caufes and events, and preserving a conftant correfpondence between the camp and the council-table. And thus it happens in the affairs of love with men of too refined a thought. They put a conftruction on a look, and find out a defign in a fmile; they give new fenses and fignifications to words and actions; and are ever tormenting themfelves with fancies of their own raifing. They generally act in a difguife themfelves, and therefore miftake all outward fhows and appearances for hypocrify in others; fo that I believe no men fee less of the truth and reality of things, than thefe great refiners upon incidents, who are fo wonderfully fubtle and over-wife in their conceptions.

Now what thefe men fancy they know of women by reflection, your lewd and vicious men believe they have learned by experience. They have feen the poor hufband fo mifled by tricks and artifices, and in the midst of his inquiries fo loft and bewildered in a crooked in. trigue, that they still fufpect an under-plot in every fe male action; and especially where they fee any resemblance in the behaviour of two perfons, are apt to fancy it proceeds from the fame defign in both. Thefe men therefore bear hard upon the fufpected party, pursue her close through all her turnings and windings, and are too well acquainted with the chafe, to be flung off by any falfe fteps or doubles. Befides, their acquaintance and converfation has lain wholly among the vicious part of womankind, and therefore it is no wonder they cenfure all alike, and look upon the whole fex as a fpecies of impoftors. But if, notwithstanding their private experience, they can get over thefe prejudices, and entertain a favourable opinion of fome WOMEN; yet their own loofe defires will ftir up new fufpicions from another fide, and make them believe all MEN fubject to the fame inclinations with themselves.

Whether thefe or other motives are most predominant,. we learn from the modern hiftories of America, as well as from our own experience in this part of the world, that jealoufy is no northern paffion, but rages molt in thofe nations that lie nearest the influence of the fun. It is a misfortune for a woman to be born between the tropics; for there lie the hottelt regions of jealousy,


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which as you come northward cools all along with the climate, till you scarce meet with any thing like it in the polar circle. Our own nation is very temperately fituated in this respect; and if we meet with fome few difordered with the violence of this paffion, they are not the proper growth of our country, but are many degrees nearer the fun in their conflitutions than in their climate.

After this frightful account of jealoufy, and the perfons who are most fubject to it, it will be but fair to thew by what means the paffion may be beft allayed, and thofe who are poffeffed with it fet at eafe. Other faults indeed are not under the wife's jurisdiction, and should, if poffible, escape her obfervation; but jealoufy calls upon her particularly for its cure, and deferves all her art and application in the attempt. Befides, fhe has this for her encouragement, that her endeavours will be always pleafing, and that she will still find the affection of her husband rifing towards her in proportion as his doubts and fufpicions vanish; for, as we have feen all along, there is fo great a mixture of love in Jealoufy as is well worth the feparating. But this fhall be the fubject of another Paper.


By ADDISON, London.

N° 171 Saturday, September 15, 1711.

Credula res amor eft

"Love is a credulous paffion."

Ovid Met. vii. 826.

AVING in my yesterday's Paper discovered the nature of Jealoufy, and pointed out the perfons who are most fubject to it, I must here apply myfelf to my fair correfpondents, who defire to live well



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with a Jealous Hufband, and to eafe his mind of its unjuft fufpicions *.

The First Rule I fhall propofe to be obferved is, that you never seem to diflike in another what the Jealous Man is himself guilty of, or to admire any thing in which he himself does not excel. A jealous man is very quick in his applications, he knows how to find a double edge in an invective, and to draw a fatire on himself out of a panegyric on another. He does not trouble him felf to confider the perfon, but to direct the character; and is fecretly pleafed or confounded as he finds more or lefs of himself in it. The commendation of any thing in another ftirs up his Jealoufy, as it fhews you have a value for others befides himself; but the commendation of that, which he himself wants, inflames him >> more, as it fhews that in fome respects you prefer others before him. Jealoufy is admirably defcribed in this view by Horace in his ode to LYDIA.

