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dealing with such matters as Game Preservation, Agricultural Schools and Experimental Stations, Geological Survey, Research Laboratories, Veterinary Science, and the Sleeping Sickness Commission.

The division of the Sudan into provinces was carried out by the Khedive Ismail in 1871. This reform placed at the head of each province a responsible and practically independent official, instead of a mere agent subordinate to a Governor-General at Khartoum, to reach which place from the majority of the seats of local government occupied many days, and sometimes weeks. For administrative purposes the Sudan is divided into fourteen provinces, namely, Dongola, Berber, Khartoum, Kassala, Sennar, Kordofan, the Bahr-el-Gazal, and the Upper Nile in the first class; and Halfa, the Red Sea, the Blue Nile, Mongalla, the White Nile and the Nuba Mountains in the second. Although Darfur is within the AngloEgyptian Sudan, it is governed by its own independent Sultan, who maintains friendly relations with the Govern. ment at Khartoum.

Not only are the duties of the Governor-General continuous but the responsibilities are enormous, and, at the time when the new Government took over the country, may well have seemed overwhelming. After fifteen years of effort the problems to be solved have become less and less formidable ; and, while the burden of responsibility remains heavy, the decentralisation of much of the government formerly conducted in the capital has considerably relieved the situation. Moreover, the Governor-General has for some years past delegated a large portion of the detail work in the earlier stages of consideration to various permanent boards, the members of which advise the chief about all matters coming within the scope of their investigations. These Boards . Boards are

follows: the Central Economic Board, which has been in existence since 1906, with its President and Secretary, and whose functions are purely consultative; the Civil Service Selection Committee, sitting in Cairo or in London, and consisting of the officials of the Egyptian and Sudan Governments who have in previous years formed part of the Annual Selection Committee in London; the Council of Secretaries, who deal with matters arising

under the Pension Ordinance; the Harbours and Lights Board, which is responsible for the management and regulation of the ports named in the Ordinance, and of lighthouses, beacons, buoys, etc., etc.; the Khartoum Town Improvements and Allotments Board, which has the control of building-sites on Government land—and practically all land in Khartoum is Government property —the laying-out of new roads, and all questions affecting town improvements; the Khartoum Museum Board ; the Labour Bureau ; the Permanent Promotion Board ; the River Board ; the Central Sanitary Board; the Sleeping Sickness Commission, etc. No additional payment is received by officials for their services on the different Boards, the only extra remuneration allowed being in connexion with the Sleeping Sickness investigations.

A decided change has come about in both the character and the scope of the administration of the Sudan within the past few years. Ten years ago the country had barely emerged from a state of barbarism ; good government was the primary requisite; the introduction of western ideas of civilisation lay far ahead. Among the first duties of the Government was the abolition of slavery, and to this the closest attention was devoted, without, however, occasioning rebellion or even disorder among a people accustomed from time immemorial to carry on this terrible trade under the open encouragement and assistance of the Egyptian Government. The danger, always imminent, of religious fanaticism breaking out afresh had to be watched with unflagging care; while the extreme physical difficulties of governing a country twice the size of France and Germany combined, and mainly consisting of swamp, desert and primeval forest, hampered all the efforts of the Executive.

To-day things are different. Each province is really a small imperium in imperio, ruled by a Governor and his staff of British Inspectors and Egyptian underofficials. The difficulties of distance have been overcome by the establishment of excellent and complete telegraphic and telephonic communications, and the building of fifteen hundred miles of railway. Public order is secured by efficiently-disposed garrisons composed of reliable native troops. Above all, there has been a feeling of confidence established between the Government

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and the governed, the moral effect of which upon the well-being of the people is enormous. As was pointed out by an observant writer, when Lord Kitchener's *Report on the Finances, Administration and Condition of Egypt and the Sudan in 1913' was issued last May, these matter-of-fact documents, taking absolutely for granted all the marvels which British rule has wrought in Egypt and the Sudan, and rising to a note of enthusiasm only when they anticipate further reforms in the near future, might well stand as an epitomecomplete because of its very unconsciousness-of the British genius for ruling subject peoples.

