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a pamphlet in French, 'De l’ Initiative Revolutionaire.' (Of the Revolutionary Initiative). In July, 1835, he commenced at Bienne (Canton of Berne) a newspaper in German and French, under the title of 'La Jeune Suisse' (Young Switzerland), all the leaders of which emanated from his pen. During the same year he issued a pamphlet in French, 'Ils sout partis,' (They are gone) written on the occasion of the Polish and other exiles being expelled from Switzerland; and likewise his · Foi et Avenir' (Faith and Future). k
sary elements in every satisfactory solution of the problem of society:--and that wherever any one of them is neglected from undue regard to the two others, the attempt to solve this problem must prove a failure :
Being satisfied, -that, although the objects at which the human race aim are necessarily the same, and the general principle which direct their progress essentially similar, there are nevertheless, a thousand different ways by which the common purpose may be effected;
Being satisfied,--that each man and each nation has a peculiar mission in which its individuality consists and through which it concurs in accomplishing the mission of the race in general;
Being satisfied, finally,--that associations of men and nations ought to combine security for the full accomplishment of the individual mission with the certainty of concurring in that of the general mission of the race :
Strong in our rights as men, strong in our consciences and in the duty which God and Humanity impose upon every one who is willing to devote his arm, his mind, his whole being, to the sacred cause of the progress of nations :
We have formed ourselves into national associations, free and independent of each other, intended as the germs of
Young Poland, Young Italy, and Young Germany: Having met together in council to promote the general good, with our hands upon our hearts, and in full confidence of a successful result, have agreed upon the following declaration :
1.-Young Germany, Young Poland, and Young Italy, republican associations, intended to effect the same general object, and having a common belief in Liberty, Equality, and Progress, hereby unite themselves into one brotherhood, now and for ever, for all purposes belonging to the common object.
II.-A declaration of the principles that constitute the moral law, as applied to nations, shall be drawn in common, and signed by the three national committees. It shall specify the belief, the object, and the general course of proceeding of the three associations; and no association can act otherwise than in conformity to this declaration without a culpable violation of the Act of Fraternity.
III–In all matters not concerning the declaration of principles, and not of general interest, the three associations are severally free and independent of each other.
IV.-An alliance, offensive and defensive, is hereby established among the three associations, as representatives of the nations to which they respectively belong; and each of them shall be authorized to claim the aid and coöperation of the others in every important enterprise for the promotion of the common object.
V,—The assembling of the three committees or their delegates shall constitute the Committee of Young Europe.
VI.--The members of the three associations shall regard each other as brothers, and discharge towards each other the duties belonging to that relation.
VII. - The Committee of Young Europe shall agree upon a badge to be worn by the members of the three associations, and a motto to be placed at the head of their proclamations.
VIII.-Any other nation, which may desire to unite in this alliance may do so by agreeing to and signing, through its representatives, the present Act.
Done at Berne, (Switzerland) April 15th, 1834. (Here follow the signatures— J. Mazzini, J. and A. Ruffini, Charles Stolzman, etc., etc.)
k Recently reprinted in Paris,
In 1837 he arrived in England, to remain here till 1847. During that period, in addition to his never-remitied exertions as head and heart of the Italian revolutionary party, we find him largely contributing to the first English and French Reviews,' still pursuing his Italian literary labours, and also taking an active part in the anniversary meetings of the Poles, whether in commemoration of their own or the Russian republican martyrs (Pestel, Bestujeff, Kokhowski, Mouravïeff, Reeleïeff, etc.); and proving himself not only the active and capable patriot, but e lso the accomplished scholar, the most eloquent orator, the noble of world-wide sympathies.
On the 10th of November, 1840, he founded an Elementary Gratuitous School for the poor Italians (principally the music-boys and sellers of casts) in London." Here, notwithstanding his other labours, he was a constant and patient worker: the Sunday evening lectures on Morals, History, etc., being mostly delivered by himself. By these poor boys he was revered almost as a God, and loved as a father. One of them, returning to Italy, travelled expressly to Genoa to tell Mazzini's Mother, what her Son had done for him.
Simultaneously with the opening of this school, he established an Italian paper called the ' Apostolato Popolare' (The Popular Apostolate), twelve numbers of which appeared at irregular intervals, between November, 1840, and October, '43. The Apostolato contains a series of his ablest articles, on the Duty of Man towards God and Humanity;" besides Letters to the Italian Youth, articles on Italian Unity, and on the influence of political institutions on the education of the People, and biographical notices of great men (dead or living) of all nations.
In 1842 he superintended an edition, in four Volumes, of Dante's Divine Comedy-La Comedia di Dante Alleghieri, Illustrato da Hugo Foscolo, o from a Manuscript found after Foscolo's death. To this also Mazzini wrote the preface.
In 1845 he published his ‘Italy, Austria, and the Pope, a letter to Sir James Graham’; and in the same year . Ricordi dei Fratelli Bandiera e dei loro Compagni di Martirio'-(Records of the Brothers Bandiera and their Companions in martyrdom), -a work which, perhaps more than any other, shows the power with which this Exile could sway the hearts of his countrymen in bondage.
