« VorigeDoorgaan »
salem with the heart of King Robert pleasant reflections on the bounties of Bruce : they fell together, fighting providence to this highly-favoured isle. against the Saracens in Spain, anno The western view terminates with the 1330. This castle is situated upon a blue summits of the distant Pentlands, peninsulated rock on the river Esk, whose sides are mantled with auburn about six miles south of Edinburgh, heath, compleating the delightfully surrounded by hanging cliffs, covered variegated landscape. In a word, for with wood, It appears to have been a romantic scenery, and diversified asplace of great strength; and its lofty semblage of the beauties of nature, remains, sinking under the corroding few situations can rival the chapel of hand of time, still exhibit a display of Roslin, a place formed by nature for its former magnificence. The only ac- heavenly contemplation. cess is by a very high bridge, which William St Claire, Prince of Orkjoins it to the neighbouring banks. ney, Duke of Oldenburgh, Earl of
Near this castle, the English, un- Caithness and Strathern, Lord Saint der John de Segrave, regent of Scot- Claire, Lord Niddisdale, Lord Admi. land, were thrice defeated in one day ral of the Scottish seas, Lord Chief by the Scottish forces, commanded by Justice of Scotland, Lord Warden of John Cummine and Şimon Frazer, the three Marches, Baron of Roslin, anno 1302.
Pentland, Pentland Muir, &c.; High The chapel, or college of Roslin, Chamberlain and Lieutenant of Scot(of old called the chapel amidst the land, the seventh of the name, from woods,) is all built of free stone, and the days of Malcolm Canmore, and one of the moșt curious pieces of old descended of noble parents in France, gothic workmanship in Europe. It is founded this most curious chapel or situated to the north of the castle, on college, for a provost, six prebendaries, a rising ground, called the college and two singing boys, anno 1446, and hill, commanding, to the east, a charm- dedicated it to St Mathew the evaning view of objects highly impressive gelist : it is decorated with pillars, and picturesque. Here, in the bosom which delight the eye in a variety of of a glen, you behold the wildest work aspects. They are regulated by sound of the hand of nature; hanging woods, laws of perspective, and are of the Tusand nodding rocks, protruding their can or Rustic, Doric, Ionic, Corinhoary weather-beaten cliffs, swept at thian, and the Composite or Italic ortheir base by the sweet-winding Esk, ders; no person can enter into it, who whose deep-fractured valley, and hol- has the smallest degree of thought, low sequestered glades, are romantic without being struck with reverential in the extreme. A foot-path has, of awe at its august appearance. The late years, been formed down the bed pillar, commonly called the apprentiand border of the river, amongst the ce's pillar, but more properly the shelving rocks and caverns, most ro prince's pillar, from its princely founmantic and delightful.
der, has, on its base, carvings of seve. Here, the student of nature, and the ral dragons, in the strongest or first lover of contemplation, may find full kind of basso relievo, so that one can scope for reflection. The flourishing easily thrust a finger or two between state of the surrounding districts, some parts of the figures and the base. crowned with villas, and chequered These dragons are chained by the with thriving plantations, and, at this heads, and twisted into one another, season, the cultivated lands covered This beautiful pillar has round it
, with a most luxuriant harvest, form from base to capital, waving spirally, an agreeable contrast to the wild sce- four wreaths of the most curious sculpnery of Roslin, and raise in the mind ture of flower-work and foliage, the
workmanship of each being different, memoirs,) were buried of old in their and the center of each wreath distant armour, without any coffin, and were from that of the next, a foot and a successively, by charter, the patrons half. So exquisitely fine are these and protectors of masonry in Scotland. wreathings, that I can compare them The sacristry, or vestry, at the east to nothing but Brussels lace. The end of the chapel, (into which you ornaments upon the capital of this pil. descend by a stone stairy) was founded lar baffle my skill in architecture; I by his first Lady, Dame Elizabeth therefore leave them to the pen of the Douglas
