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39 And they that passed by king of Israel, let him now reviled him, wagging their come down from the cross, and heads,
we will believe him. 40 And saying, Thou that 43 He trusted in God; let destroyeșt the temple, and him deliver him now, if he will buildest it in three days, save have him : for he said, I am the thyself. If thou be the Son of Son of God. God, come down from the cross. 44 The thieves, also, which
41 Likewise, also, the chief were crucified with him, cast priests, mocking him, with the the same in his teeth. scribes and elders, said,
45 Now from the sixth hour 42 He saved others, himself there was darkness over all the he cannot save. If he be the land, unto the ninth hour.
fore, and their execution delayed till curred the interesting facts related in the return of the passover. Luke (23: John 19 : 25—27. 34) informs us, that when the act of 45. From the sixth hour there was crucifying was completed, Jesus meek- darkness, &c.; that is, from our twelve ly prayed for the forgiveness of those o'clock to our three o'clock. The who were accessory to his death. darkness here mentioned could not
39. Wagging ; shaking the head by have been an eclipse of the sun; beway of derision.
cause it was the time of full moon, 10. Thou that destroyest, &c. Com- when the passover occurred; and such pare 26: 61. || If thou bé the Son of is the position of the moon at that God. Compare 26: 63.
time, that an eclipse of the sun cannot 41. Mocking; deriding, insulting. take place. Besides, the duration of 42. If he be the king of Israel. this darkness altogether opposes the Compare John 19: 14, 15.
thought of its having been what we 43. He trusted, &c. These revi- call an eclipse. Undoubtedly it was lings of the chief priests, scribes, and a supernatural darkness, caused by the elders, appear to have excited the Author of nature, as being harmoniRoman soldiers to similar abuse of ous with the events then passing on Jesus. Luke (23 : 36) relates that Golgotha. || Over all the land. Luke they, coming near, offered him vinegar says (23: 44) in our translation," oder (that is, the inferior sort of wine used all the earth;” but precisely the same by the Roman soldiers), and reproach word in the original is employed by ed him in much the same style as did him, as by the other evangelists. It the principal men among the Jews. would have been better to have trans
44. Cast the same in his teeth. This lated the word in Luke in the same was a phrase more common formerly manner as it is in the other evangethan at present, meaning that the lists. The word is often used to exrobbers reviled Jesus, by using much press a comparatively small portion of the same language. Luke relates (23 : the earth; and it is probable that only 39—43) that one of the robbers relent- Palestine, the country of the Jews, ed, exhibited a penitent spirit, and and the neighboring regions, were received a gracious assurance from here intended. Jesus that he should speedily be in It may be well to mention here, that bliss. Matthew and Mark (15: 32), John (19: 14,16) mentions that it was without intending to be precise, speak about the sixth hour, when Jesus was only in a general way of the robbers ; given up by Pilate to be crucified. It while Luke descends to particulars. is probable, however, that some manu.
At this point of time, probably, oc- l scripts of John's Gospel were, at an
46 And about the ninth hour them ran, and took a sponge, Jesus cried with a loud voice, and filled it with vinegar, and saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabach- put it on a reed, and gave him thani? that is to say, My God, to drink. my God, why hast thou forsaken 49 The rest said, Let be; me ?
let us see whether Elias will 47 Some of them that stood come to save him. there, when they heard that, 50 Jesus, when he had cried said, This man calleth for Elias. again with a loud voice, yielded
48 And straightway one of up the ghost. early date, incorrectly copied in this ther to deride him. It was a common instance, and the letter of the alpha- opinion among the Jews, that Elias, bet which signifies six, was by mistake that is, Elijah, was personally to apwritten instead of the letter signifying pear just before the Messiah, and to three. There are also some manu assist him in entering upon his scripts, and other similar authority, office. There being some similarity which present the verse in John as in the words employed by Jesus to agreeing with the statement in Mark the word Elias, some,
who were pres15: 25, that Jesus was crucified about ent, abused them, as if the Saviour the third hour.
were calling for the interposition of 46. Eli, Eli, &c. These words Elias to rescue him from his present and the two following are expressed unhappy state. in the language spoken at that time 48. With vinegar; that is, the comby the Jews in Judea; and Matthew mon drink of the Roman soldiers, an immediately gives the translation of inferior sort of wine, but not mingled them. Mark (15: 34) slightly varies with myrrh and other intoxicating the sound of the word which signifies drugs. It appears from John (19:28) God, but without at all affecting the that Jesus had said, “ I thirst." The meaning. Whichever of these two sponge filled with this drink was fasforms of expression the Saviour em- tened round a reed; John (19 : 29) ployed, the Jews who were present says, “ upon hyssop,” that is, a stick readily understood the language. or small branch of a hyssop-bush.
