voted the Society's silver medal to the prize was assigned to Mr John Mr Josephi Kirke, for having trees of Heriot, gardener to Mrs Mitchell all these sorts, in a bearing state, at Parson's Green ; and for the best growing in his nurseries at Brompton, twelve onions, from seed saved in near London.

This collection was Scotland, to Mr George Fowler, garprocured by Sir George Mackenzie, dener to Sir Alexander Hope, at to whom the thanks of the Council Luffness. were toted. At the same time, a col. Medals were awarded for fine seed. lection of apples from the orchard of ling apples : Ist, To John Dalyell, William Brown, Esq. of Tallanten Esq. of Lingo, in Fife ; and, 2d, To Hall, in Cumberland, was exhibited, Mr James Bogie, gardener to Mirs and highly approved of.

Maxwell, of Terraughtie, DumfriesThe Committee for Prizes report. sbire. ed, That the ungenial season had A medal was voted to Mr Burns, been peculiarly unfavourable to the Causewayside, near Paisley, for transproduction of fruits. A collection of mitting no fewer than twenty-three the Clydesdale apples had been re. sorts of seedling potatoes; and also ceived, and the medal voted to Mr

to Mr George Fraser, gardener at George Skead, gardener at Coltness, Coul, for bis new seedling potato, who transmitted them; but they were called the Ross-shire Kidney, the in general of much smaller size than qualities of which have been proved usual, and not fully ripe. No collec- by five years culture to be very supetion had been received of the Carse of Gowrie apples. The Committee, Several beautiful drawings of aptherefore, recommended, that the pre- ples having been exhibited, the Commium should still be offered for col. mittee reported, that medals should lections from both districts pext sea. be assigned to Miss Farquharson of son, which was agreed to.

Howden, for a drawing of the RibThe Committee mentioned, that a ston Pippin, and to Miss Sophia Agprize having been offered for the best ness Young, 48 Queen Street, for a three sorts of apples lately introduced, drawing of the Paradise Pippin. for not generally known in Scotland, At this meeting two communicatwo sets had been produced, each of tions were read. 1. On the advan(such merit as to deserve a medal, tages of anointing the stems and branand they therefore proposed, that one ches of fruit trees with oil, with the should be awarded to Mr James Mac- view of destroying insects and their donald, gardener to his Grace the ova; by Sir George Mackenzie, Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Bart. 2. On the management of and another to Mr Robert Purves, the grape vine, by Mr Robert Ing. gardener to Sir William Cuning- ram, at Torry. 'hame of Caprinton. The medal for the three best sorts of pears in gener- ed to the Society at this meeting

The following Members were add'al, was also voted to Mr Macdonald.

The prize for the best three Colmar pears was voted to Mr James Robert Whyte Melville, Esq. of Mount

Melville. Stewart, gardener to Sir John Hope Colonel George Paterson of Cunochy of Pinkie, Bart.; and for the best Henry Wood, Esq. of Esk Bank three Crassane pears, to Mr James Stewart Murray Pullarton, Esq. of Fullarton Arklie, gardener at Rockville. The James Allan Maconochie, Esq. advocate medal for the best twelve heads of John Dundas, Esq. Edinburgh

James Kerr, Esq. of Blackshiells celery was also awarded to Mr Ark

Mr Robert Daw, of the Customs lic. For the best six heads of endive, James Nelson, Esq. writer, Edinburgh



Mr Richard Paterson, merchant, Edinburgh titious instruction. In such a condi Mr Robert Kirkwood, engraver, Edinburgh tion the mental powers are narrowed John Spence, Esq. merchani, Leith

and benumbed in the extreme. To Alexander Spence, Esq. merchant, Leith Samuel Watson, Esq. merchant, Leith

calculate the degree to wbich they are Mr James Brown, accountant, Edinburgh. capable of being enlarged and enliCORRESPONDING.

