grapher of the Admiralty. It was voted to hold the next meeting of the Association at Liverpool, the Earl of Harrowby having been elected President for the ensuing year.

The annual meeting of the German Association for the Promotion of Science, was held at Tubingen, on the 18th of September. It was attended by about 580 members, including a moderate sprinkling of French and Russians, two Americans, and a few English.

The President, Prof. Von Mohl, having for some reason absented himself, the chair was taken by M. Bruhns, Professor of Medicine at Tubingen.Receptions by the various neighboring towns and cities were given to the Association, and public and private hospitality was displayed to an unlimited extent. The scientific part of the meeting was equally satisfactory. In the three general or public sittings none but subjects treated in a popular manner were this time admitted, and all papers that could in the least offend the ear of ladies had been strictly rejected,— a laudable restriction, probably adopted in consequence of the complaints made by the press that medical subjects, not intended for any but medical men, had been brought forward.

M. Schultz read an interesting paper "On the Development of the Natural Sciences from the Middle of the Sixteenth Century until the Middle of the Nineteenth." He assumed three periods: 1st, The period when knowledge was handed down by oral tradition. 2nd, When it was propagated by writing; and, 3rd, When perpetuated by printing. The present time he looks upon as the commencement of a fourth period, when, by the intimate international intercourse and the power of steam, knowledge is rapidly diffused. Dove, of Berlin, gave a comprehensive account of the present state of meteorology, and a very clear explanation of the causes which determine the weather of Europe. Carnal spoke on the importance of salt, gold, and coal,- three monosyllables playing an important part in the affairs of the world. He complained of the ignorance prevailing in England on the subject of German coal, and quoted a conversation he had with an Englishman of some scientific standing, who asked him whether there were any coal in Germany?-a question he answered by stating that not only had Germany enough coal for its own demand, but it could supply England and all the world, at the rate coal is now used, for 500 years to Fraas gave an account of the oldest inhabitants of the Swabian Alps. It appears that a few years ago, fossil teeth were found, which some at once declared to be those of man. This determination, however, was called in question, as no human teeth of the mammoth period had ever been found in any part of the globe. Again, these teeth were exhibited last year in Wiesbaden, by Jaeger, when they were generally admitted to be human teeth; one was even sent to Owen, who agreed with the Wiesba


den meeting in pronouncing them to belong to man. The discovery of several almost perfect skulls has set the matter finally at rest; there was a race of men living simultaneously with the mammoth and other huge antediluvian animals.

The sectional meetings were well attended. In the Section for Chemistry and Pharmacology, there were Fehling, Schlossbergher, Leube, Babo, Weidenbusch, Ammermuller, Fresenius, Weltzen, H. Rose, &c.; Fehling and Rose alternately presided. In the Section for Mathematics, Physic, and Astronomy, Wolfers, Osann, Reusch, Dove, Holtzmann, Gugler, &c.; Dove and Osann presided. The Section for Medicine and Surgery counted the largest number of members. On the 24th of September the meetings we e finally closed. Gottingen was chosen as the place of meeting for 1854, and Professors Listing and Baum, were elected Presidents of the Society.

The Scientific Congress of France held its twentieth annual session at Arras, under the Presidency of the Baron de Sassart, President of the Academy of Belgium.

The sixth annual meeting of the American Medical Association, took place in New York, in May, 1853. Dr. Knight, of New Haven, presided, and about five hundred members were present. The prizes offered at a former meeting for the best original essays, were awarded to the authors of the two following: "On the Cell, its pathology," &c., by Dr. Waldo J. Burnett, of Boston; "Fibrous Diseas es of the Uterus hitherto considered incurable," by Washington L. Atlee, of Philadelphia. For the premiums so awarded, there were fifteen competitors.

The Ray Society held its tenth annual meeting at Hull, during the meeting there of the British Association. The cause of delay in the issue of the last part of Messrs. Alder and Hancock's work "On the Naked Mollusca," was stated to be, the wish of the authors to add as large a mass of new matter as possible. Of two works for 1852,-one containing a translation of Braun "On Rejuvenescence in Nature," Kohn “On Protococcus,” and Menighini "On Diatomacea,"-was nearly completed. The second volume of Mr. C. Darwin's "Barnacles and Sea Acorns," is in the press. For 1854, the Council propose to publish Prof. Allman's work "On the British Freshwater Polyzoa," with colored plates, in imperial quarto,and the fourth and last volume of Agassiz's" Bibliography of Zoology and Geology." The Secretary, Dr. Lankester, stated that Prof. Williamson's and Dr. Carpenter's work "On the Foraminifera," was in progress, and would probably be published in 1855.

A maritime conference, composed of distinguished representatives of the nautical science of the great maritime nations of Europe and the United States, convened in Brussels in August last, for the purpose of devising a

