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that she felt most at home. She of Ross; and returning leisurely loved the hardy outdoor life with by the east coast, reached Holyrood hawk and hound. During the on the 26th of September, She four years preceding her marriage, was at Wemyss Castle in Fife passing, as I have said elsewhere, when, on 16th February 1565, she whole days in the saddle, she had met Darnley for the first time; ridden through every part of her and it is probable that - she was kingdom, except the wild and in- with Athol at Dunkeld some-time accessible district between the in June of the same year, for it Cromarty and the Pentland Firths. was on her return from the HighBefore she had been a month in lands that, hearing of the plot of Scotland she had visited Linlith: the disaffected nobles to kidnap gow, Stirling, Perth, and St An- her lover and herself, she rode drews. The spring of 1562 was from Perth by the Queensferry in spent in Fife; the autumn in the one day to Lord Livingston's northern unties.

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at house of Callendar-a ride of not Castle Campbell in January 1563, less than forty miles. .when the Lady Margaret was During most of this time Maitmarried to Sir James Stewart of land, as the Prime Minister of the Doune. She went back for a few Queen, was the most conspicuous weeks to Holyrood, but she left figure in the Scottish Court. In again in February, and did not re- all Scotland, indeed, no man, Knox turn till the end of May. She had only excepted, was more widely promised to go to Inverary early known, or, upon the whole, more in June; but Lethington, who had widely liked. He had attained a been in France, was still absent, great political position; and Mary, and she was anxious to confer one of the most generous of women, with him before she left. “We was even extravagantly munificent have now looked so long for the to her favourite ministers. She Lord of Lethington that we are created her brother, the Lord almost at our wits'-end. The James, Earl of Moray, enriching Queen thinketh it long, and hath him with the spoil of half-a-score stayed her journey towards Argyle of abbeys; the revenues of Crossthese seven days, with purpose raguel were given to Buchanan; whether he come or not to depart and out of the Church lands round upon Tuesday next." On the 29th Haddington ample provision was of June (Lethington having in the made for Maitland. meantime returned) she started arrival at Dunbar, I heard that for Inverary, where she arrived on the Lord of Ledington was at Ledthe 22d July. Crossing the Clyde ington, taking possession of the and making a long round through whole abbacy which the Queen Ayrshire and the Stewartry to St had given him, so that he is now Mary's Isle, it was the late autumn equal with any man that hath his before she regained the capital. whole lands lying in Lothian. I The spring of 1564 was passed in chanced upon him there, and acFife; then in July, Parliament companied him the next day to having been dissolved, she went to Edinburgh." Many of the men the great deer-hunt in Athol, where who had been the recipients of “three hundred and sixty deer, Mary's bounty came by-and-by to with five wolves, and some roes, conspire against her: Buchanan were slain; crossed the “ Mounth” took away her good name, Moray to Inverness; visited the Chanonry her crown; but Maitland, as I ex

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pect to be able to show, was never The most charming and spon. ungrateful to his liberal mistress. taneous of German lyrists insists, The relations between them were in his essay on the Romantic refrom first to last (with hardly a vival, that Leo X. was just as bleak) intimate and cordial. There zealous a Protestant as Luther. can be no doubt, I think, that Luther's protest at Wittenberg Maitland was warmly attached to was in Latin prose; Leo's at Rome Mary. He vindicated her title; in stone and colour and ottava he advocated her claims; he be- rhymes. “Do not the vigorous lieved quite sincerely that, sup- marbles of Michael Angelo, Giulio ported as she was by the great Romano's laughing nymph-faces, nobles and the mass of the common and the life-intoxicated merriment people in either realm, she was in in the verses of Master Ludovico, the end bound to win; and though offer a protesting contrast to the his confidence must have been old gloomy withered Catholicism ?" sometimes severely tried, yet even And he concludes that the painters when her fortunes grew hopeless, of Italy, “plunging into the sea of he clung to the cause which he had Grecian mirthfulness," combated made his own with obstinate fidel- priestdom more effectively than the ity, and he laid down his life in Saxon theologians; and that the a service which had become des- Venus of Titian

a better perate. The personal fascination treatise against an ascetic spiritof the Queen unquestionably ac- uality than that Dailed to the counts for several incidents in his church door of Wittenberg. career which, on any other theory The bubbles blown by a jester of the motives by which he was in- like Heine are sometimes more Auenced, would appear inexplica- suggestive than the weightiest ble. It must be frankly admitted argument of the moralist. No that on more than one occasion his one knew better than Heine did policy, as her minister, could not that the passage from which I have been dictated by political have quoted was in one sense (the considerations only; and we are Italian renascence being in comdriven to conclude that even the parison with the German sterile if cool and wary diplomatist had not not corrupt) extravagantly unfair. been insusceptible to "the But it is not to be denied that chantment whereby men are be- in another and possibly a larger witched.”

