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same author, 8vo. Paris, 1543, (both Ramus begged for his life. Charpen, in Latin.") These two works, direc- tier agreed to sell it to him : and red against Aristotle, made the great- after having received all his money, est noise at the time they appeared : delivered' hinu to the assassins who they caused a kind of sedition in the were in his pay; he was slain, and university of Paris; the quarrel be- thrown out of the window. This cecame embittered, and was carried not lebrated professor never had any bed only before the Parliament, but even bat straw, nor drank wine till ordered before Francis I. Commissioners were by the physicians in his old age. He named, some to defend the Grecian phi- spent his life in the most austere celilosopher, and others to judge between bacy, distributing his income to such Ramus and him. After very long of bis scholars as were in want. and keen debates, Ramus was worsted,
“ Medical Dissertation on Air and and the commissioners pronounced « Food. By Joan. Fr. Rauch. Vienna. sentence against his works and him. “ 1622, 4to, 36 pages. On Drink, by self, which was confirmed by a decree “the same. 1624." These little treaof parliament the 30th May 1543. tiscs have been suppressed with such This decree sentenced the Animadver- care, that scarcely a copy is now to sions and Institutes to be suppressed, be found. Their singularity consists as full of falsehood, of slander, and of in this, that in treating of the effects buffoonery. Such are the expressions of wine and chocolate, he pretends of the arbitral sentence, which receive that their use should be prohibited to ed the sanction of the king : he pro- monks. Thus, he says, many scan. scribed the two works of Ramus, and dals would be prevented. This adprohibited him from teaching philo. vice was so little relished by those to sophy. It was declared that, rashly whom it was addressed, that they and insolently, he had risen against have suppressed the copies as carefully the logic of Aristotle ; that he had as possible. shewn in the dispute much ignorance and insincerity, &c. Ramus, condemned by the court, was at the same
PROCLAMATION by James VI. time houted by the public, and ridiculed on the theatre: he endured all with (From Copy in possession of a Gentleman out a murmur. This is not the first
of Edinburgb.) check, which Aristotle's philosophy RIGHT trustie and right weelbemet with : even in 1209 his metaphy- loved Cousengills and Counselsical books had been burnt at Paris, and lors, we greet you weel : Whereas there had been a prohibition against we understand, that the deadly feid reading or holding them, under pain betwixt Veitches and TWEEDIES is of excommunication, because they as yet unreconciled, and our peace gave occasion to new heresies. Ra- keept betwixt thein only by the means mus, having embraced Calyinism, of renewing of assurances from time broke the images of the College of to time : but since we came so far by Preslé, where he taught, saying that great pains in our person, endureing he had no need of deaf and dumb our stay there, and by our continual auditors. He was involved in the direction sensyne, suppressed that moninassacre of St Barthelemi, in 1572. ster within that kingdom, so as wee do He was at the College of Preslé ; in hardly think that there be any one his first alarm he went to conceal feid except this in all that kingdome himself in a cave, where he remained unreconciled ; and the wrongs and two days. Charpentier, one of his ene- mischiefs done by either of them, as mies, discovered and drew him out ofit. we understand, to others, being in
such a proportion of a conpensacion Is anivtied to the labour of a particular as neither party can either boast of class of individuals, is most entitled to advantage, or otherways ihink himself the praise and respect of mankind. too much behind. Therefore, our By it, men are linked in ibe ciosest pleasure and will is, That you call be- bonds of union ; and by it, a new force fore you the principalls of either sur, is given to the calls of humanity,name, and then take such course for Add to these the concentration of the, removing of the feid and reconcileing, mind, on a particular object, affords a as you have been accustomed to do in more certain and speedy knowledge of the like cases : and whosoever shall that object in all its relations; and disobey your command and direction, the prospect thus circumscribed, and you shall commit them prisoners, and that dissipation of thought avoided, certifie us thereof, to the effect we which variety always creates ; a more may return unto you our further plea- secure path of discovery is held out, sure and will therein; and so we bid. and new advances are daily made in you faireweel: From our Court at the perfection of art Now, it is eviGreenwich, the tenth of March 1611, dent that this economy of labour, so
highly beneficial to society, originates To Our Right I'rustie and right weelbeloved Cousias and Coun
in the necessities of those who comsellors, the Earl of Dumferm. pose it, and in a conviction that the line, Lord Chancellor,
insulated labour of a single individual Lurds, and others of is insufficient for the supply of wants, so our Privy Councill, in our varied in their nature, and requiring kingdom of Scotland.
