centuries; the empires which were stead of wonder. This is the case in brought to maturity, and declined in- every circumstance where the mind is to the imbecility of age ; and all the too much pre-occupied, and where the changes amidst the human race, since subject is to be admired in detail, and its erection, poured at once upon my not by the first coup

d'æil. Considermind. The most venerable edifices of ing the period of its commencement, Gothic times have no power over the and some of the works belonging to soul, to be compared to this. We are, it, this canal is a very noble work ; by descent and by customs, so united and the bason of Saint Feviole, near with the authors of these, that the dis- Soreze, where I resided many months, tance of the period of their foundation and which supplies it with water, is a appears trifling; but works of empires curiosity such as is seldom to be met long extinct, and only faintly known with; and the visit to which is, I in the page of history, lingering upon find, mentioned by Marmontel as a the face of the earth, entire and ma- part of his life well worth recording. jestic, have somewhat of a preteriatu. But France must yield to England in sal aspect. And I am not in the least the department of canals and bridges. surprised at the first effect which the Except the canal of Languedoc, and ruins in Upper Egypt are said to have that which united the Seine to the had upon the French army, who, as if Loire, there were none, till lately, of inspired with one soul, stood still, and any consequence in France. At preclapped their hands in mute astonish- sent we hear of several ; and they seem ment.

to be carried on with spirit. It would .. But if the French and their neigh- be difficult to give a description of bours do not surpass in the grandeur the canals in England, they are so nuof their bridges, the ingenuity of their merous and well constructed."

In inventions

may well deserve an imita- Flanders, I find by Fruissart, that cation, which I do not find we are rea- nals were common so far back as the dy to fall into. The simplicity and 14th century; but that is so flat a utility of their Hlying bridges (which country, that one level was all that convey, at once, many hundreds of was to be studied; and they ought rapersons and cattle across the largest ther to be called large ditches than rivers, and that by simply turning a canals. The munificence of governhelm, which makes the vessel borrow ment, in the present reign, has made an impulse from the current, which Scotland the inistress of a canal of acts in sending it across the stream, larger dimensions than any other counby means of a block running upon a try can boast of. The largest canals cable, suspended from two large masts in Europe can only carry vessels of fixed on the opposite banks of the ri- limited tonnage ; but the Caledonian ver, and to which block the vessel is canal is calculated for frigates of 32 attached by a chain (or rope), are well guns. It is carried on with great vi' worthy of admiration. The bridge of gour and judgment; and, when finishRouen, which, though paved, rises ed, will be a noble remembrance of our and falls with the tide, is perhaps excellent Sovereign. Those who had unique of its kind; and the different an opportunity of knowing the sentiwooden bridges in Switzerland are ments of the French nation during the wonderful master-pieces of complica- hottest period of the revolution, are ted art, and of vast utility.

best able to appreciate how much the The canal. of Languedoc has re- gratitude of a people is to be gained ceived so much praise, that I am not by works which have the benefit of surprised travellers, expecting so much, the human race as their basis, and how should be 'arrested by contempt, in- little all the works of ambition are ca


pable of conciliating the affection of correspondence of its sounds with the the present age, or of posterity. The ideas attached to them, we know no civil operations of Henry 4th, and of language, except the Greek, which Louis 14th, often stopped the rage of can be preferred, or even compared to the revolutionists, and extorted invo- it. And this certainly must be consiluntary applause; while their fortifi. dered as an excellence of the very first cations and more dazzling operations order. We shall instance, out of maonly obtained for them the accusation ny, canty (gay,) dour (obstinate, cosie of oppression, and the charge (perhaps (snug, comfortable,) Gowk (blunderfalse) of preferring their own feelings ing fool,) Gowl (loud anger,) slocker of ambition to those of their people. (to quench thirst,) steek (to shut,) cerie I am your constant reader,

(superstitiously apprehensive.) The Inverness.

