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be alleged, or only thc minor and lately-invented one of permitting the use of high places’ in competition with the metropolitan temple. No one ventured to question the dispensation, tho as time wore on it became more and more difficult to conceive the mode in which it could be accomplished. It was the difficulty arising from the practical refutation of the theory by indisputable facts which led to the moral speculation forming so large a part of the poetical books of the Bible, ending in an enthusiastic hypothesis of faith, and eventually in higher views of futurity. Had the Pentateuch anticipated these views it would have been contradictory to itself; and might, moreover, to common minds, have tended more to encourage the idolatrous accompaniments it condemns than the wholesome hope connected with consciousness of immortality. At the same time, the repeated prohibition of necromantic and necrolatrous practices, and the obstinacy with which, nevertheless, they seem to have been retained,5 prove that the dead were not regarded as wholly extinct. This may be shown from many intimations in ancient record without having recourse to the rabbinical interpretation of the passage in Exodus, a construction obviously strained and inconclusive. For example, the phrase used in describing the death of the patriarchs, the being 'gathered to their fathers,' cannot mean merely their consignment to the ancestral tomb, since it is employed in reference to persons, as Moses and Aaron, j whose sepulchres were unknown, and, moreover, is applied to an event er. pressly distinguished from the burial ceremony.k It seems rather to describe the dying man entering into the society of his departed ancestry, the reunion of disembodied spirits.' The place of this reunion is distinctly pointed out by the same authority as being ‘Sheol,' a word meaning either the 'voracious,'" or more probably the abyss,'° or lower world, the nether region of the universe, as deep below as heaven is high above.P The general receptacle of the dead is an ideal enlargement of the notion of a sepulchre, It is a land of darkness and of the shadow of death, where light itself becomes darkness, a prison with gates and bars,s admitting neither escape nor ransom. It is the abode of rest," forgetfulness,' and silence, w where even God is unremembered, where the hymn of praise and the wail of woe are alike hushed,' and where there is neither work nor thought, knowlege nor wisdom. z Its population are the lifeless and bloodless shades, the Raphaim, answering to the umbræ tenues or siswra of Homer. Sheol was in strictness the house
e Comp. 2 Kings xii. 18. 20; xiv. 26, 27; xv. 5. f Lev. xix. 31. Deut. xviii. 11. 8 1 Sam. xxviii. 7. 2 Kings xxi. 6; xxiii 4. Isa. viii. 19. h Exod. iii. 15. Matt. xxii. 32, with Wetstein's note. Strauss, Life of Jesus, vol. ii. p. 139.
i In Isaiah Jehovah is expressly said to be the God of the Israelites who died in the captivity, and whose resurrection is but doubtfully hinted at. Gesen. to Isai. xxvi, 19. Knobel, p. 190. j Numb. xxvii. 13. Deut. xxxii. 50.
k Gen. xlix. 33; 1, 13. i Job xxx. 23.
m Gen. xxxvü, 37. n “Orcus rapax,” Catull. ; “Acherontis avari,” etc. Comp. Prov. xxvii, 20; xxx. 16. Hab. ii. 5. Isa. v. 14.
o The “Pit."
p Deut. xxxii. 22. Job xi. 8. Psal. cxxxix. 8. Ezek. xxxi. 14. Amos ix. 2. De Wette’s Biblische Dogmatick, p. 88.
4 Gen. xlii. 38; xliv. 29. r Job x. 22. s Isa. Xxxviii, 10. Job xvii, 16. • Prov. vii. 27. Psal. xlix. 7. Job vii. 9.
u Job üi. 13, 17. Psalm lxxxviii. 12. w Psalm xciv. 17; cxv. 17. * Psalm vi. 5; xxx. 10. y Isa. Xxxviii. 18.
2 Eccles. ix. 10. Sometimes however the shades, like those in Homer, seem to be dressed and employed as they were on earth. 1 Sam. xxviii, 14, Isa, xiv. Ezek. xxxii.