, formerly countess of Buchan, connoisseur in that art. The tradi- and daughter of Archibald, the setionary narrative of this pillar, which cond of that name. has prevailed in the family of Roslio, Prince William endowed the chapel from father to son, is, that a model of with the church lands of Pentland, it having been sent from Rome, or four acres of meadow near that town, some foreign place, the master mason, with the kips, and eight sowms grass, upon viewing it, would by no means in the town of Pentland. A successor consent to work off such a pillar till of his, also William of Roslin, endowhe should go to Rome, or elsewhere, ed it by his charter of February 5th, to take exact inspection of the pillar 1523, with some portions of land neer from which the model had been taken; the chapel, for dwelling-houses, garthat in his absence, whatever might be dens, &c. to the provost and prebenthe cause, an apprentice finished the daries; and yet, such is the instability pillar as it now stands, and that the of human affairs, that just 48 years
af. master, upon his return, seeing the pil- ter this last endowment, Feb. 26th, lar so exquisitely completed, made en- 1571, we find the provost and prequiry who had done it, and being stung bendaries resigning, as by force and with envy, slew the apprentice: what violence, all and every one of the sein part confirins this narrative, is the veral donations, into secular hands, figure of a young man's head, exhibi- unalienably; and withal complainted in the west corner, above half way ing, that for many years before, their up the inner wall, called the apprenti- revenues had been violently detained ce's head, with a scar above the right from them ; insomuch, that they had brow, representing a wound by a received little or no benefit froin them, stroke ; directly opposite to which, Quemailmodum, say they, multis jani along the west wall in the north-west annis elapsis, a nobis violenter detentae corner, is the head of an old man, with fuerunt, it in de vel parum vel nihil proa most surly frowning countenance, ficere receperimus. To this deed of reand a long beard, said to be that of signation or charter, as it is actually the master mason who killed the ap. called, the seal of the chapter of this prentice. On a line with the appren- collegiate church was appended, being tice's head, eastward, directly above St Mathew in a kirk, red upon white the sixth large south pillar, is the head wax; as also the seal of the then Sir of a woman weeping, said to be the William St Clair of Roslin, being a mother of the apprentice, mourning ragged cross, red upon white wax.the fate of her son. At the foot of the Hay, Vol. II. Part 350. who adds, third and fourth pillars, between them the subscribers can scarcely write, and and the north wall, there is a large they are Dominus Johannes Robeson, flag stone, covering the entrance to a præpositus de Roslin ; Dominus Johanvault for receiving the remains of mor- nes How, vicarus pensionarius de Penttality, where ten barons of Roslin are' land, manu sua Henricus Sinclair, presaid to be buried. These barons, bendarius. W. Sinclair of Roslin, (says Father Hay, in his manuscript Knight coram his testibus, (says the
copy of the charter,) Magistro Jo- daughters of noblemen, all cloathed in hanne Henryson de Bengor, Patricio velvet and silk, with their chains of Douglas, Roberto Kite. In the char- gold and other ornaments, and was atter of Feb. 5th, 1523, four altars are tended by 200 riding gentlemen in all particularly named ; first, that of St her journeys. If it happened to be Mathew, secondly, that of the Virgin dark when she went to Edinburgh, Mother, thirdly, that of Si Andrew; where her lodgings were at the foot of and 4thly, that of St Peter; that of Blackfriar's wynd, 80 lighted torclics the Blessed Virgin was in the sacris- were carried before her: she was next try, the other three in the chapel.-- in dignity to the queen.-Hay, vol. II. That this noble design might be exe
In the year 1688, on the cuted with taste, and with the great- 11th of December, about 10 o'clock at est splendor, the Prince invited the night, a reforming or presbyterian mob, most accomplished artificers, masons, in the height of antipapal zeal, pillaged carpenters, siniths, &c. from foreign the castle and chapel of Resiin, the faparts, and that they might be the mily having fled to Ireland, their only more conveniently lodged for carry- crime being strict adherence to the reing on the work with the greater ease ligion of their fathers, the church of and dispatch, he ordered them to build Rome. This mob, as I understand the village or town of Roslin, where from the best authority, consisted it now is, nigh to the chapel, having chietly of Roslin's own tenants. been formerly half a mile distant from
Philo-ROSKELIENSIS. its present situation ; and he gave each Edin. 30ih Aug. 1808. of them a house and lands suited to their rank; he gave besides to the master mason 40 pounds, and to every other mason 10 pounds yearly; and Geography and Trade of the BLACK rewarded the other workmen with SEA, with a description of NEW such wages as their labours entitled
ODESSA. About that time the village From Margill's Travels in Turkey, &c. of Roslin was erected into a burgh of barony by King James the second, at THE navigation of the Black Sea Strivilin, and it became very popu
