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proceedings of the apostolic age, the primitive church, and the most venerable among the ancient fathers; he draws, from the nature of religion, and from the principles of natural law, unanswerable arguments in favour of toleration, removes the difficulties that may be alleged against it, and suggests the precautions with which it ought to be allowed. Civil or political toleration is the subject of the fourth chapter. This is founded upon the laws of the empire, the pacification of Passau, and the succeeding conventions of Augsburg, Osnabrug, and Munfter; and our author shews, that it is both the duty and the prerogative of the Emperor to maintain these laws, that the happy fruits of civil toleration, the pernicious effects of persecution, and many other political considerations require their maintenance. He proves, moreover, that civil toleration is neither inconsistent with the obligation, by which sovereigns are bound to maintain public tranquillity and order, nor with the protection they owe to the church of Rome. He shews how far Socinians, Anabaptists, and other seats, may be tolerated, without exposing to the reproach of religious indiffèrence, either the Roman Catholics, or the Lutheran and Reformed churches. Finally, he concludes this judicious and interesting work with an account of the Greek chorches, who separated themselves from the juris. diction of the church of Rome, describing their state before the council of Florence, their present state, and the principal rea, fons of their separation, and pointing out the means of restoring the union that subsisted, in ancient times, between the Greek and the Latin churches.
The three mottos, that are placed at the head of this excel, lent book, shew the spirit of the author and of his publication, The first is the sublime song of the angels at the birth of Christ, Glory to God in the highest-peace on earth and good will towards men. The second is the noble saying of Theodoric, as we find it in Cassiodorus, Religionem imperare non poffumus, quia nemo cogitur ut credat invitus. The third is that ingenious sentence of Seneca (Ep. 97.), Societas nostra lapidum fornicationi fimillima eft, quæ, casura nisi INVICEM OBSTARENT, hoc ipfo continetur,
II. Zimmerman's Reise um die Wolte, &c. i.e. A Voyage round the World with Captain Cook. By Mr. HENRY ZIMMER, MAN, of Willock in the Palatinate. '8vo. 1781. Manheim. This author, who was on board the Discovery, relates the cir: cumstances of this famous voyage with a great appearance of veracity; and his observations are often instructive and enter, taining. The whole bears such a striking resemblance of the anonymous work published in England on the same subject, that the two publications almost seem to have proceeded from the
III. Forsoek Atvisa, &c. i. e. A Discourse, in which it is proposed to confute the Hypothesis of the In Muence of Climate on the Charaller of Nations, delivered at a Meeting of the Royal Academy at Stockholm, October 25, 1780. By M. FERMER, Counsellor in Chancery. 8vo. 1781. — Montesquieu's ingeni. ous observations on the influence of climate, exercised a stror.g attractive power upon the imaginations of fanciful readers. They have been warmly opposed by many learned men; but they have lately met with a very able and ingenious advocate in Dr. FALCONER, who has given this hypothesis new colours, and rendered it alluring by philosophical combinations of the most curious kind. M. FERMER, in this little treatise, rejects the influence of physical causes on the character of a people, and apprehends, that the form of government, the manner of its administration, religious genets, the method of education, and certain customs and prejudices, however introduced, are the true causes of the varieties observed in national characters. This controversy may perhaps be compromised. Too much influence has been given to climate by one of the contending parties, and too little by the other. Besides, it would be proper to define, with accuracy, what is meant by national characler, and to determine and ascertain with precision its variations.
F R A N C E. IV. Nouveaux Principes de Physique, &c. i.e. New PrinCIPLES of Natural Philosophy; adorned with Cuts, and dedicated to the Prince of Prussia. 8vo. Paris. Vols. I. II. and III. Price about 18 s. 1781 and 1782. We are at present in the fermentation of philosophical syf
New experiments are battering down the old systems; metaphysical speculation (which being turned out at one door, still comes in at another) is teeming with new ones; and so we are likely to go on, rebuilding on paper the edifice of nature, until the transitory part of it, which we inhabit, Thall tumble about our ears. The new system builder, whose name is prefixed to the present work, comes forth with the exhibition of a universal agent, to whom or which the Deity has imparted the power, or, as he calls it, the property of modifying matter into all forms and directions, and producing all the marvellous phænomena of nature. Now, what is this wonder-worker, will our readers ask, this deputy-divinity, that has such an extensive commission ? It is a universal fluid, whose existence M. CARRA undertakes to demonstrate with full evidence, and whose nature he pretends to define with the utmost precision. He calls it an elementary fluid; tells us, that it occupies the whole capacity or extent of universal space, in plus, or positively; while the elemenmory solid occupies that space only in minus, or negatively. The
comprelñbility of this Aluid is the cause of gravitation, attraction, and magnetism, as its elasticity is the cause of impulsion, percuffion, and repercusion. From this principle, whose fecundity is prodigious in the hypothesis of our author, effects upon effects, and consequence upon consequence, pour in upon us like a flood. There is no vacuum or void in nature,-all things are connected in the universe,- the rotation of the planets on their axis, and the orbits they describe in their motions round the sun, arise from the mutual correspondence which takes place between the movements of all the celeftial bodies; and these movements are the effects of the rectilinear or curvilinear vibrations, imprinted on the universal Auid by the weight and resistance of colids. Under this universal principle, gravitation, attraction, clefiri.ism (a good term), and magnetism, act their respective parts as powerful vicegerents; we say their respective parts, for our auchor lays down a mathematical distinction between these four great powers, and thews that each has its particular and independent laws, which concur, nevertheless, with order and mutual connection in the universal mechanism.
