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writer spent some years of his early life as a student in a South German university; he looks back with the utmost pleasure on his student days. He made many friends, most, alas, now gone; and with those who remain he has kept up friendly intimacy. He has visited Germany frequently, and has always been welcomed with the kindliest hospitality. He has had several interviews with the Emperor, who always evinced cordiality, and interest in scientific subjects, on which he was remarkably well informed for a layman. The Emperor gave the impression of great vitality and extraordinary alertness. The view which the writer held for many years was that, whatever his successor might do, the Kaiser, at least, would do his best to keep peace. This was probably the almost universal opinion of Englishmen who knew Germany well. But we must confess ourselves mistaken. We knew of the cry for •Kultur’; we knew of the admirable organisation which had been introduced into various spheres of human endeavour; and we thought it worthy of imitation. But we did not realise that it had become a fetish; that Germans believed that by organisation the world would be reformed; and that it was the mission of Germans to compel the world to accept this doctrine as necessary for civilisation.
It may be interesting to enquire what share Germans have had in scientific discovery and invention; and there is a work, termed . 400 Jahre Pionier-Arbeit in den exacten Wissenschaften' (* 400 years of pioneer work in the exact sciences ') by L. Darmstaedter and R. du Bois-Reymond, one a Jew, the other of French extraction, from which the following data are taken. The book was published in 1904.
Beginning with the 16th century, 39 German names are mentioned between the years 1500 and 1600, out of a total of 176, or 22 per cent. Among these, are to be found the first operator who employed the Cæsarian operation, Jacob Nufer; Albrecht Dürer; Paracelsus; Michael Stifel, who gave to algebra its modern notation; Agricola, the great metallurgist; and Simon Stevinus, who introduced decimal fractions. These were all Germans. Among non-Germans, we are struck by the names of Amerigo Vespucci, Columbus, Leonardo da Vinci, Fernando Cortez, Bernard Palissy, Copernicus,
Tycho Brahe, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Davis (of Davis' Straits), Galilei and Gilbert (who wrote the first treatise on the magnet), to mention only those of world-wide fame.
Between the years 1600 and 1700, out of a total number of 312 entries, 48 are German, or 15 per cent.; among the names mentioned are those of Bacon, Briggs and Napier (of logarithm fame); Dudley, who introduced coal for iron-smelting; Harvey, famous for his discovery of the circulation of the blood; Descartes and Pascal; Torricelli, Hooke and Huygens; Boyle, the father of modern chemistry’; Malpighi, who confirmed Harvey's discovery; Thomas Willis and John Mayow, the precursors of Lavoisier; Papin of digestor' fame; Halley, the astronomer; and Savoy, the precursor of Watt.
The distinguished Teutons on this list are Kepler, Glauber, Kunckel, Leibnitz and Bernoulli,
During the next century, the entries are 517, of which 72, or 14 per cent., refer to German discoveries. We note the names of Newton, Newcomen, Boerhaave, Flamsteed, Maclaurin, Réaumur, Stephen Hales, Swedenborg, Linnæus; Darby, who first introduced coke in iron-smelting; Roebuck, the first to use lead chambers in the manufacture of oil of vitriol; Benjamin Franklin, Smeaton and Watt, the engineers; Black, Cavendish, Lavoisier, the chemists; Arkwright of the spinning-jenny; Coulomb, the physicist; Buffon, the naturalist; the anatomist Hunter; Priestley and Schele, the discoverers of oxygen; Count Rumford; the Montgolfiers of balloon fame; Josiah Wedgwood; de Saussure, the geologist; Hauy, the crystallographer; Berthollet and Laplace; Hutton, the founder of geological science; Lagrange and Euler, the mathematicians; Galvani and Volta, the early pioneers of electricity; Jenner, the inventor of vaccination; Charles Tennant, the manufacturer of bleaching-powder, besides others omitted for economy of space. The German entries of notables are Böttger, the manufacturer of Meissen porcelain; Immanuel Kant, the philosopher; Niebuhr, the traveller ; Peter Woulfe, the first to make picric acid; Wenzel and Richter, who discovered chemical equivalence; Herschel, the astronomer, the discoverer of Uranus; Werner, the geologist; Gauss, the mathematician; and Alexander von Humboldt.
