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"Gentleness, justice, kindness, and benignity of speech, and attention to one's particular studies, are called verbal zeal.
“Content of mind, mildness of temper, devotion, restraint of the passions, and a purity of soul, are called mental real.
“This threefold zeal being warmed with supreme faith, and performed by men who long not for the fruit of action, is of the Satwa Goon.
“The zeal shown by hypocrisy, for the sake of the reputation of sanctity, honor, and respect, is of the Raja Goon ; and it is inconstant and uncertain.
“The zeal exhibited with self torture by the fool, without examination, or for the purpose of injuring another, is of the Tama Goon.
“That charity which is bestowed by the disinterested, because it is proper to be giden, in due place and season, and to proper objects, is of the Satwa Goon.
“That which is given in expectation of a return, or for the sake of the fruit of the action, and with reluctancy, is of the Raja Goon.
“That which is given out of place and season, and to unworthy objects, and at the same time ungraciously and scornfully, is of the Tama Goon.
“Whatever is performed without faith, whether it be sacrifices, deeds of charity, or mortifications of the flesh, is called Esat ; and is not for this world, or that which is above."
The eighteenth Lecture treats of `Forsaking the Fruits of Action for obtaining eternal salvation.'
Arjoon desires to be instructed in the principle of Sannyas and Tyag, and Kreeshna answers : “The bards conceive that the word Sannyas implieth the forsaking of all actions that are desirable ; and they call Tyag the forsaking of the fruits of every action. Certain philosophers have declared that works are as much to be avoided as crimes; whilst others say that deeds of worship, mortification, and charity, should not be forsaken. Hear what is my
decree. Tyag, or forsaking, is pronounced to be of three natures. But deeds of worship, mortifications, and charity are not to be forsaken; they are proper to be performed. Sacrifices, charity, and mortification, are purifiers of the philosopher.
Learn, 0 Arjoon! that for the accomplishment of every work, five agents are necessary, as is further declared in the Sanchya and Vedant Sastras : attention and supervision, the actor, the implements of various sorts, distinct and manifold contrivances, and lastly the favor of Providence. He then who after this, because of the imperfection of bis judgment, beholdeth no other agent than himself, is an evil thinker and seeth not all.
In the direction of a work are three things : Gnan, Gneya, and Pareegnata wisdom, the object of wisdom, and the superintending spirit. The Gnan, the action, and the agent, are each distinguished by the influence of the three Goon. That Gnan, or wisdom, by which one principle alone is seen prevalent in all uature, incorruptible and infinite in all things finite, is of the Satwa Goon.
“That Gnan, or wisdom, is of the Raja Goon, by which a man believeth that there are various and manifold principles prevailing in the natural world of created beings.
“That Gnan, or wisdom, which is mean, interested in one single object alone as if it were the whole, without any just motive or design, and without principle or profit, is of the Tama Goon.
“The understanding that can determine what it is to proceed in a business, and what it is to recede; what is necessary and what is unnecessary; what is fear, and what is not; what is liberty and what is confinement; is of the Satwa Goon.
“ That pleasure which a man enjoyeth from his labor and whereby he findeth the end of his pains; and that which, in the beginning, is as poison, and in the end as the water of life, is of the Satwa Goon."
Instances of the Raja and Tama Goon are likewise given; and Kreeshna then declares that there is not any thing either in heaven or earth, or amongst the hosts of heaven, which is free from the influence of these Goon, which arise from the first principles of nature.
“The respective duties of the four tribes of Brahmin, Kshetree, Visya, and Soodra, are also determined by the qualities which are in their constitutions." This
passage makes evident enough the connection between the institution of castes and the doctrine of transmigration.
“The natural duty of the Brahmin is peace, self restraint, zeal, purity, patience, rectitude, wisdom, learning, and theology.
“The natural duties of the Kshetree are bravery, glory, fortitude, rectitude, not to flee from the field, generosity, and princely conduct.
“The natural duty of the Visya is to cultivate the land, tend the cattle, and buy and sell.
“The natural duty of a Soodra is servitude." The
passages which conclude the Book, show us that the end of divine culture is, that we may live a divine life, and that each man performing faithfully his duty in his own proper station, is sure of acceptance with his maker.
“The man who maketh an offering of his own works to that very being from whom the principles of all being proceed, and by whom the whole universe was spread forth, by that means obtaineth perfection.
“The duties of a man's own particular calling, altho not free from faults, are far preferable to the duty of another, let it be ever so well pursued. A man by following the duties which are appointed by his birth, doeth no wrong. Every undertaking is involved in its faults, as the fire in its smoke. A disinterested mind, and conquered spirit, who, in all things is free from inordinate desires, obtaineth a perfection unconnected with works, by that resignation and retirement which is called Sannyas. A man also being engaged in works, if he put his trust in me alone, shall, by my divine pleasure, obtain the eternal and incorruptible mansions of my abode. ... Eeswar resideth in the breast of every mortal being, revolving, with his supernatural power, all things which are mounted upon the universal wheel of time. Take sanctuary then upon all occasions with him alone, 0 offspring of Bharat! for by his divine pleasure thou shalt obtain supreme happiness and an eternal abode.”
III. In a paper at the commencement of the fifth Volume of the Asiatic Researches, English Edition, there is a comparison instituted between the account of the Creation given by Menu the Indian, and Moses the Jewish, Isaw-giver. According to Sir W. Jones in his Preface to the 'Institutes of Hindu Law; or the Ordinances of Menu, with the Gloss of Cullucca,' the antiquity of the Yajar, Veda extends as far back as 1580 years before the birth of Christ, 9 years before the birth of Moses, and 90 before the Exodus. So that there could have been no borrowing of Menu from Moses; altho it is not improbable, from the Priestly Education of the latter, that he may have derived his ideas on this subject from the Egyptian teachings, which in many respects were similar to those of the Brahmins.
