point of the island, two other bays, of ance of the harbour and its environs, considerable extent, penetrate some is, nevertheless, wild and picturesque. distance into the country. They are In proceeding farther up the inlet, a distinguished by the appellations of battery called South-Fort is placed Fortune and Despair. No settlements on the left; and another named have yet

been made on their coasts, Chain-Rock on the right. At a conand they are but little frequented. siderable elevation above these, seveCape Ray, together with the island of ral forts are seen. A rock, in the Saint Paul, about fifteen leagues dis- form of a cone, is crowned with a tant from it, forms the entrance into battery, constructed under the directhe gulph of St Lawrence; and ves- tion of the late Sir James Wallace, sels sailing thither, must pass, in clear who, in 1796, was vice-admiral on the weather, in sight of the one, or of the station, and governor of the island ; other. Besides the bays already no- and with a fifty-gun ship, two frigates ticed, this island contains a variety of and two sloops of sixteen guns each, others, particularly on the eastern made a gallant and succesful defence coast, among which two are remarka- against the attacks of Admiral Richble for their extent; those of Trinity ery, whose force consisted of seven and Conception. Near the latter is ships of the line, and three frigates. the harbour of Saint John, which is Viewed from the summit of this esecure and well fortified.

minence, the town and the scaffolds on Bordered by dark and gloomy rocks, which the fish are placed to dry, prewhich exhibit a barren, in hospitable sent a singular appearance. These scafappearance, the country, on a nearer folds are generally forty feet high, and view of its soil, belies not the charac- consist of several stages, on the rafters ter of its rude uninviting features, of each of which a quantity of brushwhich amid their nakedness display wood is placed. They are sufficientneither grandeur nor sublimity. "At ly strong to support the weight of the a league distant from the entrance of green fish, and also, occasionally, of Saint John's harbour, no opening in one or two men. These are erected the coast is discernable. A white in every situation, as well in the valtower, raised on a precipitous emi- lies, as on the margins of the perpennence, seems rather intended as a mark dicular rocks. to warn vessels of the danger of ap- The town of St John borders on proaching the rocky shore, than as a the basin, and its situation affords no beacon to conduct them to a place of attractions, except to those whom insafety. On a nearer examination of terest or necessity induces to consult it, its strength becomes apparent, and the advantage, rather than the pleano hostile vessel can enter, with im- sure, arising from diversity of local sipunity, the narrow chasm beneath. tuation. It contains a church and two This structure, situated on a part of chapels, one for the catholic religion, the precipice, on the south side of the the others for persons of the methodist entrance of Saint John, is named Fort persuasion ; also a court-house, and a Amherst. The inlet, called the Nar- custom-house. rows, exceeds not five hundred feet in An officer of the customs was, until width. On each side towards the lately, placed at the head of the law north, the rocks rise to the altitude of department, and decided not only in four hundred feet ; but on the south civil, but in criminal causes. shore, they are of less elevation. tleman who has been bred to the bar

Heath, juniper, and wild spruce, at present fills the situation of judge the offspring of sterility, sparingly co- of the island. The buildings are mean, ver the rocky surface. The appear. and the streets narrow and dirty. Fay


A gen

Townshend is placed above the town, country, rendered almost unnecessary. and contains the house allotted for the Tbe fishermen are, in times of wargovemor, with the store-houses and fare, enjoined to return to England; magazines, which form a square.- and the merchant is authorized, to reFrom hence, the entrance, the har- tain from the wages of each person

in bour, the narrows sunk between ele- his employ, a certain proportion as a vated precipices, and the water, co- provision, in case of incapacity from vered with sınall vessels, passing and poverty or sickness, for any individual re-passing, form a lively and busy to return to his country. By this pruscene ; these, together with the town, dent regulation, no seaman, thus en. and the adjacent country, diversified gaged, can be lost to the service of . by lakes with verdant borders, exhi- the state. bit, in the midst of a barren wild, a The English and French long shacombination which may, for a short red between them the privilege of dryperiod, afford the charms of novelty. ing their fish on the coasts of this isl

Over a place called the barns, is a and; the latter occupying the southroad which leads from Fort Town- ern and northern parts, and the former shend to Fort William, commanding the eastern shores. The interior is the narrows and the harbour. With composed of mountains, covered with the latter, Signal-hill, from whence woods of an indifferent quality. The the approach of ships is announ

animals found here, are foxes, porcuced, communicates. Its perpendicular pines, hares, squirrels, lynxes, otters, beight from the sea is four hundred beavers, wolves, and bears. The chace and four feet, and it contains, on its is difficult, and unattended with prosummit, two ponds, affording excellent fit. The land and water-fowl are, water.