Quum tu, Lydia, Telephi

Cervicem rofeam, & cerea Telephi
Laudas brachia, va meum

Fervens difficili bile tumet jecur:
Tunc nec mens mihi, nec color

Certa fede manet; humor & in genas
Furtim labitur, arguens

Quàm lentis penitus macerer ignibus. 1Od.xiii. 1.
"When Telephus his youthful charms,
"His rofy neck and winding arms,
"With endless rapture you recite,
"And in the pleafing name delight;

My heart, inflam'd by jealous heats, "With numberless refentments beats;

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* The following advertisement refers to this and the preceding Paper on Jealousy.

"I William Crazy, aged threefcore and feven, having for feveral (6 years been afflicted with uneafy doubts, fears and vapours, occa"fioned by the youth and beauty of Mary my wife, aged twenty"five, do hereby for the benefit of the public, give notice, that I "have found great relief from two dofes, having taken them two "mornings together with a difh of chocolate. Witnefs my hand, " &c." SPECT. Vol. VII. N° 547. See alfo N° 178, of this volume.


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"From my pale cheek the colour flies,
"And all the man within me dies:
By turns my hidden grief appears
In rifing fighs and falling tears,
"That fhow too well the warm defires,
"The filent, flow, confuming fires,
"Which on my inmoft vitals prey,
"And melt my very foul away."


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The Jealous Man is not indeed angry if you diflike another but if you find thofe faults which are to be found in his own character, you difcover not only your diflike of another, but of himfelf. In short, he is fo defirous of ingroffing all your love, that he is grieved at the want of any charm, which he believes has power to raife it; and if he finds by your cenfures on others, that he is not fo agreeable in your opinion as he might be, he naturally concludes you could love him better if he had other qualifications, and that by confequence your affection does not rife so high as he thinks it ought. If therefore his temper be grave or fullen, you must not be too much pleased with a jeft, or transportedwith any thing that is gay and diverting. If his beauty be none of the beit, you must be a profeffed admirer of prudence, or any other quality he is mafter of, or at least vain enough to think he is.


In the next place, you must be fure to be free and open in your converfation with him, and to let in light apon your actions, to unravel all your defigns, and difcover every fecret, however trifling or indifferent. jealous hufband has a particular averton to winks and whifpers, and if he does not fee to the bottom of every thing, will be fure to go beyond it in his fears and fufpicions. He will always expect to be your chief conf dent, and where he finds himself kept out of a fecret, will believe there is more in it than there fhould be. And here it is of great concern, that you preferve the character of your fincerity uniform and of a piece: for

he once finds a falfe glofs put upon any fingle action,. he quickly fufpects all the reft; his working imagina tion immediately akes a falfe hint; and runs off with

it into feveral remote confequences, till he has proved very ingenious in working out his own mifery.

If both thefe methods fail, the best way will be to let him fee you are much caft down and afflicted for the ill opinion he entertains of you, and the difquietudes he himself fuflers for your fake. There are many who take a kind of barbarous pleasure in the jealoufy of those who love them, that infult over an aking heart, and triumph in their charms which are able to excite fo much uneafinefs.

Ardeat ipfa licet, tormentis gaudet amantis.

Juv. Sat. vi. 208.

"Tho' equal pains her peace of mind deftroy,
"A lover's torments give her fpiteful joy."

But thefe often carry the humour fo far, till their affected coldness and indifference quite kills all the fond-ness of a lover, and are then fure to meet in their turn with all the contempt and fcorn that is due to fo infolent a behaviour. On the contrary, it is very proba-ble a melancholy, dejected carriage, the ufual effects of injured innocence, may foften the jealous hufband intoy, make him fenfible of the wrong he does you, and work out of his mind all thofe fears and fufpicions that make you both unhappy. At least it will have. this good effect, that he will keep his jealoufy to himfelf, and repine in private, either because he is fenfible it is a weakness, and will therefore hide it from your knowledge, or because he will be apt to fear fome ill effect it may produce, in cooling your love towards him, or diverting it to another.

There is fill another fecret that can never fail, if you can once get it believed, and which is often practifed by women of greater cunning than virtue. This is to change fides for a while with the jealous man, and to turn his own paffion upon himself, to take fome occafion of growing jealous of him, and to follow the example he himself hath fet you. This counterfeited jealoufy will bring him a great deal of pleafure, if he thinks it real; for he knows experimentally how much

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