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After surveying these different tribes, this time was changed to the Scotowe come now to that which has long Irish. given its name to the northern divi- The following account, given by sion of the island. The Scots are not Mr C., of the constitution, customs, mentioned, as a people, by any writer and manners, of this latter people, of the first or second centuries. In the will be interesting to our readers : third century, we find them mention
In the succession, both of the kings, ed as an Irish tribe, or rather as the and of the chieftains, the dlighe-tanaiste, leading people of Ireland. It appears, or law of Tanistry, appears to have been by a mass of evidence which Mr Chal- generally followed. The person, in the mers has collected, that Ireland was family, whether a son, or a brother, who then known by the name of Scotland. seemed best qualified, either from abili. This people seem to have derived their was fixed-upon by the tribe, for the suc
ties or experience, to exercise authority, name from their roving disposition.- cession to the sovereign or the chief. It In the third century, Cairbre Riada, a is apparent, however, from the history cousin of Cormac, conquered Ulster, both of Ireland, and of Argyle, that du. then inhabited by a race called the ring the life of the reigning king, an Cruithne. This country was called heir presumptive was chosen, under the from the conqueror Dalriada, and was
name of Taniste, who commanded the occupied by his descendants. It was succeeded him, after his demise, accord
army, during the monarch's life, and in the beginning of the sixth century, ing to the established law. Much of the that Fergus, Loarn, and Angus, three dignity of the monarch was supported sons of Erc, who then reigned over by the voluntary contributions of the Dalriada, formed a settlement on the princes, and chiefs, which were paid in promontory of Caentir, now Kintyre, cattle, in clothes, and utensils : the mo. in Argyleshire ; Fergus occupied Kin- narch was obliged to purchase the suptyre, Loarn the district which bears port, and service, of the princes, and
chiefs, by similar presents. For these, his name, whilst Angus is supposed they entertained the sovereign in his to have possessed himself of the island journies, and served him, in his wars, at of Isla. Scarcely any period of histo- least, during a stated period. In civil ry is more obscure, than that which compacts, which were so feeble, and adelapses between the settlement of these mitted of so much cavil, we may per. Dalriadinian, or, as Mr C. calls them, ceive what the history of the two people Scoto-Irish kings, in 503 A. D., and and the weakness of the society; the
evinces, the imbecility of the sovereign, their ascendancy in 843 A. D. Mr king could scarcely enforce domestic Chalmers has exerted his usual indus- quiet, and the people were hardly able try to draw up a chronological view to repel foreign invasions. of their history during this dark era. A similar pulity appears to have perAfter various wars and contests, with vaded all ranks among the Irish people, the Strathcluyd Britons on one hand,
from the king to the prince, and from and the Picts on the other, the sove
the prince to the chieftain, both in Ire
land, and in Scotland. The toparch goreign of the latter, who were the most verned his district, as the monarch gopowerful, was dethroned by Kenneth, verned his kingdom: and the chieftains and the Scots became the ruling peo- ruled their territories, and their raths, ple in North Britain. It has been or fortified villages, upon the same pripsupposed by some, that the Picts ciples of mutual dependence of the highwere the prevailing people; in reply er on the lower ranks, and of the subor. to which, Mr C. thinks it sufficient dinate on the superior. Such brittle
ties were easily broken: and during to observe, that the languager spoken rude times, when the voice of law was north of the Forth, previous to this but faintly heard, the performance of period, was Cambro-British ; but after those reciprocal duties could only be inOct. 1808.
duced, by assassination, or the breach body of jurisprudence, consisting almost of them punished, by the sword. entirely of traditionary customs, and lo..
In the meantime, such was the law of cal usages. It was no written law, saith Gavil-kind, which the original planters Cox; it was only the will of the Brebon, had carried with them from Britain, that or the lord. And it is observable, be the tenure of lands, throughout the adds, as their Brehons, or judges, like country, determined with the life of the their physicians, bards, harpers, poets
, possessor. This law, under various mo. and historians, had their offices, by de. difications, continued to distract, and scent, and inheritance; we may be sure, barbarize ihe Irishi, tiil the late period said he, that these hereditary judges, and of king James's settlement. A similar doctors, were but very sad tools. The custom may be traced among the Scoto. Brehon, or judge, when he administered Irish people of Argyle, till more recent justice, used to sit on a turf, or heap of times.