Jesus did not here utter the lan- For reaching the mouth of a crucified guage of despair, but of extreme an
person, a stick two or three feet long guish. And 0, how dreadful must would be quite sufficient. have been the anguish of his soul, to 49. The rest said, &c. They en. have extorted such a cry! And what deavored to induce the person to dea lesson do we here learn respecting sist from offering drink to Jesus, on the evil and the desert of sin, in the the plea that perhaps Elias' would anguish of the Saviour, when thus come to his succor; thus still further our iniquities were laid on him! How deriding him. It would seem from dreadful the woe of those who, in ad. Mark 15: 36, that this person persedition to all the sense of Jehovah's vered in offering the drink, saying, displeasure against the personally as Let alone; that is, Permit me. And sinners, must suffer the pangs of a his reason for giving the drink would guilty conscience for having slighted seem to have been, to lengthen out the provisions of saving love, and the life of this professed Messiah till turned away from him that speaketh Elias should come ; lest he would die from heaven!
before Elias should make his appear. 47. This man calleth for Elias. The ance. Thus no indignity, that the inSaviour's language was doubtless un- nocent, holy sufferer could endure, derstood ; but some Jews who were was spared. present took occasion from it still fur. 50. Cried again. Compare v. 46.
51 And, behold, the vail of watching Jesus, saw the earth. the temple was rent in twain, quake, and those things that from the top to the bottom; and were done, they feared greatly, the earth did quake, and the saying, Truly, this was the Son rocks rent ;
of God. 52 And the graves
55 And many women were opened ; and many bodies of there, beholding afar off, which saints, which slept, arose,
followed Jesus from Galilee, 53 And came out of the ministering unto him ; graves, after his resurrection, 56 Among which was Mary and went into the holy city, and Magdalene, and Mary the appeared unto many.
mother of James and Joses, 54 Now, when the centurion, and the mother of Zebedee's and they that were with him, children.
Luke (23: 46) and John (19 : 30) in- of what was afterwards to be wrought form us of the sentiments which the by his power. Saviour uttered. || Yielded up the 54. The centurion ; the Roman ofghost ; gave up his spirit; that is, died. ficer who superintended the crucifix
51–53. The vail of the temple. The ion. || Feared greatly; they regarded most retired and sacred part of the the earthquake and the rending of the temple was called the holy of holies, rocks as proofs of the divine indignaand was separated by a veil from the tion against what had been done, and other parts of the temple. It was this against themselves as the agents of veil which was now torn in two pieces. the Jews. || Truly, this was the Son Compare Heb. 9: 3. || The graves; of God. The centurion, doubtless, several graves; not graves in general. knew that Jesus had claimed to be the ll And came out of the graves after his Son of God; that is, in the understand. resurrection.
The arrangement of ing of Jesus and of the Jews, to be the some of these words in our translation Messiah. The centurion, recalling ought probably to be different. By this, expressed himself as here stated, placing a comma and the word and but probably understood the language after the word grades, the sentence differently. He was a heathen, and would stand thus : “ And came out of was accustomed to think of many the graves, and after his resurrection gods, and to regard some beings as went into the holy city,” that is, Je- sons of gods, as inferior deities, or as rusalem. Such a rendering is in ac- peculiarly allied to the gods. He may cordance with the original. As the have meant to say, He was a son of a words stand in our version, the idea god; and his idea, perhaps, included seems to be that “many bodies arose no more than that he certainly was in at the time of the crucifixion, but did high favor with some god; that is, that not leave the graves till after the res- he must have been a truly good man. urrection of Jesus. Matthew here Accordingly, Luke mentions (23:47), groups together several circumstances, that the centurion said, Certainly, this some of which, however, did not oc was a righteous man. cur till after the resurrection of Christ, 55. Ministering unto him; waiting as he himself states. These were, in on him ; supplying his wants. deed, remarkable events, and fitted to 56. Mary Magdalene ; that is, Mary make a deep impression on reflecting of the town of Magdala, a town not minds. They may be regarded as ap- far from Capernaum; but the precise propriate attestations to the truth of situation of which is uncertain. See ihe claims of Jesus, and anticipations Luke 8: 2. || Mary, the mother of
57 When the even was come, body to be delivered. there came a rich man of Ari 59 And when Joseph had mathea, named Joseph, who also taken the body, he wrapped it himself was Jesus' disciple : in a clean linen cloth,
58 He went to Pilate, and 60 And laid it in his own begged the body of
the body of Jesus. new tomb, which he had hewn Then Pilate commanded the out in the rock: and he rolled
James and Joses. This Mary was sis of the Sanhedrim, disregarding the ter to our Lord's mother (John 19 : ill-will and the reproach which he 25), and wife of Cleophas. James is would incur from the Jews. John the one called James the Less (Mark also relates (19 : 39), that Nicodemus 15:40), to distinguish him from James (John 3:1,2) came forward at this time the brother of John. This James and to testify his respect for Jesus. Joses are named in 13: 55, as relatives 58. Begged the body of Jesus, &c. of our Lord. || The mother of Zebedee's John relates (19 : 31-37), that prechildren; that is, Salome. See Mark viously to this, the Jews had requested 15: 40. Zebedee's children were of Pilate, that the death of the three James and John. See 10: 2. Luke, crucified persons might be hastened, without particular mention of names, as the Jews were unwilling that the says (23 : 49), that “ all his acquaint- bodies should remain on the crosses ance, and the women that followed during the Sabbath, which would be him from Galilee, stood afar off [afar, the next day; It was, however, discompared with the people just around covered that Jesus was already dead. the cross], beholding.”
