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their fellows, they are to be considered in a double ca. pacity, both as letters and as figures, Your laborious German wits will turn over a whole dictionary for one of these ingenious devices. A man would think they were searching after an apt

classical term but instead of that they are looking out a word that has an L, an M, or D, in it. When therefore

ve meet with any of these inscriptions, we are not so much to look in them for the thought as for the year of the Lord.

The Bouts Rimez were the favourites of the French nation for a whole age together, and that at a time when it abounded in wit and learning. They were a list of words that rhyme to one another, drawn up by another hand, and given to a poet, who was to make a poem to the rhymes in the same order that they were placed upon the list: the more uncommon the rhymes were, the more'extraordinary was the genius of the poet that could accommodate his verses to them. I do not know any greater instance of the decay of wit and learning among the French (which generally follows the declension of empire) than the endeavouring to restore this foolish kind of wit. If the reader will be at the trouble to see examples of it, let him look into the new Mercure Gallant ; where the author every month gives a list of rhymes to be filled up by the ingenious, in order to be communicated to the public in the Mercure for the succeeding month. That for the month, of November last, which now lies before me, is as followsa

Lauriers
Guerriers
Musette
Lisette

Cesars
Etendars
Houlette

Folette One would be amazed to see so learned a man as MENAGE talking seriously on this kind of trifle in the following passage.

66 Monsieur de la CHAMBRE has told me, that he never knew what he was going to write when he took his pen into his hand; but that one sentence always produced 20other. For my own part, I never knew what I should

write next when I was making verses. In the first place I got all my rhymes together, and was afterwards perhaps three or four months in filling them up. I one day shewed Monsieur GOMBAUD a composition of this nature, in which, among others, I had made use of the four following rhymes, Amaryllis, Phyllis, MARKE, Arne, desiring him to give me his opinion of it. He told me immediately, that my verses were good for nothing. And upon my asking his reason, he said, because the rhymes are too common; and for that reason easy to be put into verse. Marry, says I, if it be so, I am very well rewarded for all the pains I have been at. But by Monsieur GOMBAUD’s leave, notwithstanding the severity of the criticism, the verses were good.” Vide MenaGIANA. Thus far the learned MENAGE, whom I have translated word for word.

The first occasion of these Bouts Rimez made them in some manner excusable, as they were talks which the French ladies used to impose on their lovers. But when a grave author, like him above-mentioned, tasked him. self, could there be any thing more ridiculous ? Or would not one be apt to believe that the author played booty, and did not make his list of rhymes till he had finished Liis poem?

I shall only add, that this piece of false wit has been finely ridiculed by Monsieur SARASIN, in a poem entitled La Defaite des Bouts-Rimez, The Rout of the Bouts-Rimex.

I must subjoin to this last kind of wit the dauble rhymes, which are used in doggerel poetry, and generally applauded by ignorant readers. If the thought of the couplet in such compositions is good, the rhyme adds little to it; and if bad, it will not be in the power of the rhyme to recommend it. I am afraid that great numbers of those who admire the incomparable HUDIBRAS, do it more on account of these doggerel rhymes, than of the parts

that really deserve admiration. I am sure I have heard the

Pulpit, drum ecclesiastic,
Was beat with fist instead of a stick-
There was an ancient sage philosopher

Who had read ALEXANDER Ross overmore frequently quoted, than the finest pieces of wit in the whole poein.

C.

and

NO. 61.-THURSDAY, MAY 10. 1711.

[BY ADDISON.)

Non equidem studeo, bullatis ut mihi nugis.
Pagina turgescat, dare pondus idonea fumo. PERS. SAT. V.19.
"Tis not indeed my talent to engage
In lofty trifles, or to swell my page
With wind and noise.

DRYDEN,

PUNS.

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in the great.

