers were inconsiderable, civil polity and fixed habitations very little known. At such a period the attention of the individual is, from necessity,
MILTON, well acquainted with human nature, expresses, in my motto, the natural language of untaught humanity. Any one may be satisfied of the truth of this, by attending to the condition of men who have had but little experience, made few observations, and had no adven
the field and the objects best calculaIn the earliest periods of society, ted for the improvement of the mental powers, are extremely limited, both in extent and number. Numerous societies, affluence, and access to the various advantages and accommodations riches afford or can command, are highly necessary for the cultivation of those arts and sciences, by ap
necessity, principally, if not solely, directed to the means necessary for self preservation, and the continuance of the species. Minds conversant about nothing greater or more noble than food and shelter, or a fortuitous embrace, can neither be much improved nor greatly enlarged. These pursuits, no doubt, may be much more varied and interesting than the operations of a mechanic, constantly engaged at a single and simple branch of manufacture, carried on in its most minute divisions; and their acuteness and capacity must be admitted as proportionally greater than his; but they can bear no comparison with minds enlarged and cultivated by a liberal education, and improved by directing or superintending the concerns of civilized society. The condition of such men differs but little from that of the inferior animals, and cannot greatly contribute to increase the superiority which the former naturally enjoys over the latter *.
Observation so often repeated as to have become proverbial, incontrovertibly proves, that uncultivated and weak minds are most exposed to the illusions of superstition, which, among barbarians, is greatly increased by the unfortunate peculiarity of their condition. Constantly agitated by hope or fear, always exposed to suffering or want, that miserable principle, which never fails to depress even such minds as are only occasionally exposed to its influence, obtains an uninterrupted dominion over theirs. Ignorant of the real nature of physical appearances, unable to ascertain or comprehend the causes from which they actually proceed, they consider them as something extremely different from what they really are, and hence ascribe them to an absurd or inadequate origin.
This is very much the case with the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego and Caffraria, at Cape Horn, and the Cape of Good Hope.
That unity of design and consistency of procedure, which predominate throughout the universe, affording, to comprehensive understandings, a sure indication of the existence of a single wise intelligent author, are not convincingly perceptible to narrow minds, whose attention is exclu, sively engaged by a few of the most striking natural appearances, and which they consider as the source of every event they accompany. Among these, the heavenly bodies naturally hold an eminent rank. Extensive plains, and an unclouded horizon, peculiar to the birth-place of the human race, and the cradle of superstition, afford opportunities for celestial observations, scarcely procurable, and assuredly unsurpassed by the exertions of the skill of civilized nations less favourably situated. The sun or moon, and stars, being constantly in view, afford to a very ignorant, or even to a well-informed mind, the visible appearance, or splendid representatives of Deity: their number and distance convey to every eye the idea of immeasurable space and incalculable distance; the character of immutability appears impressed upon orbs, which always exhibit an uniform phasis, and whose motions are so regular as to appear the result of unvarying instinct, or unerring reason.
Admiration grows gradually and naturally into respect, and, in some cases, changes into veneration. The splendid celestial luminaries would not probably continue long objects of abstract admiration only. Being the visible instruments, or constant concomitants of every physical change or appearance, naturally encourages the belief of their being more or less concerned in every event that takes place on earth. Men's conduct is invariably affected in proportion to their belief of what is interesting.
This general reasoning is confirmed by a multitude of particular facts.These cannot indeed be always directly
rectly ascertained. In their rudest condition men have but few and imperfect records of their own transactions, which, on this account, must be learned either from their more enlightened neighbours, or the actual observation of scientific travellers.-We accordingly find, that fountainworship, as it has been termed, or the adoration of the celestial bodies, was the earliest untaught religion of which any traces can be found; and that ever after its cultivators had made considerable progress in refinement, they continued their former practices, only with increased splendor and ad
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larly attracted my notice; and I take the liberty of submitting to you a few observations upon them.
The first query is, Is there any invariable standard of linear extension in nature, with which the measures of length can at all times be easily compared? In his answer, Professor Playfair mentious the length of the second's pendulum in a given latitude; a degree of the meridian in a given latitude; and the height to which we must ascend above the level of the sea, to make the barometer sink a certain proportional part of its height, the air being at a given temperature. Dr Woollaston's mind seems to have been full of the pendulum; and no thing but the pendulum finds a place in his answer. A pendulum, says he, which, by trial, in a given place, performs its vibrations in a given aliquot part of a day, affords a portion of linear extension, as invariable as the decimal revolutions of the earth! He should have introduced the figure, as well as the rotation of the earth: for the vibrations of the pendulum are affected by the one as well as by the other of these circumstances.
In answer to the second query, Professor Playfair says, "Of these, the best standard of measure, all things considered, appears to be the pendulum." Dr Woollaston, having mentioned no other standard but the pendulum, is quite decided in his opinion that it is the best.
From the answers of these gentlemen, it plainly appears that easiness of comparison was uppermost in their minds, and was the point on which they laid the whole stress; entirely overlooking universality of applica
The length of a pendulum oscillating in a given time, in a given latitude, unquestionably depends on some great facts in nature. But as the length of the pendulum varies with the latitude of the place, this standard is merely local in its application.