that he loved to surround his thrónel with such mén as Hále and Blake. Hence it wás! that he allowed so large a share of political liberty to his subjects, and that, even when an `opposition' dangerous to his power and to his pèrson! almost compèlled him to govern by the sword, he was still anxious. to leave a gérm from which, at a more favourable season, free institutions might spring. We firmly beliève, that, if his first Parliament' had not commenced its debates by disputing his title, his gòvernment would have been as mild at hómel as it was energetic and áble abroad. He was a sòldier, he had risen by war. Had his ambition been of an impure or sélfish kind, it would have been easy for him' to plunge his country into continental hostilities on a large scale, and to dazzle the restless factions which he rúled, by the splendour of his victories. Some of his enemies have sneeringly remárked, that in the succèsses obtained under his administrátion' he had no pèrsonal share; as if a man who had raised himself from obscurity to émpirel sòlely by his military talents' could have any unworthy reason! for shrinking from military enterprise. This reproach' is his highest glòry. In the success of the English návy he could have no sèlfish interest. Its triumphs' added nothing to his fame; its incréase added nothing to his means of overawing his énemies; its great leader! was not his friend. Yet he took a peculiar pleasure in encouraging that noble service, which, of all the instruments employed by an English government, is the most important for míschief, and the most powerful for good. His administration was glórious, but with no vùlgar glory. It was not one of those periods of overstrained and convulsive exértion' which nècessarily produce debility and lángour. Its énergy' was natural, healthful, tèmperate. He placed England' at the head of the Protestant ínterest, and in the first ránk of Christian pòwers. He taught every nation! to value her friendship! and to dread her enmity. But he did not squander her resòurces' in a vain attempt to invest her with that suprémacy, which nò power, in the módern system of Europe, can safely affect, or can long retàin.

This noble and sober wisdom! had its reward. If he did not carry the banners of the Commonwealth' in triumph to distant cápitals, if he did not adorn Whitehall' with the spoils of the Stadthouse and the Loúvre, if he did not portion out Flanders and Germany' into principalities for his kinsmen and his génerals, he did not, on the other hand, see his country overrun by the armies of nátions! which his ambition had provòked. He went down to his grável in the fulness of power and fame; and he left to his son an authórity which any man of ordinary firmness and prúdencel would have retained.

The most blàmable act of his lífel was the execution of Charles. While strongly condemning that proceeding, we by no means consider it as ónel which attaches any peculiar stigma of infamy to the names of those' who participated in it. It was an unjust and injudicious display of violent party spírit; but it was not a crúel or perfidious measure. It had all those features which distinguish the errors of maguanimous and intrepid spírits' from base and malignant crìmes, MACAULAY.


[NATHANIEL PARKER WILLIS, one of America's best poets, is the author of a volume of poems, sacred and miscellaneous. His largest poem is "The Lady Jane," and the best effusions of his muse are "Jephthah's Daughter," and the "Healing of Jairus' Daughter."]

FRESHLY the cool breath of the coming ével
Stole through the lattice, and the dying girl'
Félt it upon her forehead. She had lain
Since the hot nóontidel in a breathless trànce,
Her thin pale fíngers! clasped within the hand
Of the heart-broken Rùler; and her breast,
Like the dead márble, white and motionless.
The shadow of a leaf lay on her lips,
And as it stirred with the awakening wind,
The dark lids' lifted from the languid eyes,

And her slight fingers moved, and heavily'
She turned upon her pillow. Hè was there,
The same loved, tireless watcher, and she looked
Into his fácel until her sight grew dím

With the fast falling tears, and with a sigh
Of tremulous weakness, murmuring his name,
She gently drew his hand upon her lips,
And kissed it' as she wèpt. The old mán' sunk
Upon his knees, and in the drapery

Of the rich cúrtains! buried up his face-
And when the twilight fell, the silken folds
Stírred with his prayer, but the slight hand he held'
Had ceased its prèssure, and he could not hear
In the dead, utter sílence, that a breath
Came through her nòstrils, and her témples! gave
To his nice toúch! no pùlse; and at her móuth
He held the slightest cùrl that on her neck
Lay with a mocking beaúty, and his gázel
Ached with its deathly stillness.