stones, or on the top of a hillock, withThe Irish women, of whatever rank, out a covering, and without clerks, or, seem not to have been entitled even to indeed, without any formality of a court the slightest possession of land, under of judicature. This state of law, and the Brehon law. They were assigned condition of manners, may be traced a certain number of their father's cattle, among the Scoto-Irish, in Scotland, till as their marriage portion, which, in the recent times, Every Baron had his Irish speech, is called Spre', that literally motehill, whence justice was distributed means cattle : crodh also signifies both to his vassals, by his baron-baillie, Unfattle and dowry, which, in those times, der the Biehon system, all crimes were and in those countries, were synony. commuted. Theft, rapes, and murder, mous. We shall see, in our progress, a were punished by a finc, which was very notable instance of this Brebon doc. called Eric. This term of Brehon las trine, as to women, among the Scoto. significd an amercement, a fine, a ran: Irish: the Galloway-men universally som, a forfeit, and also a reparation :rose, in support of the pretensions of a this last meaning is probably the origibastard-son, in opposition to the claims nal import of the word, as the principle of three legitimate daughters of their of this rude jurisprudence was directed late lord: and, it required all the power, to the reparation, rather than the preand all the valour, of Alexander II., to vention of crimes. The mulct, or Eric, enforce his opinion of law, and right, was, among the Albanian Scots, called against the custom, and, perhaps, the Cro', saith Ware. The Regiam majestateez privilege of the men of Galloway. of the Scotish law hath a whole chapter;
The herds of the Irish were so fre. setting forth “ the Cro of ilk inan, how quently within their contemplation, be- * mikil it is." cause, during a rude state of society, It was an ancient custom of the Irish, their flocks supplied so many comforts, which was called the custom of Kincogish, that the Irish teras, Sealbh, and Seilbb, and which is, that every head of every which signify possession, å field, also con sept, and every chief of every clan, vey the idea of a berd, or drove, The should be answerable, for every one of Irish had another law term, Toich, which, their sept, or kindred, when he should at once, signified territory, land, pro. be charged with any crime. This also perty, and natural right; whence we was an ancient custom among the Scu. may infer, that the Irish jurisprudence to Irish. And, it is remarkable, that did not much arise from positive insti. both in Ireland, and in Scoiland, this antute. This intimation may be further cient custom was adopted into the stastrengthened by a consideration of the tute book of both those countries, from Irish word Guath, which signifies equally the usefulness of the custom to the end, a manner, a custom, a statute. Yet, such The protection of bees was a great is the copiousness of the Irish language, head of the Brehon law. Ireland was that it has a great variety of terms, very fully peupled by this industrious which convey the notion of a law; but, race; and their honey supplied abunwe may inter, from those law terms, dance of mead, the peculiar beverage of with their several modifications, that the ancient Britons, while the Irish husthe Irish people had little of positive bandry did not yet provide corn for the statute, or wrịtten law; their whole distillery of aqua vita. North-Britain
still produces heather honey, for the break- grow, where none grew before. Even fast of the rich, as well as for the physic Iona had orchard, during the rugged of the poor.
times of the ninth century, till the Vi. In vain do the Irish antiquaries give kiogr brutishly ruined all. Whatever us splendid pictures of the learning, opu- the Scoto Irish enjoyed themselves, they fence, and the refinement of the ancient were very willing to impart to others. Irush: the laws of every people are the The most unbounded hospitality was truest bistories of their domestic affairs. enjoined by law, and by manners, as a While we see, that the wealth of the capital virtue. Manufactures the ScotoIrish tribes consisied of their bees, and Irish had none. And, every family had the carrie, we may certainly inter, that its own carpenter, weaver, taylor, and they had only advanced from the first to shoe maker, however unskilful and inathe second stage of suciety; from being dequate to the uses of civilization. The hunters, to being feeders of flocks. In division of labour and of arts takes place this unrefined state, the Scoto-Irish long only during periods of refinement. Continued, as we may learn from their Of shipping, every age must have had reot-rolls.