'appointed to receive all living ;'* yet there were certain exceptions, as in the case of those pious favorites of Heaven, who, like Enoch and Elijah, were transferred to Ileaven without dying. The unusual circumstances, too, attending the deaths of Moses and Aaron may have countenanced or have followed from an impression that the decease of extraordinary men is necessarily attended by extraordinary circumstances. b On the other hand, there was a notion that the greatly wicked are sometimes swallowed up alive by Sheol. c So that in general the opinions of the early Hebrews were nearly the same as those of the Greeks. They had their wan ghosts, inmates of their Hades, or world below; from the general doom were exempted their mythical heroes, who, distinguished for piety, if not for bravery, were translated to an elysium without dying; and lastly, in the remote background of their thoughts and records, lay the conception of a pantheistic absorption, when the spirit figuratively ‘breathed into the nostrils' of man at his creation, would, as the body crumbled into its original dust, ‘return to the God who gave it,'d (as he gave it).
Such views of the condition of the dead were not likely to afford much either of restraint or of consolation to the living. Hope is said to remain no longer than while life continues; e no cheering hope mingles with lamentations for the dead, and the prospect of rejoining deceased friends is anything but encouraging. 8 Job, David, and Hezekiah entreat that they may see the Lord, that is, salvation, in the land of the living;' h they evince nothing of the elsewhere common anticipation i of a posthumous realization of disappointed hope. Bitter indeed must be the lot from which death is a desirable release !j “There is hope of a tree,' says Job, repeating the sentiment of Achilles in Homer, “there is hope of a tree which is cut down that it will sprout again ; even tho its root decay within the ground, yet the scent of water will make it bud forth as if newly planted. But man lieth down and riseth not again; never until the heavens be no more will he awake, or be aroused out of his slumber.' Job for a moment longs to repose in the quiet of the grave, to find there temporary respite from God's wrath ; but he instantly checks the wish k when reflecting that once dead he could never revive, and resolves that it is better to endure patiently the servitude of life until God grants the natural discharge from it.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOCTRINE OF A FUTURE STATE AMONG THE HEBREWS.
Among the Hebrews the idea of spiritual immortality was retarded, as above stated, by the theocratic theory. They could not, like many ancients, consider early death a mark of divine favor; since the choicest theocratic blessings were continuance in the land' and length of days. The soul, tho not extinct, had been consigned to a neutral condition in which there was neither grief nor joy nor retributive distinction; and the exceptions to the general lot authorized by tradition, such as Enoch and Elijah, were cases far beyond the hopes of common men. Good men indeed, after this precedent (if the phrase be not
* Job. XXX. 23. b Numb. xx. 24. 29. Deut. x. 6; xxxiv. 1. 6. Joseph. Antiq. iii. 5. 7; iv. 8. 48. © Numb. xvi. 30. Psal. lv. 15. Gesen. to Isa. v. 14, vol. ii. p. 238.
Eccles. xii. 7. Job xxxii. 8; xxxiv. 14. Psal. civ. 29. Comp. Isa. xlii. 5. Jer. xxxviii. 16. Numb. xvi. 22. 1 Kings xviii. 12. A passage in Euripides frag. Chrys. vii. is an exact parallel to that in Ecclesiastes. Comp. Eurip. Supplices, 543.
e Job vii. 9, 10; x. 21; xvii. 11. 15, 16. Psal. xxxix. 13. f 1 Sam. i. 17; xviii. 33; xix. 1. 8 2 Sam. xii. 22, 23. Gen. xxxvii. 35. Comp. Psal. lxxxviii. 11; lxxxix. 47.
i Ps. Plat. Epinomis, 973. į Job ii, 21.