SEVERUS. list might easily

Nay, so strong does this tendency

appear to be, that even words, bora SCOTTISH REVIEW. rowed from other languages, are so

modified as to acquire this quality. Etymological Dictionary of the Scot- Thus the French facheux, troublesome,

tish Language : Illustrating the is changed into fashous, which has words in their different significa- been remarked as uncommonly exprestions, by Examples from Ancient sive. Grenadier, too, in á Scotch and Modern Writers ; shewing their mouth becomes grandadier, a word affinity to those of other Languages, certainly more expressive of bulk and and especially the Northern ; ex- dignity. plaining many terms, which, tho' This combination of qualities, of now obsolete in England, were for- want of dignity, and power of expresmerly common to both countries ; sion, appears to arise very naturally and elucidating National Rites, from the peculiar circumstances in Customs, and Institutions, in their which this dialect has long been plaanalogy to those of other Nations. ced. Since the transference of the seat To which is prefixed, a Dissertation of empire to England, the language on the Origin of the Scottish Lan- of the latter country became the court guage. By John Jameson, F.R.S.E. language, and the object of imitation and F.A.S. 2 vols. 4to. 41. 4s. to all who were ambitious of fashion.

able distinction. To such persons, the THIS appears to us a very merito, first object was to shun every vestige

rious attempt to preserve and of their Scotch dialect, and their sucerect a standard of our national lan- cess 'here formed the chief outward guage, the use of which is now so ra- criterion of their rank and fortune. pidly decaying. The writings of Burns In short, for a long time past, no disand Macneill have recently enabled it grace has by a Scotsman been consilo emerge from that contenipt with dered as equal to that of speaking his which peculiar circumstances mother tongue. This language, there vered it. In fact, it possesses many fore, has been daily losing ground; claims to preservation. It does not from the higher ranks it is now pretindeed appear to us, after making eve- ty completely dislodged, and its use ry allowance for the unfortunate asso- is daily diminishing among the midciations which a Scotsman, who aims dling classes. It has been thus left at good bleeding, is apt to form with chiefly in the hands of the lower orit , that it can be considered as excel. ders, of those who use language mereling either in dignity or elegance.--- ly to express their ideas, and are little But, in power of expression, in the ambitious of any thing farther. In August 1808.


the gay circles of a court, where vani- is probable, be more the objects of ty is the ruling passion, speech is used contempt than of imitation. less for the conveyance of ideas, than We are rather surprised that our for the purpose of giving a favourable author should take no notice of the impression of the speaker. Men are strong infusion, both of French words therefore led to refine, to polish, to and idioms, which prevails in our lanstudy elegance alone, and to regard guage, and many of which could not expression as a very secondary object. be derived from that of our sister counBut where the only aim is to impress try. It appears very evidently to have forcibly on the hearer the ideas of the arisen from the intimate connection speaker, elegance and dignity, indeed, which was long cemented between the not being aimed at, are not attained ; two nations, by their common enmity but we have instead, a language, in a to England, and by the frequent inhigh degree, natural and forcible.- troduction of French auxiliaries, which Such appear to us to be the present took place in consequence of that alcharacter of our native language, and liance. the chief source whence that character The following specimens may enaarises.

ble our readers to form an idea of the As a preliminary to the Dictionary, manner in which Dr Jameson has conDr Jameson has given a dissertation ducted this elaborate work : on the origin of the Scottish language,

Boodies, pl. Ghosts, hobgoblins. A. which involves also enquiries into its

berd. early history and inhabitants. Its ba

“ By this time it wis growing mark, sis, like that of the English, is Teuto- and about the time of night that the nic, with a strong mixture of Gaelic boodies begin to gang." journal from and French. The question then is, London, p. whether the first ingredient has been

It might be deduced from A.S.(Angderived from intercourse with Eng

lo-Saxon) boda, Su, G. (Suio Gothic) land, or has been directly imported bodian, to declare, to denounce ; spec

bod, bud, Belg. boode, a messenger, from from Germany, by early migrations tres being considered as messengers from of its rude inhabitants? Our author the dead to the living; and A. S, bodia, decidedly adopts the latter opinion, and E. bode, being used to denote an and contends that the Picts were a

But it seems to be rather origi. Teutonic race, who invaded Scotland nally the same with C. B. (Cambro Bis. about the same time that England was tannic) bugudhai, hobgoblins ; Lhuyd.