partridges, snipes, woodcocks, falcons, The bay of Bulls lies about twen- geese, ducks, and penguins. In the ty-eight miles from Saint John's. The bays and rivers are found fish of variinternal parts of the island have never ous kinds, such as salmon, eels, her: yet been explored by the English.- ring, mackarel, plaice, trout, and alA very small portion of land is at most every description of shell-fish. present cultivated, as neither the soil The territory which was requisite nor climate are favourable to produc- to prepare the cod-fish, belonged, at tions necessary for the support of life. first, to any person who took possesThe duration of summer is too short; sion ; and from this inconvenience a and no kind of grain has sufficient source of frequent discord arose. The time to arrive at maturity. The win- property of that part of the coast, of ter breaks up in May; and, until the which he made choice, was at length, end of September, the air is tempe- by the interference of government, serate, during which the progress of ve. cured to each fisherman. By this jugetation is sufficiently rapid. Hay and dicious arrangement, expeditions thigrass are here of a very indifferent ther were multiplied so greatly, that quality. The land is so sparingly co- in 1615, vessels from the British dovered with soil, that much labour and minions, equal in all to fifteen thouexpence are necessary to produce a sand tons, were employed in the fishcrop, which but poorly recompences ery; the industry of the husbandman. The The value of this island soon bequantity of ground used for the pur- came apparent, not only as a source of poses of cultivation is therefore very national wealth, arising from the exsmall, and the prohibition of the pa change of fish for the various producrent state against attempts to colo- tions and luxuries, which the southern nize, are, by the sterile nature of the parts of Europe afford, but what is

still of greater importance, as a prin- from Barcelona, he received a propriu cipal nursery for the navy.

(or express) from the king of Spain, The property of this island was, by full of excuses, instead of forces.the peace of Utrecht, confirmed to And yet the very same letter, in a pa. Great Britain ; and the subjects of radoxical manner, commanded him, at France preserved only the right of all events, to attempt the relief of fishing from Cape Bonavista north- Santo Mattheo, where Colonel Jones wards, and to Cape Rich on the oppo- commanded, and which was then visite side. This line of demarcation der siege by the Conde de los Torres, was afterwards altered, and placed at (as was the report,) with upwards of Cape Ray, on the western side of the three thousand men. The Earl of island.

Peterborow could not musier above The floating masses of ice, which one thousand foot, and about two pass in the vicinity of the eastern bundred horse ; a small force to make coast, and sometimes enter the straits an attempt of that nature upon such a of Belisle, in the summer months, ex- superior power : Yet the Earl's vivahibit to mariners an awful and singu- city, (as will be occasionally further lar spectacle. These enormous mounds, observed in the course of these Methe accumulated operation of cold for moirs,) never much regarded nuna series of years, in the arctic regions, bers, so there was but room, by any are detached froin the coasts near Hud- stratagem, to hope for success. True son's Bay, and Davis's Straits, by it is, for his greater encouragement storms, and other causes. They some- and consolation, the same letter intitimes exceed an hundred and forty mated, that a great concourse of the feet in altitude; and their basis be-country people being in arms, to the neath the sea, usually doubles those number of many thousands, in favour dimensions. Rivulets of fresh water, of King Charles, and wanting only produced by their gradual dissolution, officers, the enterprize would be easy, distil from their summits. We had an and unattended with much danger.opportunity of viewing three of these But, upon mature enquiry, the Earl stupendous piles by the light of the found that great body of men all in moon, whose rays, reflected in various nubibus ; and that the Conde, in the directions, from their glassy surface, plain truth of the matter, was much produced an effect no less pleasing stronger than the letter at first reprethan novel. They become either sented. stranded in shallow water, until they Santo Mattheo was are melted down, or grow so porous, known importance ; and that from its that they subside under the surface of situation, which cut off all communithe ocean.

In fogs, and even in the cation between Catalonia and Valengloom of night, they are discoverable cia; and, consequently, should it fall at some distance, by the cold which into the hands of the enemy, the they emit, and by their whiteness and Earl's design upon the latter must ineffulgence.

evitably have been postponed. It must be granted, the commands for attempt

ing the relief of it were pressing and Singular Exploits of the Earl of peremptory; nevertheless, the Earl PETERBOROUGH in Spain. was very conscious to himself, that as

the promised reinforcements were sus(From Carleton's Memoirs.)

pended, his officers would not approve WHILF. the Earl staid a few days of the attempt upon the foot of such

at this place (Tortosa,) under vast inequalities; and their own deexpectation of the promised succours clared sentiments soon confirmed the