According to the common version ; but see infr. 1 Job xiv. 7-14. It is not that man is to revive after the heavens had passed away, according to the idea in Psal. cii. 26. Isa. li. 6. Such a construction would destroy the obvious intention, and neutralize the force of the antithesis about the tree.
rather the precedent for the story), were said not to die, but to be taken away,' to depart, to go hence and be no more seen, to cease to be among the living, b to sleep, etc., Goths ‘departed' to Zamolxis, or the Egyptians to their great benefactor Osiris. Such phraseology no doubt prepared the way for the adoption of higher conceptions so soon as man should become deliberately conscious of his own dignity; and it may be that even concurrently with the common and gross view, superior minds may have already fallen back on natural analogies, and imagined the life of the departed to be reunited in a more elevated sense with its source. e
The theory, in its earliest systematic form, was that most nearly allied to ancient prepossessions. The golden age of the Hebrews was the worldly notion of a renewal of the earthly theocracy or political re-establishment of their nation. It seems to have been the continued disappointment of the Messianic hopes which first gave a turn to their mode of thought, by teaching them to look for some expedient, thrö which theory might be reconciled with the unpleasant fact that many pious inheritors of the promise who ought to have witnessed its fulfilment had been prematurely cut off. The old theory, cou under these circumstances, be fully vindicated only by presuming a bodily resurrection, admitting, in spite of former dicta, the possibility of escape out of Sheol. This form was taken by Hebrew faith during the captivity; and it is not impossible, notwithstanding the objections raised, that the contact of Zoroastrian opinions may have subsequently favored its development, tho it did not originate it. The accounts of persons supposed to have been recalled to life by the prophets h must have been recorded about this time, and could scarcely have been tolerated had there not been an impression as to the possibility of bodily revival. Such an idea may have been assisted by the familiar phenomena of dreaming and suspended animation. The Egyptian might on such grounds have been led to think the work of death incomplete as long as putrefaction could be prevented, so that if by embalmment, the body could be made to retain the general form of its organization, the soul too would maintain its individual or determinate' relation to it,k and preserving in Amenthe something of its earthly shape and character,' might at the appointed period of three thousand years return to its former habitation. m
2 Kings ii. 9, 10. Isa. liii. 8; lvii. 1. Wisd. xiv. 15.
b Gen. v. 24. Joseph. Ant. i. 3, 4; iii. 5.7; iv. 8. 48. Livy, i. 16. Diog. Laert. ii. 5. 23. Menag. ii. 43. Lysias, Orat. Reiske, p. 66.
c Callimachus in Brunck's Analecta, i. 472.
d Whose death was not to be named. Herod. ii. 61. 132. 170. Wesseling to Diod. S. i. 20. Eurip. Bacchæ. 1339.
e Gen, ii. 7. Psal. cxlvi. 4. Eccles. iii. 21; xii, 7,
Comp. Müller, in Ullman and Umbreit, Theolog. Stud. and Krit. vol. 8. Theopompi Chii. Fragm. Wichers. p. 160.
& Theopompus is said to have stated in his history of Philip of Macedon the Magian belief in a resurrection.
1 King xvii. 17 sq. 2 Kings iv, 8; xiii. 21.
Comp. Plin. N. H. vii. 54, (52.) Herod. iv. 15. Pind. ub. sup. i The same idea may be found in the Talmud (Jerusalem Gemara in Gfrörer, Urchrist. ii. 74), according to which the soul of the departed flits for three days round the corpse in hope of re-entering it; at length, when the signs of decay become evident, it hurries away. The common notion of haunted graves and church.yards evidently arises from the same source. (Comp. Enoch ix. 12.)
k Servius to Æn. iii. 68. Tertullian de Anim. 23, p. 288. Baehr's Herod. ii. 123.
1 The shades of the dead were supposed to have the appearance of the living. Nitzsch to Odyss. xi. 189. Virg. Æn. ü. 272; vi. 651.
m Creuz, S. ii, 16. Guigniaut, Rel, ü, 310, Wyttenbach to Plutarch de S. V.