EXTRACTS FROM THE LAWS OF MENU.
This universe existed only in the first divine idea yet unexpanded, as if involved in darkness, imperceptible, undefinable, undiscoverable by reason, and undiscovered by revelation, as if it were wholly immersed in sleep. (Chap. i. 5.)
Then the sole self existing power, himself undiscerned, but making this world discernable, with five elements and other principles of nature, appeared with undiminished glory, expanding his idea, or dispelling the gloom. (ib. 6.)
He whom the mind alone can perceive, whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, who exists from eternity, even HE, the soul of all things, whom no being can comprehend shone forth in person. (ib. 7.) *
He, having willed to produce various beings from his own divine substance, first with a thought created the waters. b
The waters are called nara, because thcy were the production of NARA, or the spirit of God; and since they were his first ayana or place of motion, he thence is named Nara-yana, or moring on the waters. (ib. 10.) •
From that which is,--the First Cause, not the object of sense, existing every where in substance, not existing to our perception, without beginning or ends-was produced the divine male. (ib. 11.)
He framed the heaven above, and the earth beneath ; in the midst he placed the subtil ether, the eight regions, and the permanent receptacle of waters. (ib. 13.)
He framed all creatures. (ib. 16.)
a Moses. In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth. b Moses. And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters.
c Moses. And God said: Let us make man in our own Image. d Moses. And God said: Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters; and God called the firmament Heaven,-- etc.
He too first assigned to all creatures distinct names, distinct acts, and distinct occupations.
He gave being to time, and the divisions of time; to the stars also, and the planets, to rivers, oceans, and mountains, to level plains, and uneven vallies. (ib. 24.) To devotion, speech, etc., for he willed the existence of all created things. (ib. 25.)
For the sake of distinguishing action, He made a total difference between right and
wrong. (ib. 26.) 8 Having divided his own substance, the Mighty Power, became balf male, half female. (ib. 32.)
He whose powers are incomprehensible, having created ... this universe, was again absorbed in the Spirit, changing the time of energy, for the time of repose. (ib. 56.)
NOTE ON THE OCCUPATIONS OF THE FOUR Castes.
The regular means of subsistence for a Brahmana are assisting to sacrifice, teaching the Vedas, and receiving gifts: for a Cshatriya, bearing arms; for a Vaisya, merchandize, attending on cattle, and agriculture; for a Sudra, servile attendance on the higher classes. The most commendable are, respectively for the four classes, teaching the Veda, defending the people, .commerce or keeping herds or flocks, and servile attendance on the learned and virtuous priests.
A Brahmana, unable to subsist by his duties, may live by the duty of a soldier: if he cannot get subsistence by either of these employments, he may apply to tillage and attendance on cattle, or gain a competence by traffic, avoiding certain commodities. A Cshatriya in distress, may subsist by all these means; but he must not have recourse to the highest functions. In seasons of distress, a further latitude is given. The practice of medicine, and other learned professions, painting, and other arts, work for wages, menial service, alms and usury, are among the modes of subsistence allowed [according to the texts of Menu, and other legal authorities, from which these statements are taken] to the Brahmana, and Cshatriya. A Vaisya, unable to subsist by his own duties, may descend to the servile acts of a Sudra. And a Sudra, not finding employment by waiting on
• Moses. God brought every beast of the field unto Adam, to see what he would call them. And God put the Man into the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain was a tiller of the ground.
Moses. God said : Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, for days and for years, etc.
8 Moses. If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door.
Moses. God created man in his own Image; in the Image of God created he him ; male and female, created he them.
i Moses. Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work; and rested on the seventh day from all his work.
men of the higher classes may subsist by handicrafts; principally following those mechanical occupations, as joinery and masonry; and practical arts, as painting and writing; by following of which he may serve men of superior classes; and altho a man of a lower class is in general restricted from the acts of a bigber class, the Sudra is expressly permitted to become a trader, or a husbandman.
Hence it appears that almost every occupation, tho it be regularly the profession of a particular class, is open to most other classes; and that the limitations, far from being rigorous, do in fact reserve only one peculiar profession, that of the Brahmana, which consists in teaching the Veda and officiating at religious ceremonies.
H. T. Colebrooke. Article, Indian Classics, Asiatic Researches, Vol. v. p. 63-4.
FABLE OF THE THRUSH AND THE HORSE.
BY JANUARY SEARLE.
A THRUSH was once singing very melodiously in a wood adjoining a field, in which a cart horse was grazing. The horse trotted up to the wood, and listened with evident pleasure to the invisible minstrel, who on seeing him so enchanted asked with a sneer, if he could make the woods echo so merrily. 'Not I, quoth the horse, “and I find by your question that you are not half so beautiful as your voice.' 'How so ?' said the offended thrush, ‘Because all beautiful souls speak kind words,' said the noble horse. “And mine is not beautiful because I
if you could sing, forsooth!' said the thrush, tossing her head. 'Not because you asked me if I could sing,' rejoined the horse, but because when you asked me you knew I could not sing. He who made us both, gave one faculty to me, and another to you. You have not my strength, neither have I your voice; and if I cannot sing neither can you draw a cart.' At these words the thrush, who felt the rebuke, flew away a wiser and a better bird.