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* ADDRESSED TO ALL ENGLISHMEN WHO CALL THEMSELVES REPUBLICANS.
BY W. J. LINTON.
Their hearts were tenanted by faith, they had not merely political calculations in their heads; they aspired to be not simply revolutionary, but also regenerative; they felt that, at bottom, the question was no other than the grand problem of national education .
Every work of regeneration implies a belief in those who undertake it; every soldier of the revolution who has none is a fomenter of discord, a provoker of anarchy, without having the remedy to still it.
The first step taken, it did not recoil before the difficulties, whatever they were, of its subsequent steps. A principle and its consequences,-all its revolutionary logic was comprehended in these words. It felt that the most powerful party was the most consistent party, and it was this. It was not satisfied with simple views of reaction, with vague professions of liberalism; it demanded his belief of every one who presented himself, and only accepted those as members who had a belief in conformity with its own. It did not speculate on the number, but on the unity of its forces; it thas made a first experiment on the nation.
Rearing a standard which had never yet been reared by any political association, it felt the necessity of planting it in the midst of new and puré elements;
it addressed itself, consequently, more particularly to the young, for amongst them was capacity for enthusiasm, zeal, devotion, and energy. To them it told the whole truth without reserve or disguise. The grand error which had ruined all previous efforts had been the custom of confiding rather to men than to principles : it was a reaction against this custom;
it preached thus—"Have no faith in names, but in yourselves, in the masses, in your right, and in God.” The
youth had found its men, The language which was addressed to it expressed all which it had long felt, all the secrets of its hearts. It caught the inspiration; it took its fire. Organization commenced at every point ; everywhere the principles
were preached; everywhere its standard was recognized and hailed. Its members continued to increase.
Every day the demand for its publications became louder.
Fear was unknown. There was no doubt of success. ALL THIS WAS THE RESULT OF PRINCIPLES; AND ALL THIS EFFECTED BY SOME YOUNG MEN WITHOUT GREAT MEANS, WITHOUT THE INFLUENCE OF RANK, WITHOUT
History of Young
Why not of Young England P Why should not that which is no boastful, but a true and most exact account, of 'La Giovine Italia,' the association founded by Mazzini in 1831, he also true of the Associated Republicans of England ? By what means the listory of one association may become a prophecy of the other is what I shall now endeavour to set forth.
Zcal first, and then organization: these are the necessary elements of success. Even in a bad cause these elements but too often procure a triumph: in a good cause they could never fail. Zeal, and then organization.
I count upon the zeal of those who, having listened to my explanation of Republican Principles, responded to my appeal and volunteered to join me in laying the foundation of our English Republic. I will also not doubt the zeal of some who read, but who have not yet openly responded. I may not do other than believe that my brothers in the faith are zealous. That they are ready to devote their most earnest thought and some daily portion of their lives to the propagandism of their faith; that they have accepted the principle and its consequences,'—that they are prepared to incur some toil, some loss, some sacrifice, some ridicule, some odium, and it may be some danger, without halting from time to time to reckon the amount of their exertions, their sacrifices, or their sufferings, but ever cheerfully saying—What is all this ? the realization of our faith, the triumph of our hope, is worth even a severer martyrdom.' have declared their belief, and belief necessitates action-continual endeavour to accomplish that which is believed. To these zealots for Republicanism, these wooers and truest soldiers of Republican Progress, I now address myself, offering for their consideration the following
PLAN OF REPUBLICAN ORGANIZATION.
In whatever place any one of you who hold our republican faith may be, look directly for such of your townsmen or neighbours as you know may be depended on to join you. If you know of none, begin the work of propagandism alone!-labouring like some zealous, indefatigable missionary, till you shall have won some one of those within your reach to a recognition of your creed: not a mere formal recognition, nor the poor assent of one over-persuaded to allow himself to be called a Republican,--but the valuable recognition of the convert, wbo, having thoroughly examined and maturely weighed the principles of Republicanism, finds himself convinced of their truth; and who, being a true man (one who acts as he thinks, whose life is built upon his conscience), is consequently anxious to carry his principles into practice.
So soon as you can meet with one such man,--whether of your converting or only waiting your inquiry-consider yourselves as the nucleus and provisional Committee of a Republican Association to be formed by you in that town or neighbourhood,--and set zealously to work to add to
number. Be careful that none associate with you except those on whose private character you can depend. A bad man can not make a good republican. Better work slowly and surely than enlist the unfit. But be as persevering as careful, lest the sometime discouragement of great carefulness unduly retard your progress. Take three qualities as essential to the making of good republicans,—sobriety-honesty, self-reliance. If your proposed associate is a man, be sure that he is honest towards women as well as with his fellow-men; if a woman, be sure that she is sufficiently self-reliant to act in virtue of her own humanity, not merely as the creature of another.
The leader of the wretched Galician peasants, to whom the Austrian Minister, METTERNICH, intrusted, in February and March, 1846, the atrocious mission of murdering all of the Polish land-owners who were suspected of patriotism, was SZELA, a monster who had been condemned to imprisonment for setting fire to his father's house and for a horrible crime against a child. He was set at liberty to head some other liberated convicts and disguised soldiers, to excite the peasants against their masters, by false tales, and by promises (guaranteed by the Government') of so much a head for every Polish proprietor. A higher price was paid if he was brought in dead.
Theodore and John Bromiski were batchered in their own houses. Theodore had his ribs, arms and legs broken, and was afterwards killed with flails. John had his ears and nose cut off, and his head skinned. His wife was forced to light the raffians while they tore out his eyes.
Charles Kotarski, often mentioned in the journals as the benefactor of the country people, had his jaw-bones removed before they killed him.
Sokulski was thrown into a trough, and minced there as food for pigs.
Mrs. Kempinska-born Countess Dembicka-pregnant with twins, was killed with a dangfork. The twins were torn out of the corpse, to get the 'Government' price for each head.
The foregoing are taken from an incomplete list (bearing 1484 names) of the Polish gentry massacred in Galicia, in 1846, to uphold the Austrian Monarchy. Not one Court in Europe protested against the massacres, not one royal or diplomatic person withdrew from companionship with the Murderers. And this is but one page out of the Book of Kings.
Of loathliest vermin, who crawl there to die,
Szela and Metternich and Görgey lie.
WHAT IS THE BEST BREAD?
M. MILLON has communicated to the Academy of Sciences the result of some interesting investigations concerning the ligneous (woody) matter of wheat, whence it would appear that Bran is a very nutritive substance. --Tho Bran contains doubtless from five to six per cent more ligneous substance than flour, it presents more nitrogenous matter, twice as much fatty matter, and moreover two distinct aromatic principles, one of which possesses the fragrance of honey; and these are both wanting in Flour. M. Millon, therefore, thinks that the Bran ought to be ground over again, and mixed with the Flour, and so retaining in our Meal the Elements of the GRAIN entire. Repeated experiments have proved that this mixture yields a Superior kind of Bread.