On the 31st of January 1846, he issued his Address to the Swiss Confederation (printed in Italian, French, and German) in reprobation of the practice of Swiss enlistment in the service of the Pope and other of the Italian tyrants.
Toward the close of 1846, in consequence of the Allied Powers destroying the
1 The Westminster Review, the Monthly Chronicle, Tait's Magazine, the People's Journal, La Revue Indépendente, etc. Articles upon the State of Italy; upon European Democracy; criticisms on Goethe, Carlyle, Byron, George Sand, etc.; music and biography, etc.; far too varied to enumerate.
m This excellent School still exists at 5, Greville Street, Hatton-Garden, London, supported by voluntary donations from the Italians themselves and also from the English Public.
* These articles were reprinted in Italian, at Florence, in 1848, in a little volume entitled 'Prose di Giuseppe Mazzini,' to be had of Rolandi, Berners Street, London.
• Also published by Rolandi.
independence of Cracow, he suggested, and in the beginning of 1847 materially aided in, the formation of the Peoples' International League i' an English society, which established itself in London, to enlighten the British Public as to the actual political position of foreign countries, with a view to creating an eficient public opinion in favour of the oppressed nations. To this work Mazzini devoted considerable time, zeal, and money. The draft of the Council's Address was furnished by him; and he also contributed an admirable pamphlet (printed by the League) on the Siriss Question, ably extricating the real bearings of the Sonderbund from the jesuitical complications with which it had been surrounded.
In September, 1847, he addressed his Letter to Pope Pius (the Reforming Pope, as easy liberals then delighted to call him), urging that hope of Christendom to become indeed a reformer, the servant of all, to be ready either to glorify God if triumphant, or if succumbing to repeat with resignation the words of Gregory VII. -"I die in exile because I loved justice and bated iniquity."
'But to do that, to accomplish the mission with which God has intrusted you, two things are necessary,—to be a believer and to unify Italy. Be a Beliover! Abhor being only a king, a politician, a statesman. Have no covenant with error, do not contaminate yourself with diplomacy, nor make conditions with sear, with expediency, with the false doctrine of legality, which is but a lie invented in the absence of Faith. Take no counsel but from God, from the inspirations of your own heart, and from the imperious necessity of rebuilding a temple to Truth, Justice, and Faith. Unify Italy, your country! and for that you will not need to work, but only to bless those who will work for you, in your name. Surround yourself with the men who best represent the national party. Do not beg alliances from Princes ! Seek to win the alliance of our People. Say to yourself—“Italian unity ought to be a fact in the nineteenth century.” That will be enough: the rest shall be done for you.'
Alas for the pearls that must be thrown before swine. The answer to this appeal was alliance with Austria, betrayal of Italy, French intervention, and the lies of Thiers and Company over the ruins of Rome.
In the end of 1847 Mazzini made a short visit to Paris. He was in London when the news arrived of the French Revolution, and on the 29th of February left for France. On the 5th of March he founded at Paris, the ‘Italian National Association. On the breaking out of the Milanese insurrection, he proceeded to Italy, reëntering his native land after an exile of seventeen years. As he crossed the frontier the officers knew him; he heard his own words quoted, his name pronounced. When he entered Milan people crowded around him, kissing him, snatching at his hands, and shedding tears of joy. The Provisional Government sent for him : he was compelled to harangue the people from the palace windows. Charles Albert sent for him. But the Republican could not grasp hands with the Traitor. How Mazzini acted in Italy under most trying circumstances, how he aided even that old ill genius of his country, the assassin of Ruffini, rather than by disunion destroy the hope of Italy, how even when the King bad sold the revolution he did not despair,—all this is matter of history and need hardly be given here. But the following, which shows the qualities of the man, can not be spared.
It was the eve of the betrayal of Milan. Garibaldi was at Bergamo with some 4000 Lombard Republican Volunteers. Believing that Charles Albert, still at the head of 40,000 men, would defend Milan, he conceived the audacious
project of pushing on to support him. He was about, says M. Medici,p 'one of the worthiest of the many heroes whom Italy has proved in the last two years :
'He was about to quit Bergamo to proceed by a forced march to Monza, when we saw appear in the midst of us, his musket on his shoulder, Mazzini, who demanded to make one, as a private soldier, in the legion which I commanded, and which formed the van. guard of the division of Garibaldi. A general acclamation saluted the great Italian, and the legion unanimously confided to him its Flag, which bore written upon it the wordsGod and the People.
'Hardly was the arrival of Mazzini known in Bergamo, when the population hurried to gee him. They crowded round him, they begged him to speak. His speech should dwell in the memory of all who heard him. He recommended them to erect barricades, to defend the the town in case of attack during our march upon Milan, and whatever might happen, always to love Italy and never to despair of its salvation. His words were greeted with enthusiasm, and the column set off in the midst of marks of the liveliest sympathy.