a place of dictates of the Earl's reason. He enemy without a feint of pursuit; with therefore addresses himself to those of- such caution, nevertheless, that in case ficers in a different manner : He told they should happen to be better inthem, he only desired they would be forned of his weakness, he might have passive, and leave it to him to work a resource either back again to Santo his own way. Accordingly, the Earl Mattheo, or to Vinaros on the seafound out, and hired two Spanish side; or some other place, as occasion spies, for whose fidelity, (as his great might require. But having just before precaucion always led him to do, he received fresh advice, that the reintook sufficient security; and dispatch- forcements he expected were anew ed them with a letter to Colonel Jones, countermanded; and that the Duke governor of the place, intimating his of Anjou had increased his troops to readiness, as well as ability, to relieve twelve thousand men; the officers, him; and, above all, exhorting him to not enough elated with the last suchave the Miquelets in the town ready, cess to adventure upon new experion sight of his troops, to issue out, ments, resolved, in a council of war, pursue, and plunder; since that would to advise the Earl, who had just bebe all they would have to do, and all fore received a discretionary commishe would expect at their hands. Thesion in lieu of troops, so to post the spies were dispatched accordingly; forces under him, as not to be cut off and, pursuant to instructions, one be- from being able to assist the king in trayed and discovered the other, who person, or to march to the defence of had the letter in charge to deliver to Catalonia in case of necessity. Colonel Jones. The Earl, to carry Pursuant to this resolution of the on the feint, having in the mean time, council of war, the Earl of Peterboby dividing his troops, and marching row, though still intent upon his exsecretly over the mountains, drawn his pedition into Valencia, (which had men together, so as to make their ap- been afresh commanded, even while pearance on the height of a neigh- his supplies were countermanded,) orbouring mountain, little more than ders his foot, in a truly bad condition, cannon-shot from the enemy's camp, by tedious marches day and night the tale of the spies was fully con- over the mountains, to Vinaros; and firmed, and the Conde, (tho an able with his two hundred horse, set out to general,) marched off with some pre- prosecute his pretended design of purcipitation with his army; and by that suing the flying enemy; resolved, if means the Earl's smaller number of possible, notwithstanding all seemingtwelve hundred, bad liberty to march ly desperate circumstances, to perfect into the town without interruption. I the security of that capital. must not let slip an action of Colonel To that purpose, the Earl, with Jones's just before the Earl's delivery his small body of patrolers, went on of them. The Conde, for want of ar- frightening the enemy, till they came tillery, had set his miners to work: under the walls of Nules, a town for. and the Colonel, finding they had tihed with the best walls, regular made some dangerous advances, turn- towers, and in the best repair of any ed the course of a rivulet, that ran in that kingdom. But even here, through the middle of the town), in upon the appcarance of the Earl's forupon them, and made them quit a lorn, (if they might not properly at

work they thought was brought to that time all have passed under that ! perfection.

character,) under the same panic they Santo Mattheo being relieved, as I left that fencible town, with only one have said, the Earl, though he bad so thousand of the town's people, well far gained his ends, left not the flying armned, for the defence of it. Yet was it scarce to be imagined, that the much better without it. On the other Earl, with his small body of two hun- hand, the Earl was so well pleased dred horse, should be able to gain ad- with his success, that, leaving the enemission; or, indeed, under such cir- my to fly before their fears, he made a cumstances, to attempt it. But, bold short turn towards Castillon de la PLas the undertaking was, his good ge- na, a considerable, but open town, nius went along with him ; and so where his lordship furnished himself good a genius was it, that it rarely with four hundred horses more; and left him without a good effect. He all this under the assurance that his had been told the day before, that the troops were driving the enemy before enemy, on leaving Nules, had got them out of the kingdom. Hence be possession of Villa Real, where they sent orders to Colonel Pierce's regiput all to the sword. What would ment at Vinaros to meet him at Orohave furnished another with terror, in- pesa, a place at no great distance ; spired his lordship with a thought as where, when they came, they were fortunate as it was successful. The very pleasingly surprised at their beEarl rides up to the very gates of the ing well mounted, and furnished with town, at the head of his party, and all accoutrements necessary. After peremptorily demands the chief ma- which, leaving them cantoned in wallgistrate, or a priest, immediately to be ed towns, where they could not be sent out to him; and that under pe- disturbed without artillery, that indenalty of being all put to the sword, fatigable General, leaving them full and used as the enemy had used those orders, went on his way towards Torat Villa Real the day or two before. tosa. The troops, that had so lately left the place, had left behind them more terror than men ; which, together with the peremptory demand of the Earl, Memoirs of the Progress of MANTsoon produced some priests to wait FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, upon the General. By their readiness and the FINE ARTS. to obey, the Earl very justly imagined fear to be the motive; wher-fore, PROFESSOR DAVY has read.

a to improve their terror, he only al. paper before the Royal Society, lowed them six minutes time to re- containing an account of his various solve upon a surrender, telling them, new and important electrical expethat otherwise, so soon as his artilleryriments on the decomposition of the was come up, he would lay them un- earths, by which this distinguished der the utmost extremities. The priests philosopher bas shewn, that they are returned with this melancholy message all metallic oxides, and has thus veriinto the place ; and in a very short fied by experiment what had been long time after the gates were thrown open. suspected from analogy. These imUpon the Earl's entrance, he found portant discoveries complete the histwo hundred horse, which were the tory of alkalive and earthy bodies, original of his lordship’s forming that and form an era in chemical philosobody of horse which afterwards prov- phy. They likewise must lead to ed the saving of Valencia.

great improvements in mineralogy The news of the taking of Nules and geology, the last of vehich sciensoon overtook the flying enemy: and ces has hitherto wanted elements. so increased the apprehensions of their In the saine communication in which danger, that they renewed their march these facts are announced, a most imthe same day; though what they had portant experiment of two Swedish taken before would have satisfied them chemists, Messieurs Benzelius and


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