sense it is the simplest statement Of the policy, civil and eccle- of fact. The Reformation, in its siastical, which Maitland pursued, initiation and in its essence, was a of his attitude to the great politi- measure of enfranchisement. It cal and religious problems of the was a mental, as well as a moral age, I have now to speak; and I and spiritual, revolt; the aspirashall endeavour to do so as clearly tion of the intellect for an amand briefly as is practicable. It is pler ether," as well as the aspiration necessary that the arguments which of the conscience for "a diviner weighed with the men to whom he air." was opposed should be fairly stated; The Church of Rome, which had and I propose to state them, as far once done much for the freedom as need be, in their own words. In of mankind, had latterly become a this paper, therefore, the chief fig. burden too heavy to be borne. A ures will be Maitland and—Knox; colossal system of priestcraft, of

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mental mystifications, was sup- Protestant revolt in the Netherported by sanctions which, when lands; yet even Sainte Aldegonde not artificial, were immoral. The was vexed and irritated by the Maker of heaven and earth could tolerant temper of William the only be approached through the Silent. “The affair of the Anapriest; the priest was often a baptists," he wrote on one occaman of ill repute; the penalties of sion, " has been renewed. The wrong - doing were remitted, the Prince objects to exclude them grace of God was secured, not by from citizenship. He answered repentance and amendment of life, me sharply that their yea was but by the conjuring of a conse- equal to our oath, and that we crated caste; pardons for past should not press this matter unsins, indulgences for future sins, less we

were willing to confess might be bought for money. This that it was just for the Papists clerical absolutism, as arbitrary as to compel us to a divine service it was unconscientious, as sordid which was against our conscience. as it was corrupt, as hurtful to In short, I don't see how we can intellectual freedom and political accomplish our wish in this matliberty as to the spiritual life, was ter. The Prince has uttered rethe system which the Reformers proaches to me that our clergy undertook to abolish.

are striving to obtain a mastery But—happy or unhappily, ac- over consciences. He praised lately cording to the point of view—few the saying of a monk who was not of the Reformers had any adequate long ago here, that our pot had conception of the higher and wid- not gone to the fire as often as er interests which their struggle that of our antagonists, but that against an exclusive sacerdotalism when the time came it would be involved. Protestantism is the re- black enough. In short, the Prince ligion of reasonableness as opposed fears that after a few centuries to the religion of authority; and the clerical tyranny on both sides the Protestant who puts an in- will stand in this respect on the fallible book or an infallible creed same footing." in the place of an infallible Church Wise and memorable words ! is disloyal to the principles of the The Prince was not mistaken; in Reformation, if not to the practice the highest sense—as a vindication, of the Reformers. The practice, that is, of the rights of reason and we may admit, was not uniform or conscience, as a protest against a consistent; but the men who most sacerdotal monopoly, as

well as powerfully impressed the infant against an incredible superstition Churches of the Continent were the Reformation failed,- nothe Luthers and the Calvins. It where more conspicuously than in was the same in Scotland. Mait- Scotland. The Reformers did not land represented the spirit of loose the bonds of superstition : criticism, Knox the spirit of they banished one incredibility to dogma; yet it cannot be said that replace it by another. And the Maitland was more successful than Church of Knox was as arbitrary, Erasmus.

as domineering, as greedy of power Sainte Adlegonde

of as the Church of Hildebrand. versatile ability, a poet, an orator, We are now told that the con. a theologian, a fine scholar, an junction was inevitable; it was acute diplomatist—was one of the the sixteenth century, not the most accomplished leaders of the nineteenth; the

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Luther and a Knox. A conserv- ceptionally a period of transition, ative reformation undertaken by and the next few years would deErasmus or Maitland could not termine what impress the Church have successfully resisted the in- and the nation would take. Mary, evitable Catholic reaction. This is during these years, was the central the argument, as I understand it; figure; but the real struggle, as but we are not informed how far we shall see, lay between Knox the Catholic reaction was rendered and Lethington. “ inevitable" by the Calvinist and The ecclesiastical policy which the Iconoclast.

Maitland pursued may be defined When Mary returned to Scot- in a sentence.

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strenuland in August 1561, what may cusly opposed to whatever would be called a provisional government render a religious peace between was in existence. The fabric of England and Scotland, between Catholicism had been shaken—not Elizabeth and Mary, difficult or shattered. The citizens of the impracticable. burghs were Protestants.