the benefit of some kind. The float Were the lives of saints, during the was the most obvious. The Britons, period of saints, searched for traits of and their immediate descendants, both manners, several intimations might be in Scotland and in Ireland, ased canoes. found, that would exhibit many pew The next step, in the art of ship-buildmodes of thinking, and many novel ha- ing, was the making of currachs, both in bits of life. The biography of St Co. Britain, and in Ireland. These were lumba, the abbot of Iona, has been ran- formed by covering a keel of wood, and sacked, with these views. It is appa. a frame of wicker, with the skins of rent, chat more of wretchedness, arising cattle, and of deer. The corrachs were, from penury, than of comfort, prevailed by experience, improved into roomy throughout the Dalriadinian districts, in vessels, either for transport or war. In every rank of society. Their best hou- currachs, the first colonists must have ses were built of waitles: and, of these emigrated from Ireland to Cintire. The slight, and rude materials, was built the enterprising Aidan performed his various abbey of lona, whence issued, for ages, expeditions, either of negociation, or the precepts of instruction, and the ha. hostility, in currachs. In them, the fate bits of austerity, to a rude people. The of the kingdoms of Cintire, and Loarn, kings, and perhaps some of the chief. was decided in a naval action, during tains, had strengths, wherein they lived, the year 717, as we have seen, in the and whence they tyrannized : during history of their civil wars. the sixth, and seventh centuries, they From that history it is apparent, that had, in Loarn, Dun-olla, Duna, and every chieftain exercised, by whatever Creic, which were besieged, a'd burot. power, the right of making war and Buildings of lime and stone, either among peace. Hence sprung the civil feuds, the Irish, or Scoto-Irish, were, therefore, which desolated for ages, and barbarized late works of more intelligent times. — the Scoto-Irish territories. From their The clothing even of the monks were mutual enmities proceeded, perhaps, the the skins of beasts, though they had custom which existed among the Scotowoollen, and linen, which they knew Irish, as well as the old Irish, of giving how to obtain, from abroad, by means a nickname to every person of any note. of traffic: the variegated piaid was in- But it was only the chief of the clan troduced in tater times. Venison, and who enjoyed the privilege of being calla fish, and seals, and milk, and fiesb, were ed O'Neal, O'Brien, Macdonald, Macthe food of the people. The monks of leod. Much of this practice we have lona, who lived by their labour, had perce'ved in the epithets which were some provision of corn, and perhaps the uniformly annexed to the names of the chiefs, who lived in strengths. But, it Scoto-Irish kings. is to be recollected, that the monks were Of the various practices of the ancient every where, for ages, the improvers Irish, the custom of fosterage has been rethemselves, and the instructors of others garded, as a subject, for particular specuin the most useful arts. They had the lation. By this singular custoin, which merit of making many a blade of grass equally prevailed among the Scoto-Irish,
till recent times, children were mutu- department in which active benevoally given, from different families, to be lence could be more usefully exerted, by strangers nursed and bred. The than in supplying this deficiency. lower orders considered this trust as an honour, rather than a service, for which an adequate reward was either given or expected. The attachment of those who were thus educated, is said Literary Intelligence, Englis! and
FOREIGN. to have been indissoluble : For there is no love in the world comparable, saith Camden, by many degrees
, to that of A LIFE of St. Ncut, the elder brother
John Whitaker, B. D. is in the press. practice arose connection of family, and union of tribes, which often prompted, has lately received a contribution from
The British and Foreign Bible Society and sometimes prevented civil feuds.
several congregations in the connection of the late Rev. John Wesley, anuounting to nearly 1300l. It appears from
the annual reports of this Society, that New Works published in Edinburgh, the plan of contributing to its support
by local and congregational collections, THE 'HE Gentle Shepherd; by Allan originated in Wales, and was afterwards
Ramsay, with a Biographical ac. adopted on a large scale in Scotland. count of the author, and a Critique
Mr. Be four intends speedily to pub. on his writings. With a head and lish, in two voiumes sro. Illustrations
of Don Quixotte, tending to confirm 12 engravings, 4to. 18s.
and elucidate several real events rela. Encyclopedia Britannica, 4th edit. ted in that ingenious novel; to convey vol. XIV. 4to. 18s.
intelligence of authors and of book's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, No. 7.3s. therein cited; to discover the sources
whence Cervantes has adopted various stories and adventures, improved by the
glow of his own fertile imagination ; to Scottish Literary Intelligence. disclose his continual allusions to works
of chivalry and romance; and develope MR , to
nical Surgery in the University lies and vices of the Spanish nation; of Edinburgh, is preparing to publish with occasional reflections on certain a work on Scrophula.
doctrines and opinions which he advanThe Rev. William Morehead, E
ces or supports.