It confirms the latter etymon, that over-run by the Anglo Saxons. By

Gael. Bodach is used in the same sense. these he conceives the whole of the It seems properly to denote a sort of low country to have been conquered family spectre. and colonized, while the Gaelic na- “ Every great family bad in former tives, like their Welsh neighbours, times its demon, or genius, with its petook refuge in the mountainous and culiar attributes. Thus the family of more inaccessible districts. He

Rothiemurchus had the Bodach an dun, urges,

or ghost of the bill. Kinchardine's, the that there was little likelihood of the Scots borrowing the language of a fo- house was haunted by Bodach Gartin

spectre of the bloody hand. Gartinis reign, nation, whom they regarded and Tulloch Gorm's by Mary Morlaub, with a rooted enmity. Nor does he or the girl with the hairy leit hand. conceive it likely that they should

To Cose. borrow the language of those Eng- Then meekly said the lady free lish refugees, who were driven into To Sir Egeir, Now, how do ye? their country by the Norman con- I rede you be of counsel ciean, quest. Such a class of men would, it le will not cose, Sir, as I ween.




I think your love be in no weir;
Therefore I rede you make good cheer.

New Works published in Edinburgh. The meaning is uncertain. Shaft se THE Siller Gun, a Poem; with

Notes, &c. By John Mayne. suppose the term in this application,

12mo. allied to Teut. coosen, to flatter? Or is it used as before ; viz. “ you will not

The Poor Man's Sabbath ; with change your mind ?"

other Poems. By John Struthers. FASTRYNGIS-Ewyn, Fastronevir, s. Third edition. Small 8vo. 5s. The evening preceding the first day of the fast of Lent. Fasterns-een, (Scottish) Fastens een, (North of England, and Scottish Literary Intelligence. Border.) This, in England, is called Shrove Tuesday, because then the peo. SIR George Stewart M'Kenzie of ple, in times of popery, used to apply

Coul, Bart. has in the press,

“ A to the priests to sbrive them, or hear Treatise on the Anatomy, Diseases, their confessions, before entering on the and Management of the Sheep, with fast.

an Appendix, containing Documents, And on the Fastryngis-ewyn rycht,

exhibiting the value of the Merino In the beginning of the nycht, breed, and their progress in Scotland." To the castle thai tuk their way.

Treatises in Natural Philosophy and Barbour, X, 373. M.S. Mechanics, by the late Professor John " It behuifit them to banquet hir Robison, L. L. D. will speedily be agane; and so did banquetting continew published *. till Fastronewin, and after. Knox's In October, Mr Watt of Paisley Hist. P. 346.

will publish a work on Diabetes, conThe Scorch designation is much older sisting chiefly of cases, accompanied than the English. For Shrove Tuesday with Observations, on the origin, nais not'to be found in Anglo-Saxon. Nor does it appear that there is any particu. ture, and treatment of that disease. Jar Dame for this day in that language.

The practice adopted is new, and Anglo-Saxon faesten signifies a fast is nearly the reverse of that which has general. But allied to our word, as been so generally followed of late denoting Shrove Tuesday, we find Ger- years. Several cases are subjoined of man. Fastnacht, Fastelabend, Su. G. Fas- diseases nearly allied to Diabetes, telagen, Dan. Fastelaun, Belg. Vasten. where a similar treatment has been avond ; abend, agen, aun and avon, all

successful. signifying evening, as nacht is night. Our language retains not only Fas.

Proposals have been circulated for terns een, but Yule-een and Hallow. publishing by subscription, in two vocen. They were thus designed, because iumes octavo, the Posthumous Works all the feasts began and ended with the of the late Rev. John Skinner, Episevening. The northern nations, even in copal clergyman in Longside, Aberthe time of Tacitus, began their compu, deenshire; to which will be prefixed, tation of the day in this manner. Apud illos nox diem ducerit. De Mor. Germ,

a Biographical Memoir of the learned This indeed was the original mode.--. and venerable author. “The evening and the morning were the first day." We have a remnant of the same ancient customs in the Eng. Literary Intelligence, ENGLISH and fish words, seenight and fortnight, instead