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The Confession of Faith had tain number of the greater and not been approved by Elizabeth. lesser barons were " earnest pro- Its bitter Calvinism was little to fessors." But there were great her taste, and Cecil would probably Catholic nobles, and the new ideas have been pleased if its sanction had not reached the rural and by the Estates had been postponed Highland districts. In the popu- to

convenient season. lous towns the monastic buildings Maitland had done what he could had been wrecked. The patrimony to mitigate its austerity; but he of the Church had been secularised; probably regarded the

abstract but the alienations were frequently propositions of theology with innominal, and if Catholicism had difference, and it was only where been restored, the revenues would it trenched upon civil rights and have been recovered, and applied duties that he insisted on its reto the purposes of religion. So far vision. Maitland, no less than

a Parliamentary Convention Elizabeth, was keenly opposed to could disestablish and disendow theocratic government; the Church the Church, it had been disestab- was very well in its place; but lished and disendowed; but statu- a parliament of preachers would tory definitions do not always cor- have been simply intolerable. The respond with the fact; and what Church of Rome had been an imwas legally dead might yet be perium in imperio : for this among politically and practically alive. Other reasons the Church of Rome There was a want of authority had been abolished. It appeared everywhere, and the force which to Maitland, as it appeared to was strong at the centre became Elizabeth, that the ecclesiastical weak, if not impotent, before it society which undertook to exerreached the extremities. The new cise temporal as well as spiritual ecclesiastical organisation was yet lordship, must become a focus of in its infancy. Knox was a power sedition, and consequently a danger in himself; but he was still an to the state ; and that any proposeruptive and revolutionary power; al, however modestly disguised or and except in the towns he had no studiously veiled, to override the considerable following. The no- law of the land by the law of the bles, with a few exceptions, were Church, was to be steadily resisted. careless, if not cold. It was ex- Knox eager to have the

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Book of Discipline accepted by the would always be a menace to lords; but Maitland's opposition Elizabeth, was secretly hostile. to a scheme involving a domestic The interview never took place; inquisition and a social censorship, and as time wore on, the differcould not be overcome.

ences which had once been capaMaitland's position, on the other ble of peaceful adjustment, became hand, as regards Mary's Catholi- emphasised and accentuated. cism, though constantly misunder- Mary was not invited on her stood and misrepresented, is not return to ratify the proceedings less clear. It was not to be ex- of the Parliament which had abolpected that Mary would be per- ished the ancient Church. She suaded to join a Calvinistic and had refused to do so before she Presbyterian Church. But the left France; the Parliament of Church of Elizabeth was in a dif- 1560, she alleged, had neither been ferent position; the English Church lawfully convened nor lawfully could hardly be said to have re- constituted. A compromise that linquished the Catholic tradition. left matters open for any subseThe new creed of Northern Chris- quent change of circumstances tendom has not had time to agreed_to with

apparent crystallise; and the doctrinal unanimity. The proclamation of standards of the various sects 25th August 1561 was probably were not yet regarded with the drawn by Maitland. It provided unreasoning reverence which time that the form of religion presently and habit beget. There was no “standing should in the meanthing in Maitland's view to prevent time be continued. The final

« accord" between Mary and settlement was purposely delayed. Elizabeth ; nothing in fact to make The proclamation substana religious peace between the tially a declaration that the whole Churches of the two nations hope- religious state was provisional. less. The preachers did their best This was exactly what Maitland to mar the prospects of union. in the interests of a comprehensive They affronted the Queen. They pacification must have desired. insulted her ministers. They in- There was at least no legislative veighed against her creed. They bar to union; a truce had been presented Protestantism to her in proclaimed ; and when • passion its most repellent aspect. But had cooled and prejudices had Maitland did not despair. The been conciliated, union might advantages of an accord on matters of religion between the two Queens

aware that this view of and the two nations being so obvi- Maitland's ecclesiastical policy is ous, he believed that if Mary and somewhat unusual. But I believe Elizabeth met, the difficulties might it to be in accordance with the be removed. Some articles of facts which have been recorded, peace, some comprehensive settle- not by ecclesiastical historians ment tolerable to all reasonable only, but by contemporary writers men, might surely be devised. It whose fairness and impartiality is certain that Knox, who hated are undoubted. To a consecutive Prelacy nearly as hotly as he hated narrative of these facts—the inPopery, did not view the scheme cidents of the struggle between with a friendly eye; and Cecil, Maitland's policy of peace and holding that Mary, Catholic-Pro- Knox's policy of exasperation_I testant Protestant. Catholic must now address myself.

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