Like a form

Of matchless sculpture in her sleep she lay-
The linen vésturel folded on her breast,
And óver it her whítel transparent hands,
The blood still rósy in her tapering nails;
A line of pearl' ran through her parted lips,
And in her nostrils, spiritually thín,

The breathing curvel was mockingly like life;
And round beneath the faintly tinted skín'
Ran the light branches of the azure vèins –
And on her cheek the jet lash overlay,
Matching the arches pencilled on her brow.
Her hair had been unbound, and falling loose
Upon her pillow, hid her small round éars
In curls of glossy blackness, and about
Her polished neck, scarce touching it, they hung
Like airy shadows, flóating as they slept.
'Twas heavenly beautiful. The Saviour' raised

Her hand from off her bòsom, and spread out
The snowy fingers in his pàlm, and said-
"Maiden! Arìse !"—And súddenly' a flúsh
Shot o'er her forehead and along her lips,
And through her cheek! the rallied colour ràn,
And the still outline of her graceful fórm1
Stirred in the linen vèsture; and she clásped
The Saviour's hand, and, fixing her dark eyes!
Full on his beaming countenance-aròse!


[blocks in formation]


VERTEBRATE animals are distinguished from all others by the possession of an internal skeleton, which is usually bony, but in a few species cartilaginous. This skeleton consists essentially of a skull and vertebral column, to which ribs, limbs, &c., are in most cases attached. The skull serves as a case or receptacle for the brain. The vertebral column, spine, or backbone, is formed of a number of distinct pieces, called vertebræ, more or less firmly jointed together. It is pierced lengthwise by a canal running through each vertebra, and containing the spinal cord or marrow, which may be regarded as a continuation of the brain. The two together form the centre of the nervous system, that singular mechanism, if we may so call it, by means of which the animal is enabled to feel, to direct its own motions, and to ascertain what is going on around it.

The limbs are the organs of locomotion. None of the vertebrates have more than four, some only two; and, in the case of serpents, they entirely disappear. Intended by nature for different purposes, and suited to different modes of life, these organs assume an immense variety of forms. But however great may be the modifications which they present, the general plan on which they are constructed is never wholly departed from. At first sight, indeed, the wing of a bird seems very unlike the arm of a man, or the foreleg of a horse, but, when the skeleton only is considL ered, they are found to resemble one another closely, both in the form, number, and arrangement of the bones. Nor are even the fins of fishes so entirely dissimilar as to defy comparison.

The different classes of the vertebrates-mammals, birds, fishes, and reptiles-are, in general, easily distinguished. There are, however, a few mistakes which it is well to guard against. The whale, for example, is usually spoken of as a fish, and the bat is sometimes supposed to be a bird, though the proper place of both is among the mammals. So also among the reptiles we should reckon not only serpents, to which alone the name is strictly applicable, but also frogs, tortoises, lizards, crocodiles, and other creatures of a like description. A few distinctive characteristics of each class may be mentioned.-The mammals include all those animals, and those only, which produce their young alive, and suckle them. They are accordingly provided with teats or paps (mamma), from which they derive their name. The young of all other vertebrate animals are produced from eggs. Birds are a well-defined class, and may be at once recognised by their covering of feathers, and by the structure of their wings, which are also clothed with strong feathers or quills. Their blood, as well as that of the mammals, is warm; whereas, in reptiles and fishes, the blood is cold. Finally, the last two classes may be distinguished by their organs of respiration. Fishes alone of all animals breathe by means of gills; the other classes are furnished with lungs. The mammals, by their superiority in organization and

« VorigeDoorgaan »