vened is impossible. Body and mind

are both strengthened and enlarged Mr William Smith, gardener to Sir J. Colquhoun, Bart. Rosedoe

by a due degree of exercise, properly Mr Daniel Robertson, gardener to Archi- adapted to each : of this, daily obser. balt Campbell, Esq. Walkinshaw · vation and experience affords both

Mr Peter Wells, gardener to the Earl of evidence and illustration. HusbandCassillis, Cullean Castle Mr Andrew Gibson, gardener to J. A.

men and mechanics, engaged in acStewart, Esq. Glasserton

tive labour, are capable of greater and Mr Robert Kennedy, gardener to the more protracted corporeal exertions Earl of Galloway, Galloway House than such men as live entirely idle,

Mr James Hanna, gardener to the Duke of Buccleugh, Drumlanrig

or are employed solely in sedentary Mr George Paterson, gardener to J. professions. The powers of the minil Marwell, Esq. Kirkconnell

may also be enlarged and invigorated Mr James Bogie, gardener to Mrs Max. to an incalculable, and almost inconwell, Terraughtie

ceivable degree, and in some measure Mr Robert Carrment, gardener to M. C. Maxwell, Esq. Terregles.

proportioned to the intensity and conMr Peter Grierson, gardener to James tinuance of their application, and the Graham, Esq. Richardby

number and variety of objects with Mr John Drummond, gardener to Sir J. which they are conversant. SpeculaMontgomery, Stobo

tive and scientific men are perbaps as Mr Robert Purves, gardener to Sir W. much superior in their intellectual Cuninghamn of Caprinton

Mr Robert Elliot, gardener to Sir Tho. powers to gross savages, and such as mas G. Carmichael, Bart. Castlecraig make little or no mental exertions, as

Mr George Watson, gardener to J. Home these are to the brute creation. Rigg, Esq. Tarvit

In the earliest periods of society, Mr John Chalmers, gardener to C. Lyall, the field and the objects best calculaEsq. Kinnordy

Mr Alexander Scott, gardener to Thomas ted for the improvement of the mental Reony, Esq. Seaton

powers, are extremely limited, both in Mr Stewart Murray, gardener to Tho- extent and number. Numerous somas Hopkirk, Esq. Dalbeath

cieties, affluence, and access to the Mr Ogilvie Neil, gardener to William Macdonald, Esq. of St Martin's.

various advantages and accommodations riches afford or can command, are highly necessary for the cultiva

tion of those arts and sciences, by apOn the Origin of Fountain Worship. plication to which only, the human

mind can be improved and enlarged. Thou sun, said I, fair light! Tell, if ye saw, how came I thus? how here ?

The history of our race evinces, rea

son suggests, and men are unanimous Par. Lost, book viii. line 274.

in thinking, that extensive and civiliMILTON, well acquainted with zed empires, large and populous cities,

buman nature, expresses, in my are far from being coeval with the motto, the natural language of un- human species. The annals of every taught hamanity. Any one may be people may be traced to an era when satisfied of the truth of this, by at their numbers were inconsiderable, tending to the condition of men who civil polity and fixed habitations very have had but little experience, made little known. At such a period the few observations, and had no adven- attention of the individual is, from

necessity, necessity, principally, if not solely, di- That unity of design and consisrected to the means necessary for self tency of procedure, which predomipreservation, and the continuance of nate throughout the universe, affordthe species. Minds conversant about ing, to comprehensive understandings, nothing greater or more noble than a sure indication of the existence of food and shelter, or a fortuitous em- a single wise intelligent author, are brace, can neither be much improved not convincingly perceptible to nar. nor greatly enlarged. These pursuits, row minds, whose attention is exclu, no doubt, may be much more varied sively engaged by a few of the most and interesting than the operations of striking natural appearances, and a mechanic, constantly engaged at a which they consider as the source of single and simple branch of manufac- every event they accompany. Among ture, carried on in its most minute di- these, the heavenly bodies naturally visions ; and their acuteness and ca- hold an eminent rank. Extensive pacity must be admitted as propor- plains, and an unclouded horizon, petionally greater than bis; but they culiar to the birth-place of the human can bear no comparison with minds race, and the cradle of superstition, enlarged and cultivated by a liberal afford opportunities for celestial obsereducation, and improved by directing vations, scarcely procurable, and asor superintending the concerns of civi- suredly unsurpassed by the exertion's lized society. The condition of such of the skill of civilized nations less men differs but little from that of the favourably situated. The sun or moon, inferior animals, and cannot greatly and stars, being constantly in view, contribute to increase the superiority afford to a very ignorant, or even to which the former naturally enjoys over a well-informed mind, tbe visible apthe latter *.