Mr. George Montagu's Supplement piscopal Clergyman in this city, has to Testacea Britannica is nearly faishin the press a volume of sermons. ed, and will be ready for delivery by
We are happy to understand that the beginning of October. a school, on Mr Lancaster's plan, has
Mr. Laurence Dundas Campbell is been recently established in this city, engaged upon a History of India, du. under the patronage of the Benificent lesley, from the year 1797 10 1806;
ring the administration of Marquis WelSociety. The poorest children
comprising an examination of his lordcated gratis, while the rest pay a very ship's system of policy, both foreign and moderate sum. The fact is, and it was domestic, and a complete account of noticed in a late number of this maga- the actual state of the British provinzine, that the benefit of parish schoolsces, in all their relations under the ope. is almost entirely confined to country ration of that system. To the history parishes, and that there is no city in ter, containing a review of the genius the world more completely destitute and character of the people of Hindos, than Edinburgh of institutions for the tan; of the principles, constitution, and education of the poor. We know no policy of the native governments; of
the relative situation of those govern- The Author of the Age of Frivolity ments respectively, and of the British has in the press a volume of Poems, empire in India ; of the general state of consisting of Tales, Sonnets, and Chathe empire and its dependencies, during racteristic pieces. the administrations of Marquis Corn- Dr. Andrew Grant, who has recentwallis, and Lord Teignmouth; and fi. ly returned from South America, hås nally, of the political, civil, and military in the press a History of Brazil, which condi ion in which it was placed at the will contain a geographical and historia period of Marquis Weilesley's arrival cal account of that important colony, in that country. The whole of this work with a description of the manners, cusis composed from official records, and toms, religion, &c. of the natives; inother original documents, of which some terpersed with remarks on the nature interesting parts will be given in an of its soil, climate, productions, and fo. Appendix. It will be illustrated with reign and internal commerce; to which a general map of Hindustan, and em- will be subjoined, observations on the bellished with a portrait of Marquis must prevalent diseases incident to the Wellesley. It will form two thick vo- climate, with hints to new settlers on landes quarto, and is intended to appear the most efficacious modes of prevenin the spring of 1809.
tion. It will form one volume, octavo. Mr. B. Boothroyd has in the press, The legislature of Maryland have and will publish as speedily as due at- passed an act for founding a medical tention to correctness will admit, a new college in the city or precincts of Baledition of Bishop Newcome's justly ad. timore, for the instruction of students mired version of the Minor Prophets, in the different branches of medicine. with additional notes on the prophet This institution is established upon aliHosea, from Blaney, and Horsley. beral plan, and incorporated in perpe
The remains of Hesiod, translated tuity. It consists of a board, called from the Greek into English verse by the Regents of the college of Medicine Charles Abraham Elton, Esq. will spee. of Maryland, formed, from the existing dily appear. They will be accompaboard of medical examiners for the comnied with a dissertation on the poetry monwealth, and the president and proand mythology, the life and era of He- fessors appointed by the act. It may siod, and copious notes ; together with hold property to a value not exceeding a head of Hesiod, from a genuine an- thirty thousand dollars, exclusive of a tique,
lot of buildings. The regents may ap. The Rev. T. Stabback, lecturer of point professors and lecturers, who shall Helstone, proposes to publish, in two form one learned body, under the name farge volumes octavo, the Four Gospels, of the Medical Faculty, with power to and Acts of the Apostles, with annota: chuse their dean, and to do what is netionis, critical, explanatory, and practi- cessary for conveying instruction, and cal, chiefly selected from the most able supporting discipline. The regents must commentators in divinity, ancient and meet at least once a year. The faculty modern. To each chapter will be ad. shall hold at least one term annually, to ded, reflections drawn from some strik begin on the first Monday in Noveming portion of its contents.
ber, and continue not less than four, An Account of the Life and Writingsnor more than six months. At conve. of the late Mr. Joseph Strutt, embel. nient times commencements may be lished with a correct likeness of that held, and degrees in surgery and medi. author, is in the press.
cine may be granted, after due examiMr. Drakard, of Stamford, is print. nation and other proofs of sufficiency. ing a Guide to Burleigh House, the seat Each student must have attended each of the Marquis of Exeter ; to be embela course of lectures at least once, and frelished with engravings.
quented the classes of the college for Dr Smith will shortly publish a work, two terms: and he must also have been in one volume octavo, under the title of privately and publicly examined, and Botannical Illustrations, intended as a have printed and defended a thesis, becontinuation of his Introduction to Bo. fore he can be admitted to the honours tany.
of the college.