This salutary and satisfactory change in the situation has enabled the Government to devote more and more attention to those questions which had temporarily to be laid aside-questions of providing wider education, of improved methods of local native administration, of a more equitable system of taxation, of a closer inspection of sanitary matters, and generally of looking into, and, where found desirable, of improving the native mode of living. In a word, the early physical difficulties having been almost if not entirely overcome, the ground has been prepared for the introduction by the Government of those administrative, judicial and financial measures suitable to the requirements of the primitive peoples whose interests have been committed to their care.

From the time when the Sudan Government was first established as a separate and responsible entity, the greatest care has been exercised to keep the personnel of the administration absolutely free from reproach in connexion with official incapacity, favouritism or oppression. Service under the Sudan Government has become so popular, and is regarded with so much favour by the rising generation, that the supply of officials, both military and civil, is always far in advance of the demand. The conditions of service are, however, very strict, and in some cases may even be regarded as severe, especially in regard to Oriental linguistic proficiency. In this particular it is not rare to find candidates, otherwise suitable, failing to satisfy the requirements of the Departments. Candidates are drawn from the highest educational centres of England, Scotland and Ireland, that is to

say, from the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London, from Trinity College, Dublin, inter alia, and from the University of Edinburgh. While recommendations from individuals personally knowing the candidates are welcomed, no attention is paid to introductions emanating from persons, however highly placed socially or politically, who cannot claim to know the candidate personally, This provision, among several others equally important for maintaining the purity and efficiency of the administration of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, has been and is rigorously enforced. The selection of officials in all Government Departments, military and civil, is based solely upon the general capability of the candidate, as well as upon his intellectual and physical attainments; his character and moral qualifications likewise bear an important part in the decision arrived at. On the other hand, information is neither sought nor admitted regarding religious views or political tendencies, the Government disclaiming any concern in such questions.

Naturally, among the large number of applicants for appointments who are continually being interviewed, many must fail; a careful and conscientious consideration of all requests for admission results in the elimination of many applicants who are deemed to be ineligible. This is the work of a Special Committee; and, when its decisions have been arrived at, there still remain at least four times as many candidates as there are billets to fill. Even when an applicant may be considered in all other respects fit and suitable, a Medical Board, which sits in London, may find him ineligible ; he cannot, indeed, be completely assured of his success until he has further passed a stiff examination in Arabic.

The candidate next passes before a 'final' Selection Board, which meets annually in London in the month of August. When he has been definitely accepted, the candidate is offered a choice of appointment in Egypt or the Sudan, and according to his preference he is placed upon the Egyptian or the Sudan list. It occurs but rarely that the former is selected; but once the decision either way is recorded it cannot be altered ; should the candidate hesitate in expressing his choice, the Government concludes that he is willing to serve under either administration. Transfers of junior officials

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from one Government to the other have, however, been occasionally permitted.

The successful applicant must now spend a further probationary year either at Oxford or Cambridge at his own expense, in order to study Arabic; and during this time he must also attend courses of instruction in first aid, elementary surveying, account-keeping, and such other subjects as the Selection Board may-in accord with the University authorities-consider necessary. Furthermore, the future official must know how to ride; if he does not, he is recommended to learn at once. The probationary year at an end, the candidate has to undergo the ordeal of an examination in Arabic; and the results of this test determine his seniority. Still another medical examination must be passed, and then the Selection Board once more sits in judgment, deciding finally whether the applicant shall be accepted or rejected. So high is the esprit de corps among the younger ranks of the officials, that it is not deemed by them sufficient to 'scrape through' their first examination; the majority endeavour to pass with honours; and even the handsome cash bonus of 1001., which is presented to the successful competitor in the Advanced Arabic Examination, is of less moment than the distinction which his achievement brings to his Department, and which, incidentally, bears upon his own future promotion. The gaining of this high distinction is rare, there having been but four successful competitors up till now, among whom is the present governor of the Blue Nile Province, Mr G. E. Iles. Several young officers personally known to me have cheerfully devoted their entire furlough at home to improving their knowledge of Arabic either at language schools or by attending college lectures and studying law. With this lofty sentiment predominant among the juniors, it is not difficult to understand or to appreciate the pride with which the heads of the Sudan Government Departments point to the class of official now serving the country,

No first appointment is made for a longer period than two years, which are considered as probationary. If, during this time, the 'candidate'-he is still so regarded in the official eye-is found unsuitable, owing to ill-health or to any other cause, his services may be dispensed with

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