The period from 1800 to 1850 comprises 901 entries ; of these Germans and Austrians form 234, or nearly 26 per cent. We note Thomas Young, the physicist; Robert Fulton, the engineer; Proust, Humphry Davy, Gay-Lussac, and Dulong and Petit, Wollaston, Henry and Dalton, illustrious chemists; Arago and Biot, the French physicists; Berzelius and Oersted, the Swedish savants; Lamarck, the precursor of Darwin; Avogadro and Ampère, Italian and French savants ; Thenard, the French physicist, and Cuvier, the naturalist; David Brewster and Decandolle ; George Stephenson; Prout, the chemist, and William Smith, the geologist; Chevreul, the discoverer of the nature of fatty bodies; Cauchy, the mathematician, and Fresnel, the discoverer in optics; Babbage, of the calculating machine; Niepce and Daguerre, the pioneers of photography; and Fourier, whose name is known in connexion with the propagation of heat; Michael Faraday; Macintosh, the inventor of waterproof materials; Sadi Carnot, famous for Carnot's
· cycle'; Brown, the botanist; Becquerel, the physicist, and Balard, the discoverer of bromine; Telford, the engineer; Graham and Dumas, the chemists; Wheatstone, the electrician, and Airey, the astronomer; Charles Darwin and Louis Agassiz; Schönbein, the Swiss inventor of high explosives; Regnault, the chemist; Armstrong and Whitworth, the engineers; Joule, the discoverer of the equivalence of heat and work, and Bain, the American inventor of telegraphy. Among Germans, we meet with Hahn, the founder of homoeopathy; Fraunhofer, the investigator of the solar spectrum; Mitcherlich, Liebig and Wöhler, the chemists; von Baër, the anatomist; von Mobl, the botanist; Weber, the colleague of Gauss and Bessel, mathematician; Müller, the comparative anatomist; von Buch and Bischoff, the geologists; Doppler, the discoverer of a valuable astronomical principle ; Siemens, the electrician; and Kirchhof, the inventor of the spectroscope in its modern form.
It would be invidious to name the discoverers and inventors between 1850 and 1900; suffice it to say that the records comprise 1021 entries, of which 477, or 46 per cent., can be ascribed to Teutonic sources. * But here
It should be remembered, in connexion with the large percentages of German names in this list, that it was compiled by two German savants.
we note the characteristic of recent years; as a rule, the principal advances in all subjects have been made by non-Germans; and as soon as these have been announced, an army of Teutons has intervened to mop up the spoil.
The awards of the Swedish Nobel Committee are unbiased by any national spirit; four prizes of the approximate value of 80001. each are distributed annually, one for physics, one for chemistry, one for medicine, and one for literature. During the twelve years from 1901 to 1912 inclusive, 58 prizes have been awarded, of which 17, or nearly 30 per cent., were received by Germans or Austrians. An almost identical result is arrived at by finding the ratio of German and Austrian Foreign Members and Associates of the principal Academies of the world, viz. 28 per cent. It must, however, not be forgotten that it is the older men of science who are elected to honorary membership, and that this last method of computation refers to these, and not, as a rule, to the men under fifty.
This enquiry shows that the German race has had an honourable share in the progress of science; but their influence has not been preponderating; and with some brilliant exceptions, their scientific men have rather amplified in detail the work of the inventors of other nations, Such work is very useful and is by no means to be decried; but it partakes rather of the character of that of the organ-blower, contrasted with that of the organist. Some years ago, the writer was discussing with two eminent French chemists the reason of the fecundity of the German output in chemistry; and they somewhat regretfully confessed that, while a German professor can bring a small army of young men to bear on the experimental attack of a problem which he is investigating, the young Frenchman, more versatile, and more original, objects to be kept in bonds, and insists on opportunity of giving expression to his own views.
The progress of science is advanced in two ways; one is in the conception of a useful idea, which is then applied in various directions; the other is what may be termed the method of exhaustion,' that is, to attempt all possible methods of solving a problem, until a suitable one is found. The first plan involves genius; the second continuous work, if possible with the aid of numerous
assistants. Great discoveries and inventions have been the result of the first method of attack; much useful work is achieved by the second. Speaking broadly, the Germanic races have progressed by the second, the AngloSaxon and Latin races by the first method. One might even go so far as to say that the first represents the masculine, and the second the feminine turn of mind; for no woman has been a great inventor, and yet women are unsurpassed for patient, laborious attention to detail.
How has it come about that a plodding, industrious race like the Germans have so altered their mentality as to have become bloodthirsty aggressors? Apparently by an overweening sense of the importance of plodding organisation as having contributed to their own success, and a conviction that in it civilisation consists. One would have thought that their failure as colonists might have taught them that it is impossible to rule races to which their methods are distasteful and foreign. It must, moreover, never be forgotten that they have applied precisely these methods to the organisation of their army; that they had compulsory service, and that their educational and military systems are closely interlinked; that this huge engine of war, maintained partly by fear of attack, partly by desire of aggression, is governed by a small oligarchy of which the Kaiser is the supreme head ; that from their earliest youth, German children are trained to regard the State as omnipotent, and are made to feel its direct influence from their cradles to their graves. Naturally, the directors of this vast military machine were desirous of testing it; and they have now the opportunity of trying its power against the combined force of nearly all Europe.
It must also be remembered that the German race, during the last half-century, has been growing less religious, and at the same time less moral. Like Gallio, they care for none of these things.' Their collective morality has seriously declined. Any foreigner who has tried to secure a German patent knows how the Berlin Patent Office, by trivial objections and tiresome delays, has rendered it a heartbreaking task. Many English manufacturers have suffered from a species of organised piracy, consisting in the deliberate infringement by Germans of the patents which they hold; from the