such opposite kinds of dexterity. It is evident also, that the most rude
form in which this beautiful order STRICTURES on COMBINATIONS, could be recognized, would be the di
vision of mankind into two great clasTHE "HE relation which subsists be- ses, the master and the servant : the
twixt master and servant is of one was willing to resign a part of his the most intimate kind, and, like all uncontrouled liberty, in order to seother relations which originate in mu- cure the remainder, and attain the tual dependence, it is maintained and means of subsistence; while the other promoted by a reciprocity of good of accounted his services sufficient to enfices. On a first aspect, it may seem, title him to his protection and securithat their interests are opposite ; that ty. It cannot be affimed that this the aggrandizement of the one party compromise could arise from a sannecessarily accomplishes the depres- guine anticipation of advantages which sion of the other : but on a more en- might eventually flow from the union, larged view of the subject, it will be from
any considerati n of that beauseen, that this apparent coilison is tiful fabric which the improving incompatible with an identity of inter- genuity of mankind might gradually ests; and that this seeming hostility rear. The immediate cause of their of views is nothing more than the ope- coalescence, was a quick felt sense of ration of that salutary principle by interest ; and the same energetic prinwhich their jarring claims are adjust- ciple still continues to bring round all ed, and by which the one is hindered those conjunctions and subsequent difrom materially encroaching on the visions on which the happiness and rights of the other.
prosperity of mankind depend. Of all the arrangements of modern It is evident, therefore, that this society, that by which a determinate coalition is the result of a balance of share in the supply of the community interest; and from their union, we are
naturally led to this conclusion, that more seeming than real. When we the situation of cach party is bettered. consider that, as yet, there were no But though it may be evident that laws to restrain the violence of the this union originates in the wants of oppressor, and that the necessaries of the parties, and is promoted by the lite were precarious and scanty, we enjoyment of reciprocal advantages; may, perhaps, be led to put a higher it is equally obvious, that the benefits value on that protection which secuthus inutually dispensed, exactly neu- red these inestimable blessings, and tralize each other, and leave nothing may reasonably suspect, that it was to be claimed on either side on the cheaply enough purchased by all that score of gratitude. The competition the confined industry and talents of which, at the first, assorted the emo- these mes could effect. luments of both parties, and allotted In all free states, the exact proporto each their respective share, still tion of emolument to which each para continues, in every subsequent change, ty is entitled is meted out in so just to mete out, with an impartial hand, and equable a manner, that there is every new increase of wealth, which a no need of coercive measures on either fortunate hazard in speculation, or a side to attain a due share of the profavourable concurrence of circunstan- fit; and the appeals which have been ces, may bring round. Indeed, their occasionally made to force, to settle interests are so completely identified, their contending pretensions, leave it they are so mutually dependent, that beyond a doubt, that such violent no change can effect the one without proceedings are detrimental to both, being speedily communicated to the while they are beneficial to neither. other. Under certain circumstances, When the profits of the employer are it is true, the advantages accruing enhanced by any favourable change from this concentration of labour may of circumstances, the advance will be diverted, in too great a proportion, speedily be communicated to the subto one of the classes ; and a period ordinate workmen. A favourable remay be fixed on in the history of eve- turn for capital is necessarily connectry country, when it may, with some ed with an enlarged demnand for the plausibility, be affirmed, that the price commodity in which it is invested; allowed for the labour of the servant and this large demand draws into its was not proportionable to the profits service a new supply of money, and his employer reaped from his service. gives new grounds for competition It is impossible, however, that this among capitalists : every trader, anx-* state of things can long remain. In ious to gain by this increased conthe feudal system, (which was but a sumption for his article, engages as slight remove from tyranny,) the aris- many workmen as his circumstances tocracy held their vassals bound to will allow ; and, for their encouragePerform every species of drudgery, meni, holds out an advance of wages. without allowing them more than bare This advance is, no doubt, the smal-' subsistence and security. This, how- lest possible, but such as it is, it has ever, is sufficiently accounted for by the effect of alluring hands from the the peculiar state of society, and can employ of his fellow-manufacturers ; by no means happen when men are who, in order to recover or replace left to dispose of themselves as their them, must make a second advance. interests or inclinations may lead them. The competition thus begun, is carInteresi clashing with interest, and ried through a rapid succession of ada one claim reducing another, finally vances, till the price of labour has begets an equation. But perhaps the reached that degree at which the prodisadvantages of this extreme case are fits of stock bad so lately arrived." It
is not, however, meant that the whole er himself must forfeit the fruits of hoof this rise is made over to the servant. nest industry. This is so obvious a The principle by which their rights consideration, and so readily forces itwere at first determined still continues self into notice, when a combination is to operate in every change, and metes proposed, that, aware of its importance, out the increase in the same ratio in schemes have been fallen on to avert which their mutual gains bad borne to its consequences. Accordingly we each other. On the other hand, when find that, in several professions, the the profits in any particular line of com- members in the adjacent districts are mercial adventure are lowered by un- so closely connected, that any stoptoward circumstances, to the smallest page in the wages of those who comrate at which it is possible to trade, bine is not immediately felt, but is this reduction will speedily be felt made up by the contributions of those through the complicated body, from who, though not agents in the combithe highest to the lowest, engaged in nation, are nevertheless interested in the manufacture or circulation of the its issue. This, however, does not imcommodity. The competition will pair the real loss; it merely graduates now be among the workmen. The it; and in mitigating the primary redundant capital will be withdrawn; shock, it imposes a burden which is and all those who were supported by felt through a long series of years. It its returns will consequently be thrown is evident, that such exertions do not off. Thus destitute, their exertions altogether proceed from disinterested will be tendered to employers at a re- motives ; and a similar want among duced rate, and will thus accomplish those by whom they were granted, a diminution in the wages paid to all will immediately command back all labourers of the same class.