is but little known, being usually lous, by the concourse of all ranks and performed by people who are not very degrees of visitors, that resorted to this skilful seamen; the charts likewise Prince, at his palace or castle of Ros- are extremely incorrect ; for instance, lin; for he kept a great court, and the French chart, which was till latewas royally served at his own table in ly the only one made use of, sets down vessels of gold and silver; Lord Dir- Capa on the Asia side, 15 miles too leton being his master of the house- far north, and Capa Caraza on the hold, Lord Borthwick his cupbearer, Crimea, 22 miles too far south ; this and Lord Fleining his carver, in whose we had an opportunity of ascertaining, absence they had deputies to attend, having got two very good observaviz. Stewart, Laird of Drumlanrig; tions, which I found to be correct, by Tweedie, Laird of Drumerline; and comparing notes after my arrival, Sandilands, Laird of Calder. He had with some captains who perfectly ahis Lalls and other apartments richly greed with me. This therefore makes adorned with embroidered hangings. a difference in the width of the sea, He flourished in the reigns of James 1. of 37 miles. From the variety of the and II. His princess, Elizabeth Doug- currents, we found, in making the Crilas, already mentioned, was served by mea, that we were carried by them 75 gentlewomen, whereof 53 were too about 50 miles north, and 31
west, of our reckoning. On the 26th, shore. We found upwards of 200 we arrived at Ambelique, a bay near ships of different flags and sizes, waiting the east end of the Crimea, and not for cargoes. far from the entrance of the sea of A- Taganrock is a small city, situated soph, or what was anciently called the near the head of the sea of Azoph, on Palus Meotis.
a promontory of land, from which it Ambelique is the place appointed takes its name Taganrock, or the Anfor ships going into the sea of Asoph, gel Rock; it is in latitude 46 degrees to stop at, to have their papers of The climate is in the two extreines health examined ; we went on shore, of heat and cold ; during the summer were fumigated, and ordered to strike the most scorching heat prevails, and ourseives hard on the groin and arm- in the winter the frost is intense : but pits
, to prove that we had no infection; in spring and autumn, both of which after which we went through an ex- are however short, the temperature is amination as to the state of our health, mild and pleasant. and the condition in which we left The port, if it deserves the name, is Constantinople.
a most wretched one. From the shalBy order of the Russian govern- lowness of the sea, vessels of even moment, ships should perform three days derate burthen are obliged to lie at the quarantine at this place, before they distance of from three to even ten proceed on their voyage; but the of- wersts from the town. Government has ficers being at all tiines accessible to long had it in contemplation to shut a bribe, antedate their report, and if up the navigation of this sea, and the wind be fair, the stay at Ambe- carry its commerce to Kaffa in the lique is reduced to a few hours. Crimea in small vessels, by which it
The passage into the sea of Asoph would form an excellent nursery for is dangerous if the wind be strong, seamen. The port of Kaffa, the anbut very safe in moderate weather. cient Theodosia, lies considerably to The entrance at the bar is extremely the west of the entrance of the sea narrow, and plenty of buoys are laid of Asoph, but if you will take the down to facilitate it; there is seldom trouble to look into a map of the more than thirteen feet water on the country, you will see, that behind the bar, but the bottom is so soft, that in Crim the sea runs down till within amoderate weather no danger need be bout 30 wersts of the aforesaid port. apprehended from touching. We They have begun already to build the fortunately had good weather; and necessary magazines at Kaffa, and mapaying all due attention to the buoys, ny families have been sent to cultivate which are very judiciously placed, got the intermediate space of ground. safe through, which was not the case The adoption of this measure will with some vessels near us, as they ran certainly cause a wonderful improveaground, bnt soon hove off; in the ment in trade. The sea of Asoph is afternoon we came to an anchor, in open only a few months of the year, 3ļ fathoms water. At the narrowest and of those months, in July and Aupart of this strait the Russians have a gust, the water recedes, when a parti, fort called Jeanicoli, which completely cular wind blows with such violence, commands the entrance. The south- that the shipping is aground many east coast being very low, was our wersts from the shore. The water is reason for coming to an anchor, as the at times so scarce on the bar, that no weather was hazy.