FOREIGN. of seven or fourteen days. The barbarous custom of cock-fight

THE public will observe with satis. ing, still permitted in some schools on Fasterns even, is a relic of the popish Camival, or Bacchanalian revels, which * Erratum in last Literary Intelli. it was customsry to celebrate at this gence. For Works of the late Lord S6' dime, as a preparation for the fast.

mers, read Tracts,


3,000l. to the Board of Agriculture, to early in tie winter, printed uniformly enable it with greater rapidity to com. with his Treatise on Consuthption. plete the Surveys of the Kingdom. As Mr Wilkins, jun. M.A. F.A.S. author soon as the whole of the County Reports of the Antiquities of Magna Græcia, has have been printed, it is intended to pub. announced a translation of the Civil Atlish an Analysis of the whole, to lay be- chitecture of Vitruvius, comprising those fore his Majesty, and both Houses of books of the author which relate to the Parliament, a work which, for useful public and privaie edificus of the anand, autheneic informacion relative to cients, illustrated by numerous engra. the actual state of the empire, is likelyvings, exhibiting a parallel of ancient to prove never to bave had its equal in architecture, with an introduction, conany country.

taining the history of the rise, progress, A school has been opened at Cam. and decline of architecture amongst the bridge by one of the young men trained Geeeks. by Joseph Lancaster, to spread his new The Rev. J. S. Clarke proposes to system of education, under royal patro. publish a work, entitled Naval Records nage. Above 350 children have been of the late and present Wars, consisting admitted, and are already in high order. of a series of engravings from osiginal The school at Cambridge, we are hap- designs, by Mr N. Pocock, illustrative py to state, has the approbation, sanc- of our principal engagements at sea, tion, and support of the whole Univer- since the commencement of the war in sity, as the subscription lists clearly 1793, accompanied with historical acshew. The committee consists of a counts. The engravings will be executed number of the most intelligent and res- by Fittler, Landseer, and other eminent pectable persons in that seat of learning. artists. The school is about to be extended to The second volume of Biographical fifty additional children. One of Joseph Memoirs of the late Rev. Dr Joseph Lancaster's young men has opened a Warton, by the Rev. John Wool, with school for 300 boys, under the patron. a selection from his poetical works, and age of many of the most benevolent ci. literary correspondence between emitizens of Bristol. It was proposed to nent persons, left by him for publication, him not to take so many in at once, but will shortly make its appearance. to admit them in divisions, His reply The Life of Romney, by Mr Hayley,

, was,“ No, it is only one trouble ;' and is nearly finished. This is expected to he has brought them into the most com- be an interesting work, that will tend plete order, without rod or cane in the to make that eminent painter niore uni. school. It is intended to extend the versally known :-he to whom Hayley school to a thousand cluldren. A report has paid so classical a tribute of affecof the committee of the Canterbury tion. Royal Lancastrian Free School, held in The Rev. Dr Edward Clarke, of the Archbishop's palace, Canterbury, re. Cambridge, has in the press an account presents, that within the last six months of his Travels through Russia, the ter321 children had been admitted. Above ritories of the Don Cossacks, Kuban 100 did not know a letter, but have Tartary, the Crimea, &c. in one voluine, learnt to read since their admission; a- quarto, with numerous engravings. bove 250 have been taught to write ; Mr Laurence Dundas Campbell is and 120 made considerable progress in preparing for the press an account of the arithmetic. It passes many encomiums Kingdom of Nypal, in the East Indies, on the master, whose instructions in the from a memoir of the embassy deputed plans were received at one of Lancas. in 1793, by the Marquis Cornwallis, ter's schools, and the school itself orga. then governor general of British India, nized by one of his boys. The same to the court of Catmondu, written oriboy has organized the school near Winds ginally by Col. Kirkpatrick, the British sor, which the royal family visited some envoy on that occasion, Nypal is a

country singularly interesting, not only Dr Reid, author of the Reports of from the beauty of its scenery, the unDiseases in the monthly Magazine, in common salubrity of its climate, the va. tends to collect those whicn' have appea. riety and value of its physical producred, into a small volume, to be published tions, the character and customs oi its

time ago.


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