The God of the Hebrews was that divine pastor who 'walked' with Adam and with Enoch, and who, tho seated above the firmament," was also the ever-present Ruler and Vindicator in the midst of Israel. The remnant who should renew his dominion and share his eventual triumph must therefore be a living and embodied with employments and gratifications to correspond. The prophets in this sense announce the hope of reanimation to their disappointed and buried countrymen, or to the exiled Israelites in general, to whom Babylon was as a grave, and whose restoration might aptly be called a resurrection. Ezekiel was commissioned to prophesy a resurrection of the dead as part of a general plan of restoration after the captivity; and this, not merely by way of frigid allusion to a received dogma, but to give consolation in despair P by the announcement of a hitherto unprecedented exertion of the beneficent power of Jehovah.9 To the mournful enquiry 'wilt thou again revive us ?' the divine voice responds in the affirmative, ‘I will swallow up death in victory." The visionary plains appeared to the prophet's eye full of dry bones;' and upon the word which he was directed to announce there was a noise as it were of thunder, bone was reunited to bone, and having been covered again with flesh and sinews was lastly animated with breath. “These bones,' says Jehovah, ‘are the whole house of Israel; u they have said, Our bones are dried up, our bope is lost; therefore, son of man, prophesy and say to them, Behold, O my people, I will even open your graves and cause you to come forth, and bring you again to your own country.' The vision is but an energetic form of expressing in reference to the particular circumstances of the Israelites the general hope uttered in Job and Psalms. At a somewhat later time when Babylon had been destroyed,' yet the restored Jews were still far from enjoying the populousness and splendor they anticipated, another prophet employs nearly the same imagery. "The dead,' he
says, w live no more, shadows rise not again, therefore hast thou visited and destroyed them (the wicked), and made all their memory to perish. Yet thou, O Jehovah, art he who multipliest the nation, and thou art glorified; thou widenest all its borders. Lord, in trouble theyx sought thee; in their affliction was thy 'severity' whispered; as a travailing woman crieth in her pangs, so sat we agonized in thy sight, Jehovah! We were in labor and in pain; we have brought forth but wind; the land is still undelivered, nor are its people brought forth to inhabit it.' Then with a beautiful transition from despondency to hope he exclaims, 'Othat thy dead might live again, that my buried countrymen could rise ! Awake and sing, ye dwellers in the dust; for the dew of Jehovah is as the quickening dew which re-invigorates the grass, and the earth again sends forth its shadows to new existence.'y
The resurrection doctrine seems to have made but slow progress; for with the exception of two doubtful passages,” which may be no more than instances of vague expression, the Palestinian Apocrypha, including Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, and Tobit, contemplate only the state of Sheol. At the Christian æra, however, it appears a general doctrine of
Comp. Göthe’s Wilhelm Meister, Trans. ii. 1 It is not clear why the embalment of animals should be thought adverse to this view (Wilkinson's Egypt, 2nd ser., vol. ii. p. 444), since the Egyptian, like the untutored Indian, might have hoped to be accompanied in the resurrection by his favorite cat or dog. n Isa. xl. 22. o Joel ii. 27; iii. 16.
p Ezek. xxxiji. 10. 9 See Deut. xxxii. 29. 1 Sam. ii. 6.
r Hos. xii, 14. Isa. xxv. 8, Ezek. jii. 12. 22. Ezek, xxxvii. u Ezek. xxxvii. 11. Isa. xxiv. 10.
w Isa. xxvi. 14. * The captive Israelites. y On the “Dew of Jehovah,'' see Psal. lxii 6. Job xiv. 9. Gesen. to Isa. xxvi. 19. Comp. Psal. i. 3.
z Tobit iï. 6. Ecclûs. xlviii. 11.