This circumstance led Joseph to re57. When the even was come. The quest the body of Jesus. According Jews reckoned two evenings; one to Mark (15 : 44), Pilate wondered at commencing some time before sunset, Jesus' having died so soon ; for it was and the other at sunset. What is re- frequently the case, that crucified perlated in this verse and the following, sons did not die till after the day on commenced before the latest evening; which they had been crucified; someso that nothing might remain to be times they remained alive several done on the Sabbath. The Jewish days. The exhausted condition of the Sabbath commenced on our Friday Saviour's body and mind sufficiently evening, || A rich man of Arimathea, accounts for his so soon expiring: named Joseph. There were several | Among the Romans, the corpses of towns, called Arimuthea, in Palestine ; crucified persons were not buried, exone was in the tribe of Benjamin, cept by express permission; they reabout four miles distant from Jerusa- inained on the cross, and there wasted lem; but which of them is here spo- away. But an exception to this genken of, we have not the means of de- eral practice was made in favor of the termining. Mark (15:43) calls Joseph Jews, on account of the regulation in “ an honorable counsellor," as being Deut. 21 : 22, 23. When there was a probably a distinguished member of prospect that death would not speedthe Sanhedrim. That he was a mem- ily take place, they used various methber, would appear from Luke 23: 51. ods to hasten it. In the present inAll the evangelists agree to his being stance, the near approach of the passin heart a good man, a favorer of Jesus; over Sabbath furnished an additional but, according to John (19: 38), he was reason. Even the Romans were in the & disciple secretly,. At the time of habit of delivering up to their friends which the evangelist is now speak- the corpses of deceased criminals, ing, he seems to have acquired a com when one of their festivals was about mendable boldness, and to have plainly to be celebrated. maintained his dissent from the doings 60. In the rock ; in a rock. The
a great stone to the door of the 64 Command, therefore, that sepulchre, and departed. the sepulchre be made sure,
61 And there was Mary Mag- until the third day; lest his dalene, and the other Mary, sit- disciples come by night and ting over against the sepulchre. steal him
62 Now the next day that the people, He is risen from the followed the day of the prepa- dead: so the last error shall be ration, the chief priests and worse than the first. Pharisees came together unto 65 Pilate said unto them,
Ye have a watch: go your way, 63 Saying, Sir, we remem- make it as sure as ye can. ber that that deceiver said, 66 So they went, and made while he was yet alive, After the sepulchre sure, sealing the three days, I will rise again. stone, and setting a watch. country around Jerusalem was rocky. prepared spices and ointment for The tomb was in a garden, near the anointing the body, and, having iade place where Jesus was crucified. See what preparation they could, rested John 19: 41. It was common for on the Sabbath. Compare Luke tombs to be out of cities, and to be 23 : 56. excavated from a solid rock; frequent- 62. The day of the preparation. The ly having the appearance of a cave. day preceding !he Sabbath, or any || His own new tomb. Luke says (23 : festival, was called the preparation. 53), and John (19:41), that no one || The next day; the Jewish Sabbath, had been buried in it. How wisely did our Saturday. || The chief priests and Providence order this circumstance, Pharisees ; doubtless a few of them, so that after the resurrection of Jesus, as they went on a business which they there was no possibility of mistake as would not wish to be made public. to his person. || He rolled a great 63. After three dars, I will rise stone to the door. The entrance to again. Matt. 12: 38–40. 16: 21. sepulchres used to be closed either by Mark 8: 31. Though Jesus spoke stone doors or by a flat stone placed some things on this subject to his disup against it. John informs us (19 : ciples alone, yet the knowledge of 30), that Nicodemus brought a quantity them might be imparted to others. of myrrh and aloes, and that the body John 10: 15, 17, 18. of Jesus was prepared for burial in the 64. That the scpulchre be made sure; same becoming manner as was usually by stationing guards there. practised among the Jews in respect 05. Ye have a watch ; the soldiers to their deceased friends. The kind who had already been engaged at the interposition of Joseph and of Nicode. crucifixion. It was customary among mus doubtless prevented the body of the Romans, when appointing a guard Jesus from being deposited with those over a prisoner, to employ four solof the robbers in some public bury- diers for each watch of three hours, ing place, devoted to the burying of so that the four would be successively criminals.
relieved by another set of four. They 61. The other Mary; the one men- usually employed four of these sets. tioned in v. 56; the mother of Joses. 66. Sealing the stone. Probably a See Mark 15: 47. || Sitting over rope was passed over it in such a way, against the sepulchre ; noticing where that the two ends meeting upon it he was laid, and waiting affectionately were fastened, and some public seal to see, as it were, the last of their be- was attached to them. No one, then, loved 'Lord. See Luke 23 : 55. They could pass into the sepulchre without then returned to their lodgings, and resisting the public authority.