pearance, or splendid representatives Observation so often repeated as to of Deity : their number and distance bave become proverbial, incontrover- convey to every eye the idea of imtibly proves, that uncultivated and measurable space and incalculable disweak minds are most exposed to the tance; the character of immutability illusions of superstition, which, among appears impressed upon orbs, which barbarians, is greatly increased by the always exhibit an uniform pbasis, and unfortunate peculiarity of their condi- whose motions are so regular as to tion. Constantly agitated by hope or appear the result of unvarying instinct, fear, always exposed to suffering or or unerring reason. want, that miserable principle, wbich Admiration grows gradually and never fails to depress even such minds naturally into respect, and, in some as are only occasionally exposed to cases, changes into veneration. The its influence, obtains an uninterrupted splendid celestial luminaries would not dominion over theirs. Ignorant of probably continue long objects of abthe real nature of physical appear- stract admiration only. Being the vi. ances, unable to ascertain or compre- sible instruments, or constant concohend the causes from which they ac- mitants of every physical change or aptually proceed, they consider them as

pearance, naturally encourages the besomething extremely different from lief of their being more or less conwhat they really are, and hence as- cerned in every event tbat takes place cribe them to an absurd or inadequate on earth. Men's conduct is invariaorigin.

bly affected in proportion to their beJief of what is interesting.

This general reasoning is confirmed This is very much the case with the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego and Caffraria, by a niultitude of particular facts.. at Cape Horn, and the Cape of Good Hope. These cannot indeed be always di


rectly ascertained. In their rudest ditional rites *. Modern voyagers and condition men have but few and im- travellers have discovered several naperfect records of their own transac- tions, or tribes, possessed of different tions, which, on this account, must be degrees of information, but the object learned either from their more en- of all of whose supreme regard is the lightened neighbours, or the actual sun, moon, and stars +. observation of scientific travellers.

AB-rz. We accordingly find, that fountain

* Diod. Sic. and Plut, attest this from worship, as it has been termed, or the

whom we also learn, that the sun was the adoration of the celestial bodies, was

first object of religious worship in Egypt, the earliest untaught religion of which and that Heliopolis, the largest city in that any traces can be found; and that country, was built to his honour. ever after its cultivators had made + See an account of discoveries made in considerable progress in refinement,

the Pacific Ocean, printed London 1767.

Americans of European extraction have at. they continued their former practices, tested the same fact from observations on only with increased splendor and ad- the conduct of the natives of that country.

Receipt and Erpenditure of the EDINBURGH Charity Workhouse, from 184

July 1815, to 1st July 1816. By GEORGE SPANKIE, Treasurer.




EXPENDITURE, CHURCH Collections £.1988.19., 02 Maintenance . . £.2604,1111 6.

Boarders in House 741 5110 Cloathing, Bedding, and Ditto in Bedlam 4781115,11 Furniture

9421110. 9 Paul's Work Mortifica

Washing, Lighting, and tion .' 298, 6, 1 Coals

3581 3. 23 Grayfriars' Church-yard

Petty Household Charges 260. 6. 6 Dues . :

163,1 311 2 Ditto Interest of Money 174v 17" 4 Casual Revenue

• 208, 1611 4 Household Fees and SaCity of Edinburgh · 200, 011 0 laries

611.13. 0 Two cent. Poor's Mo

Buildings, Repairs, and Dey 1812-13 Arrears 139.1 7.8 Funerals

193.16. Five cent. ditto, 1813

Mr Neilson, Kirk Trea-14, balance 1473.121 0

295v 06 0 Ditto 1814-15 in part 2400. 0.1 0

House Pensions to Fa. Ditto 1815-16 ditto 800m 0... O milies, &c.