Judaism, assuming several forms. To the Pharisees who maintained the bodily or Mes. sianic resurrection, the Sadducees appeared to deny immortality altogether ; & for they who, presuming the life to be in the blood, could conceive no continuing existence except by bodily revival, would of course so construe a mere retention of the ancient Sheol doctrine, or the equally unsubstantial theory maintained by emanationists and pantheists of the school of Ecclesiastes. Equally opposed to the Pharisaic doctrine was that which, mainly under the influence of Greek Philosophy, prevailed among the Jews of Alexandria, according to which the body, so far from being essential to existence, was the spirit's prison, escape from it being life's true commencement. b This is the idea of Philo, of the Alexandrian authors of 4th Maccabees and of the book of Wisdom, and also of the Essenes, who believed a spiritual immortality and retribution, but not a resurrection, For tho in Alexandrian theosophy Platonic idealism makes an inconguous medly with Jewish exclusiveness and sensuousness, spiritualism on the whole predominates. According to Philo, the souls of the good pass to their heavenly home immediately on death ; d others travel thrö various transmigrations, while, as in Plato, the eternal punishment of the wicked is left half faet half allegory.e ‘Man,' says the author of Wisdom, 'was created for immortality; death came into the world thrö the devil. But righteousness is immortal; f the souls of the righteous are in the hands of God, who at a future day of retribution 8 will crown them with beauty and everlasting life, while their adversaries (the wicked) will lie in Egyptian darkness, h or be utterly annihilated.’i According to the prevailing Pharisaic doctrine the soul at death descends to Sheol or Hades, where it awaits resurrection. During this interval there is no real life; yet even Sheol distinguishes between good and bad; j there is an infernal Paradise as well as a Gehenna ; k the resurrection is of the just only, the wicked remain bound in Gehenna. The Essenes blendid Alexandrian philosophy with the common Jewish imagery; but in their joyous elevation and translation of the good to the happy islands," the Greek Elysium seems substituted for the Hebrew Paradise. The New Testament writers follow for the most part the Pharisaic type. The only hope of the dead is resurrection ('avaotaOIS EK vekgwv'); the state of the departed being described in analogy with the appearance of the corpse, as a 'sleep.' When Christ from the position that 'God is not the god of the dead, but of the living,'m infers, not merely man's immortality but his resurrection, it is implied that without a resurrection God would not be God of the living; and St. Paul, when complaining of the burden of the flesh," does not wish to be unclothed, i. e. in Sheol, but to be reclothed, i. e, with a new body.• It cannot be expected that a multiform doctrine should be uniformly represented by many writers; and we find in the New Testament traces of heterogeneous elements under a corresponding ambiguity of expression. The words used by Jesus, ‘Father into thy hands I commit my spirit,' certainly do not of themselves contradict an intermediate Sheol theory; even the immediate Paradise promised to the crucified malefactor may be understood of the subtelluric Paradise above alluded to ; P while the colloquy of tortured Dives with Abraham is
a Joseph. Ant. xviii. 1.4, War, ii. 8. 14. Comp. Matt. xxii. 23. Mark xii 18. Luke xx. 27. Acts xxiii. 8. Justin. M. Tryph, ch. 80.
b Pind. Frag. Inc. 96. Plato, Phædo, 67 sq.
< Wisd. iii. 8, for instance, seems to mix the notion of a Messianic restoration on earth with a heavenly immortality. d Gfrörer's Philo, i, 403.
e Gfrörer, ib. p. 405. Comp. Zeller, Phil. Gr. ji. f Wisd. ii. 23, 36; i. 15. & Comp. iii. 18.
h Wisd. xvii. 21. i Wisd. iv. 19.
i Joseph. Ant. xviii. 1. 3. Comp. B. I. . 8. 14. Eisemenger, ii. 297. 314. Justin. M. Tryph. ch. 5. As represented by Josephus, B. I. ii. 8. 11.
m Matt, xxi. 32. n 3 Cor. v, 4. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 51. p Wetstein and de Wette to Luke xxiii. 43.