'The march was very fatiguing. The rain fell in torrents; we were soaked to the very bones. Although habituated to a life of study, and searcely built for the violent exercise of a forced march, especially in such bad weather, his serenity and confidence were never diminished for an instant, and, notwithstanding our remonstrances, for we feared for his health, he would neither stop nor abandon the column. It even happened that, seeing one of our youngest Volunteers slightly habited, and without any defence against the rain and the sudden chilling of the temperature, he forced him to accept his cloak and to cover himself with it.
‘Arrived at Monza, we learned the fatal news of the capitulation of Milan; and that a very numerous body of Austrian Cavalry had been sent against us and was already at the opposite gates of Monza.
'Garibaldi, much inferior in force, not wishing to expose his little corps to certain and aseless destruction, gave orders to fall back upon Como, and placed me with my column in the rear, to cover the retreat.
'For the young Volunteers, who asked only to fight, the order for retreat was a signal of discouragement; and so it was made from the beginning with some disorder. Happily it was not the same with my rear-guard column. From Monza even to Como this column, always pursued by the enemy, threatened every instant with being overwhelmed by very superior forces, never flinched, remained united and compact, showing itself always ready to repel every attack, and by its bold countenance and good order compelled the enemy to respect it during the whole passage.
*In this march, full of danger and difficulty, in the midst of a continual alarm, the strength of soul, the intrepidity, the decision which Mazzini possesses in so remarkable a degree, and of which he afterwards gave so many proofs at Rome, never failed him, and excited the admiration of the bravest. His presence, his words, the example of his courage, animated with such enthusiasm these young soldiers, who besides were prond of sharing so many dangers with him, that it was determined, by Mazzini the first, in case of combat, to perish one and all in defence of the faith of which he had been the apostle and whose martyr he was ready to become; and contributed very much to maintain that order and that resolute attitude which saved the rest of the division. ‘These few details are too honourable to the character of Mazzini to be allowed to
unknown. His conduct has been for us, who were witnesses of it, a proof that to the great qualities of the citizen Mazzini joins the courage and intrepidity of the soldier.'
p In a note appended to the tenth chapter of République et Royauté en Italie.'
On the 4th of August Milan capitulated. Further resistance was hopeless. From Como Mazzini crossed the Alps to Lugano, in the Italian Canton of Tessin; only two or three friends 9 accompanying him, and walking forty miles in one night. At Lugano he remained till the flight of the Grand Duke of Tuscany on the 7th of February (imitating the Papal flight of November 4th) called him to Florence. Here he was elected a deputy and a member of the Provisional Government; and in the former capacity sent to Rome, to carry the adhesion of Tuscany to the Roman Republic. There, elected to the Triumvirate, bis conduct has been manifest to the world. The official acts of the Republic from the day of his election, the 29th of March, to the 2nd of July, when Rome, her last cartridge spent, ceased her heroic but unavailing resistance against the cowardly assailants who dared only to bombard the City,—will remain an everlasting monument to his capacity as a ruler and statesman, his magnanimity as a man. For some thirty days of the siege, his food was little more than bread and coffee; his clothes were never taken off. It seemed as if his heroic spirit was sufficient to sustain him. He slept only at such intervals as he could snatch between the constant emergencies of his work, and the continual thronging around him of the population, native and foreign, who came to him even for personal consolation. One English family will recollect how he spared time to show them the city defences from the palace top, and to soothe their fears. His noble forbearance towards the enemy, his cool decision with troublesome friends, his dignified bearing in the extremity of defeat, were alike worthy of his glorious nature. When the French officers were released by him, he moved them even to tears. They were ready to throw themselves on his neck or at his feet, swearing eternal gratitude. Cowardly scoundrels! with but one or two noble exceptions, they were among the first to parade through Rome, on their shameful day of victory.' Once a band of demagogues demanded an interview with him, to require the removal of the military staff. He saw them, heard patiently their request. 'From whom did they come?' he asked. “The People.' 'He was the servant of the People; but not their slave. If the People trusted him, well and good, he would do his best: if not, they could withdraw the authority with which they had invested him. But when they said the People, -by how many were they deputed ?' 'Some few hundreds. Well, some few hundreds were not the People : but he was ready to hear even a few of the People. Who were the Members of the Military Staff which they desired to remove, and what were their reasons against them ?? The complainants did not even know who constituted the Staff, their objections were only general; they found they were in error, and retired. When the French at last ventured into the City, Mazzini, to prove that his
power had not been maintained by terror, and also to observe the bearing of his Romans, walked unarmed and unprotected for some days through the streets, till his friends told him he was mad. But no man touched him. Even the French soldiers were awed by the sublime spectacle of that pale, worn, greyhaired man (his black hair grizzled with the last month's anxiety and toil) passing through them, like the Ghost of the Republic, severe and silent, his very patience, like a martyr's endurance, rebuking the murderers. He left Rome without a
9 One of them a young Italian artist of great promise, Scipione Pistrucci, who left London to share Mazzini's fortunes.