vessels of any burthen can enter, unOn the 3d of June we came to an less they take lighters to carry down anchor off the town of Taganrock, at part of their cargoes, which of course the distance of three wersts from the they are often obliged to do. At Kaffa, there are none of these dfhi- plenty and cheap; an immense numculties to encounter; the port is fine ber of vasshetti roso, or red bides, are and the sea seldom frozen; even annually shipped for Italy. in the depth of winter ships arrive at Taganrock likewise furnishes timKaffa, and other parts of the Crimea, ber for ship-building, and the finest which is certainly the best spot on spars for ship masts, &c. 'These arthat side of Russia whereon to build ticles come down the river from Sibesea-ports.
ria; pitch and tar come likewise from From the situation of Taganrock, the saine place : they are both of a at the head of the sea of Azoph, and superior quality. nearly at the mouth of two rich rivers, Caviar, or sturgeon roe, is exported namely the Don and the Volga, and from Taganrock to the amount of its also being in a fertile part of 50,000 puds annually ; it is made on Russia, it enjoys a trade in many sta- the Don and the Volga rivers, and ple articles, not known in the ports in consumed both by Roman Catholic the west of the Crimea, unless brought and Greek on their meagre days. from hence.
The fairs in this part of Russia deThe wheat of Taganrock and its serve to be mentioned. That of Mienvirons is of the best kind, being caria is one of the greatest in the what is called Arnaut, a hard wheat world : merchants even from China of a fine yellow or gold colour, and attend it, and exchange their eastern short of the pile. About 300 cargoes, treasures for our western manufacof 200 tons each, of this grain are tures. This fair commences on the annually brought into market, and first of August (old style,) and contireadily bought up for the markets of nues fifteen days ; that of Coronea is Italy and Spain.
likewise one of no small importance : Besides wheat, they have also a- a great number of India articles are bundance of fine barley, rye, and oats, bartered at it, and at both of them, but the last is much inferior to what as well as those of lesser note, the proyou have at home. Peas and beans duce of the country is exchanged from are likewise plenty, and four of dif- one hand to another to an immense aferent kinds is not scarce. All these mount. The fair of Coronea is in articles are to be had on reasonable June, and continues for a week. A terms at the proper season.
these two fairs contracts are entered Tallow is very abundant; about into for the delivery of export articles, one hundred thousand puds are an- and others for the delivery of many nually collected here and in the neigh- articles in the Spring. bourhood; of these, two thousand tons are sent to the Petersburgh market a- ODESSA, the favourite city of its tulone.
telar, his grace the Duc de Richelieu, Iron, from Siberia, comes down the is pleasantly situated near the head of Volga in immense quantities. It is of a bay, and between the rivers Dnepier three different qualities, and according and Dneister; government has spared to these, differs in price from 15 to no expense to render it a safe and 20 per cent. Any quantity of iron commodious port: they have formed may be had by giving orders at the a harbour, in which ships of no small proper season,
ride secure from cvery Hemp and flax are also plentiful. storm. They are now at an immense The hemp of Orel is esteemed the cost, building a mole or key, which best, although all that grows in this extends nearly half a werst into the neig hourhood is good.
sea ; this, when finished, will be of Hides, both salted and tanned, are considerable utility, as shipe will be