the sums formerly bestowed. Those who have combined in order All this, however, might be borne ; to effect such alterations in the natu- privations and hardships of a higher ral order of society, as might promote kind might even be endured, were a their own views, have acted in direct probable prospect of success held out contradiction to those maxims which to encourage them under such pressing we have been endeavouring to lay inconveniencies. It seems, however, down; and though their interests are infallibly to happen, that all attempts apparently furthered, yet, on extend- to obstruct the natural movements of ing our views beyond the immediate society recoil with impetuosity upon consequences of such combinations, we the deluded agent; and, after the subtvill immediately find, that they in- sidence of that anarchy which he has volve results diametrically opposite; created, he finds others quietly investthat the advantage gained is merely ed in the possession of those blessings temporary, while it paves the way for which he formerly enjoyed. Such, in another change, by which the natural fact, seeins to be the ultimate effects emoluments are as much pressed be of all those partial combinations which, low their just level, as they were for- embracing only a small number of incibly raised above it.
dividuals, leave their places a priviWhen such combinations take place leged capture to their more prudent among servants, their employers, en- neighbours; and their interest, coTaged at the unreasonable demand, do curring with that of masters, and the not readily assent to its gratification. general advantage of the country, soon In the interval, much time is lost; conspire to fill up the vacant situations. and, not to mention the inconvenience And, as it may be expected, some which the public must feel in having small deficiency in the supply of hands its usual supply curtailed, the labour will be occasioned by the combinaCion, so it may be supposed that this fondly anticipated ? If the object be deficiency will operate some trilling some of those superfluous articles which rise in the price of work; and if this minister to human luxury, it may be rise be more than the employers can pretty safely predicted, that the deconveniently afford, it will also be mand for it will be considerably lesssomne tritle above the average value of ened ; and although the sum given hbour; so that this profession will for an assigned quantity may be greathold out more encouragement than er than formerly, yet, as the cona any other of equal difficuliy in attain-sumpt will be smaller, the total profits ment, and will therefore, in the end, will likewise be diminished. Again, Corne to be more fully supplied.
should the article be a necessary of But, supposing the combination to life, any combination, by which the be so general as to extend over the rate of it is endeavoured to be raised, whole country in which it originates, must soon prove ineffective: not, init must still be evident, that the differ- deed, from any dininution in the deence of this from the former is not mand, (for that must continue nearly in kind, but only in degree ; and it the same) but from the operation of will follow, as a natural inference, that that stretching principle, which the having foreign competitors in trade, combination engenders; and from that even this large coalition carries in its alteration which it introduces in the bosom the seeds of its own discomfi- relative value of those articles, each ture. If, by its influence, the price of of which contribute a part to the sum any of those commodities in which of human happiness. The necessaries we had formerly undersold the traders of life are the measure of its accessoof other countries, should be raised ry commodities; and their proportionabove that of our rivals, it is indispu- al value having been settled, any rise table, that the continental market, in in the former accomplishes a correswhich our goods formerly command- ponding rise in the latter. Carry this ed an immediate purchase, will be sup- a little furtherm-the more necessary plied at a cheaper rate ; and even, so affects the more luxurious, till the parfar as our own laws respecting trade ticular augmentation is lost in the gewill admit, foreign articles will find neral rise; and till it amounts to notheir way into this country.
thing more, than an unsubstantial and In calculating on the issue of a com- frivolous alteration in the denominabination, all consideration of those im- tion of value.
T. pediments which arise from the jealousy which attaches to an extended cornmerce, appear to be laid out of sight; and those who combine, pro. A Journey througk the HIGHLANDS ceed on the absurd supposition, that
and WESTERN ISLES, in the Sumin every capricious or interested rise mer of 1804.-In a Seri:s of Letters in the price of a commodity, they will to a Friend be voluntarily followed by those whose
Br TNE ETTRICK SHEPHERD. efforts have always been directed to
Continued from P. 674. supplant them. Granting, however, that a combination may be so general,
Letter IV. and altogether so constructed, as not to be subject to any of the corrective
DEAR Sir, cheques which we have enumerated, As it is probable I would mention it may still be enquired, whether, in the house of Bellanach in my this case, it can produce all those be- former letters, and the improvements seficial effects which have been so carried on there under the auspices of