uniform system of nautical observations for the advancement of scientific navigation. The convention held its meetings at the residence of the Belgian Minister of the Interior, at Brussels, and was composed of delegates representing the following countries: United States, England, France, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and Portugal. M. Quetelet, the director of the Observatory of Brussels, was chosen President of the Convention, Lieut. Maury having declined that honorable post. Lieut. Maury opened the labors of the body with an expose of the wants of nautical science in its present state, of his own past labors for the supply of those wants, and of his plan for effecting completely the reforms needed by the co-operation of the marines, merchant and military, of all civilized nations. Having heard the expose of Lieut. Maury, the Convention first bestowed its attention upon the instruments in general use among seamen for making their observations; and it was resolved that efforts should be made to improve several of them. The marine barometer especially, was recognized to be very deficient. So faulty is it, said Lieut. M., that meteorologists in their investigations into the laws of atmospheric pressure, find themselves almost constantly unable to give any value to barometrical observations made at sea. The Conference then prepared a model journal for the use of sea-captains in recording their observations. The first column of this journal, indicates the number and kind of observations which the United States Government requires of sea-captains in order to entitle them to gratuitous participation in the advantages anticipated as the result of the system. They are required to record once a day, the position of the ship, the direction and force of currents, the height of the barometer, and the temperature of the air and water. The force and direction of the winds must be given three times a day, and the variations of the needle must be noted whenever observed. The succeeding columns of the journal are intended particularly for the use of vessels of war, and are to contain complementary observations, the making and record of which require more time, care, and skill. When the observations shall have been made and recorded in the manner prescribed, they are to be forwarded to a bureau organized ad hoc, where they will be examined, and the information they contain made use of for the discovery of the general facts and laws, the knowledge of which is necessary for the advancement of the science of navigation. The King of Sweden caused to be announced to the Convention that he had already given orders that the journals kept by the Swedish naval officers should be transmitted to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. The Governments of Holland, of Belgium, and of Portugal, have taken similar measures, and the Admiralty of Great Britain will order meteorological observations to be made in the royal navy. Lieut. M. announced that the merchant marines of other nations would be

placed, in the prosecution of this work, upon the same footing with that of the United States; that is to say, every sea-captain who would keep during his voyages a journal upon the plan prescribed by the Convention, and forward a copy of the same to the American Government, should be entitled gratis to a copy of the Navigator's Guide, and of the charts of winds and currents which it was intended to publish. Having settled these various matters, the Convention adjourned sine die on the 8th of September, after voting thanks to the Belgian Government for the liberal spirit with which it had concurred in the views of the delegates, and furnished all needful facilities for the prosecution of their labors.

A project of a popular geographical institution has been organized in London, and a prospectus issued under the auspices of Sir Francis Beaufort, Mr. Layard, Lord Stanley, and others. It is proposed to purchase Mr. Wylde's "Great Globe" in Leicester-square, and to surround the present building with rooms and galleries, devoted to museums, libraries, lecture theatres, and other apartments. The Prospectus states as follows: "Whilst it is intended to maintain the large model of the earth in its present position, it is proposed to add to the present extensive collection of ancient and modern maps, charts, and books, all the maps, charts and geographical works published throughout the world; and to invite the assistance of foreign governments and societies (many of whom have already kindly offered their publications,) to contribute all their maps, charts, and geographical works, published under the sanction of the state, so that proprietors and the public may have immediate access to the best sources of information on every subject connected with geography, hydrography,

and the allied sciences.

"It is further proposed to maintain a competent body of demonstrators and lecturers, who shall deliver regular courses of lectures upon physical and political geography and ethnology, not only within the model, but also in the theatres of the Institute, so as to embrace all the requirements of a great geographical school; to hold meetings of the members, at which scientific papers shall be read and discussed; and to uphold a library and reading-room, where the most important newspapers, English, Foreign, and Colonial, will be filed, where the maps, charts, engravings, books, and transactions of learned societies, can be conveniently consulted, and where the latest information bearing upon geographical discoveries, and all matters especially relating to new shoals, rocks, and harbors, will be regularly exhibited."

At the meeting of the American Association, Cleveland, a communication was made by Lieut. E. B. Hunt, U. S. A., proposing the establishment of a geographical department of the Library of Congress, but having at the same time a distinct and separate organization. In this library, under the

supervision of Congress, it is proposed to collect and preserve the following materials and sources of geographical information. 1. A first-class terrestrial globe. 2. All materials illustrating the early and recent geography of the United States, both its sea-coasts and interior, including traced copies of all valuable maps and charts in manuscript and not published. The materials for illustrating the past and present geography of each State, County, Township and City, should be gathered by purchase, correspondence, and tracing. 3. All maps and charts on the remainder of America. 4. The Admiralty or sea-coast chart of all the European and other foreign States, and the detailed topographical surveys of their interiors, where such have been made. 5. The most approved maps published from private resources whether as atlases, nautical charts, or mural maps, including publications on physical geography, guide-books, railroadmaps, and city hand-books. 6. A complete collection of all the narratives of voyages of discovery and exploration, especially those undertaken by the English and French Governments. 7. Geographical, geodetic and nautical manuals, and treatises, with all the requisite bibliographical aids to the amplest geographical investigation.

It was also proposed that this department should be placed in charge of a suitable person, who should yearly present to Congress a report, on the geographical explorations by our own and foreign Governments, or by individuals, so far as their results can be learned; making it a synopsis of all the interesting and important geographical facts or publications for the year. Upon the same officer would also devolve the duty of maintaining a correspondence with persons having special geographical knowledge, of keeping a list of persons who could be addressed for additional information on foreign and domestic localities. Also corresponding relations should be maintained with foreign geographical societies, and their publications secured with promptness. At present no collection in the United States approaches the completeness or efficiency here contemplated. The Harvard collection, so excellent in old maps, is very deficient in those great works of interior and exterior survey which characterize the last fifty years. No collection exists in our land which furnishes full materials for extensive investigations, such as are now more and more demanded by questions of history, science, commerce, and policy. There is no probability that such a collection can soon be formed anywhere except in the Congress Library. In the facilities which such a library, located at Washington, would furnish the State Department, the Engineer and Topographical Bureaus, the Coast Survey, the National Observatory, and the several Navy Bureaus, the Government would derive a full equivalent for all its cost. The value of such a collection in its relations to legislation; in its illustration of river and harbor questions; in its prospective use for illustrating history, and gener

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