There is no kind of false wit which has been so recom; mended by the practice of all ages, as that which cona sists in a jingle of words, and is comprehended under the general name of Punning. It is indeed impossible to kill å weed, which the soil has a natural disposition to produce. The seeds of punning are in the minds of all men; and though they may be subdued by reason, reflection, and good sense, they will be very apt to shoot

up est genius, that is not bruken and cultivated by the rules of art. Imitation is natural to us; and when it does not raise the mind to poetry, painting, music, or other inore noble arts, it often breaks out in

puns and quibbles. ARISTOTLE, in the eleventh chapter of his book of rhetoric, describes two or three kinds of puns, which he calls paragrams, among the beauties of good writing, and produces instances of them out of some of the greatest authors in the Greek tongue. Cicero las sprinkled several of his works with puns; and in his book where he lays down the rules of oratory, quotes abundance of sayings as pieces of wit, which also, upon examination; prove arrant puns. But the age

in which the pun chiefly Aourished, was in the reign of King JAMES I. That learned monarch was himself a tolerable punster, and made very few bishops of privy-counsellors that had not some time or other signalised themselves by a clincli, os a conundrum. It was therefore in this

age appeared with pomp and dignity. It had before been admitted into merry speeches and ludicrous compositions,

that the pun

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but was now delivered with great gravity from the pulpit, or pronounced in the most solemn manner at the coun. cil-table. The greatest authors; in the most serious works, made frequent use of puns. The sermons of Bishop AN. DREWS, and the tragedies of SHAKESPEARE, are full of them. The sinner was punned into repentance by the former, as in the latter nothing is more usual than to see a hero weeping and quibbling for a dozen lines together.

I must add to these great authorities, which seem to have given a kind of sanction to this piece of false wit, that all the writers of rhetoric have treated of punning with very great respect, and divided the several kinds of it into hard names, that are reckoned

among

the figures of speech, and recommended as ornaments in discourse. I remember a country schoolmaster of my acquaintance told me once, that he had been in company with a gentleman whom he looked upon to be the greatest päragrammatist among the moderns. Upon inquiry, I found my

learned friend had dined that day with Mr SWAN, the famous punster; and desiring him to give me some account of Mr Swan's conversation, he told me that he generally talked in the Paranomasia, that he sometimes gave into the Plocè, but that in his humble opinion he shined most in the Antanaclasis.

I must not here omit, that a famous university of this land was formerly very much infested with

puns $ but whether or no this might not arise from the fens and marshes in which it was situated, and which are now drained, I nust leave to the determination of more skil. ful naturalists.

After this short history of punning, one would wonder how it should be so entirely banished out of the learned world as it is at present, especially since it had found a place in the writings of the most ancient polite authors. To account for this, we must consider, that the first race of authors who were the great beroes in writing, were destitute of all rules and arts of criticism ; and for that reason, though they excel later writers in greatness of genius, they fall short of them in accuracy and correctness. The moderns cannot reach their beauties, but can avoid their imperfections. When the world was furnished with these authors of the first eminence, there grew up another set of writers, who gained themselves a reputation by the remarks which they made on the works of those who preceded them. It was one of the enployments of these secondary authors, to distinguish the se. veral kinds of wit hy terms of art, and to consider them as more or less perfect, according as they were founded in truth. It is no wonder, therefore, that even such authors as ISOCRATES, Plato, and Cicero, should have such little blemishes as are not to be met with in authors of a much inferior character, who have written since those several blemishes were discovered. I do not find that there was a proper separation made between puns and true wit by any of the ancient authors, except QUINTILIAN and LONGINUS. But when this distinction was once settled, it was very natural for all men of sense to agree in it. As for the revival of this false wit, it happened about the time of the revival of letters; but as soon as it was once detected, it immediately vanished and disappeared. At the same time there is no question, but as it has sunk in one age, and rose in another, it will again recover itself in some distant period of time, as pedantry and ignorance shall prevail upon wit and sense. And, to speak the truth, I do very

much apprehend, by some of the last winter's productions, which had their sets of admirers, that our posterity will in a few years degenerate into a race of punsters: at least, a man may be very excusable for any apprehensions of this kind, that has seen acrostics handed about the town with great secrecy and applause; to which I must also add a little epigrain called the Witches Prayer, that fell into verse when it was read either backward or forward, excepting only that it cursed one way, and blessed the other. When one sees there are actually such pains-takers among our British wits, who can tell what it may end in? If we must lash one another, let it be with the manly strokes of wit and satire ; for I am of the old philosopher's opinion, that if I must suffer from one or the other, I would rather it should be from the paw

of a lion than the hoof of an ass. I do not speak this out of any spirit of party. There is a most crying dulness on both sides. I have seen Tory Acrostics and Whig Anagrams, and do not quarrel with either

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