16591 611 6 Mr Shaw's Mortification 911 411 4 Ditto Children at Nurse 260,141 0 Mr Hallowell's ditto 151 01 0 Temporary Supplies. 551 611 6 House in Henderson's ! Stairs .

41 311 0 Ditto in Forrester's Wynd 3.1 0 0


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£.8256. 12. 7

£.7416v 5. 53 Balance due by the

Sir Wm. Forbes & Co. 500.1 0.1 0 House

701,13. 24 British Linen Company 200. O. O Balance last year

84211 011 4 £.8958. 5. 91

£.8958. 5. 9


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This year 837 have resided in the larly attracted my notice; and I take House ; 86 Children have been paid the liberty of submitting to you a few for at Nurse ; and 852 Families and observations upon them. Individuals have been regularly sup- The first query is, Is there any inplied ; being in all 1775, whereof 75 variable standard of linear extension have died in the House.

in nature, with which the measures of The numbers stood in July 1805, length can at all times be easily comat 500-1806, at 712-1807, at 782, pared ? In his answer, Professor Play-1808, at 1000-1809, at 1194– fair mentious the length of the se1810, at 1340-1811, at 1284 cond's pendulum in a given latitude ; 1812, at 1402_1813, at 1501- a degree of the meridian in a given 1814, at 1740—1815, at 1752— latitude; and the height to which we

Average expence of those main- must ascend above the level of the tained, Six Pounds Fifteen Shillings sea, to make the barometer sink a and Sixpence each Individual per an- certain proportional part of its height, num, covering every Charge upon the the air being at a given temperature. Establishment.

Dr Woollaston's mind seems to have The Debt of the House at this date been full of the pondulum ; and nois £.3500, besides the above Balance thing but the pendulum finds a place of £.701 , 13 , 2.

in bis answer. A pendulum, says he, Since the above account was made which, by trial, in a given place, perup, £.1500 of the debt of the house forms its vibrations in a given aliquot has been paid off, which reduces it to part of a day, affords a portion of li£.2000. At one time it was £.5300. near extension, as invariable as the

In the spring of 1816 nearly 700 decimal revolutions of the earth! He bolls of oatmeal were purchased at

should have introduced the figure, as the low price of 14s. 3d. P boll ;- well as the rotation of the earth : for which will last to the end of the pre- the vibrations of the pendulum ‘are sent year.

Meal is now 30s. so that affected by the one as well as by the a great saving has arisen to the house. other of these circumstances. The comforts of the inmates have In answer to the second

query, of late been much increased as to

Professor Playfair says,

“ Of these, clean linens, change of linen, bed- the best standard of measure, ali ding, &c. The governor, Mr James things considered, appears to be the Greenfield, has, since his entry to the pendulum.” Dr Woollaston, baving office, done much to improve whatever mentioned no other standard but the was placed under his management, pendulum, is quite decided in liis

opinion that it is the best.

From the answers of these gentle

men, it plainly appears that easiness On the Standard to be adopted for the of comparison was uppermost in their Regulation of Weights and Mea- minds, and was the point on which

they laid the whole stress ; entirely overlooking universality of applica

tion. Sir,

The length of a pendulum oscillaIN your last Number you have insert- ting in a given time, in a given lati

ed queries relating to the equali. tude, unquestionably depends on some zation of weights and measures, with great facts in nature. But as the answers by Professor Playfair and Dr length of the pendulum varies with Woollaston. The first and second que- the latitude of the place, this standard ries, and the answers to them, particu. is merely local in its application.




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