The work, proceeding on these principles, exhibits new theo. ries of the sun, stars, planets, comets, and of the earth. The author treats also, with equal novelty, of the three kingdoms or claffes of nature, of light and colours, of fire and heat, of air and sounds, of water and fluids, which have gravity or weight; of the earth considered as material, of mineralization and vegetation, of the animal system, the specific progression of the powers and faculties of the animal prototype, of generation, of the animal economy, of the heart and the circulation of the blood, of the brain and the nervous system, of the human sensorium, of fight, bearing, smelling and taste, of memory, of the mechanical causes of dreams and sleep-walking, and, lastly, of the palfions. The work is to be terminated by a history of man, in the progress of his moral agency; and it is preceded by a preliminary discourse, in which the author acknowledges the goodness of the Supreme Being, in having imparted to man such a pore tion of reason and intelligence, as permits him to contemplate, admire, and explain, the sublime mechanism of the divine works.
Such are the general contents of this strange, ingenious, but, perhaps, too fanciful work. The three first volumes of it, which are already publilhed, contain our author's theories of the ceJeftial bodies, and of our earth. In two volumes more, which are soon to appear, the whole plan will be completed. To enter into an analytical review of this work, would swell this ar. ticle into a volume; and to consider it critically, is a talk we would wish to see performed by abler hands. There are, no doubt, some of his novelties, at which the philosophical fraternity will Imile with filence; but there are others which call upon them to
speak speak out. When, in his theory of the formation of the earth, M. CARRA tells us, that the centre of our globe is occupied by quick-filver, from whence results the approximation of the poles towards the equator, the flexibility of the earth's nucleus, and the rising or swelling of its equatorial parts,—that gold, whose intrinsic weight carried it imperceptibly towards the centre, preffed spon the mercury, and made it ascend in all directions towards the surface, that mercury, by its incompreffibility and mobi. Jity, made several parts of other metals, and even of gold, ascend with it, and by this procedure, is become not only the companion of almost all metals, but also the mineralizer of several other substances, known under the denomination of femi-metals: We believe, that, on reading these novelties, several will jmile, though we think that the Buffonians, if there be any, ought to answer. But when, in his theory of the moon, our author demonflrates, that this satellite moves round the earth in fifty-five days and a half, and not in twenty-seven days and three quarters, as all the astronomers have hitherto supposed, all the astronomical fraternity are concerned, because they are accused of error. M. De la Lande is personally called upon by our author's new theory of the tides, because M. Carra attacks his theory with vehemence, as a geometrical chimera *, which does not take place in the phenomenon of the syzygy-tides, nor in those of the quadratures. The new theory of water, in which our wuthor confiders its nature, the causes of its humidity and incompressibility, as also those of the condensation and dilatation of vapours, will attract the sons of speculation : for, in our author's hypothefis, if we dare give his demonstration such a modest title, water, in its principle (l'eau principe, l'eau mére), is produced by the first effects of the rotation of the earth upon its axis, and the powers, which acted in its formation, were the gravitation of the first solids towards the centre :- eletricism, or the centrifugal force of the earth, which raised (or whisked up, as one might fay) the higher parts of the circumference, and the mutual aia traction of these parts which set them in a fluid motion. These three powers (says our Author), counterbalancing each other's effects, in different relations, fixed this Auid on the surface, and rendered it a second medium, which was, and could only be, established after the formation of the first. This fluid is then an intervening medium between the air and earth, and partakes, in a mean proportion, of the elasticity of the one, and the vis in ertia of the other. By it the ambient air is connected with the movements of the earth; and, at the same time, the solids are
Mathematics, according to our author, has nothing to do with the quomodo in philosophical theories, and must confine its operations to the quantun, when the quomodo is already found.
preserved preserved from the fatal effects of an atmosphere that is inceffantly rarefied and dilated. It is by this medium that the influence of the air produces, in the bosom of the earth, and on its surface, different centres of motion and different points of incubation. Finally, were it not for the property of humidity, that characterizes this Auid, the action of the air upon folids would be only destructive, and would never form any new combination of their principles.'
M. CARRA's theory of the air, which terminates the third volume of this work, contains disquisitions of an interesting kind, relative to the substance which constitutes the real air, or the permanent medium of the atmosphere, the true cause of its motion, Auidity, elasticity, and gravity,--the causes of the pestilence in the air, and the methods of destroying it, either in the place of its birth, or in the substances that are impregnated with its fatal infection. The two remaining volumes will, no doubt, contain curious things, if our author treats animal nature, human intelligence, and moral agency, with the same spirit of originality and reformation, that predominate with sucha luxuriancy in those we have been now cursorily reviewing. : 1
NETHERLANDS. V. Tableau des Provinces Unies, &c. i. e. A View of the History of the United Provinces. By M. CERISIER. 12mo. Vols. 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th. We formerly gave an account of the character and demerit of this hasty compiler of history, as they appeared in the two first volumes of this work. In these volumes we saw marks of industry in collecting facts, but too little care employed in diftinguishing between rubbish and pure materials: and we found the language not only rough and inelegant, but sometimes indecent, and almost always below the dignity and gravity of historical compofition. The author's file changed much for the better in the following volumes ; we bebeld the change with pleasure and with furprize. His expressions became less barth, his indecencies of phrase less frequent and disgusting, and his declamation less frothy and petua lant. We even began to entertain hopes that he would become an historian, were it only of the second or third rate. Howa ever, the leaven of a party-spirit still fermented in the historical mars, and he continued to cast shades on illustrious characters, by anecdotes unknown, before they were produced by bim, uns supported by any records, and related boldly without even ins forming his readers from whence he had them. The seventh volume, which has lately appeared, is, by the author's own account of it, very imperfect. It appears, from his preface, that he has met with disappointments: I bad, says he, a promise of the communication of a great number of papers, but an INCIDENT YNHEARD OF in the annals of literature, put it out of my power,