the arched cieling; and the whole was the Fourth also attracted our notice. without a trace of painting or any We had already heard of the Golden kind of carved work. Only high on Bull, and the Law of Criminal Judithe middle wall was read the short cature, and also that he had not made inscription,

the Frankforters suffer for their adhe. " One man's word

sion to his noble rival Emperor, GunIs no man's word :

ther of Schwarzburg. We heard They should both alike be heard." Maximilian praised as a friend to After the most ancient fashion, mankind, and to the townsmen, his benches for the members of this as- subjects, and were also told that it had sembly were placed around against been prophesied of him he would be the wainscoting, and raised a step the last emperor of a German house ; from the floor. Then we easily per- which unhappily proved true, as after ceived why the order of ranks in our

his death the choice remained only senate was arranged in benches. between the King of Spain, Charles From the left hand of the door on to V., and the King of France, Francis the opposite corner sat the councilmen, I. With some anxiety, it was added, [Schöffen ;] in the corner itself the that now once more a similar prochief `magistrate, [Schultheiss,] the phecy, or rather prognostic, was only one who had a small table before abroad; for it was obvious that there him. To his left, as far as the wall in was room left for the portrait of only which were the windows, sat those of one more emperor-a fact which, al. the second bench. Along the window though it appeared accidental, filled ran the third bench, which the handi. the patriotic with concern. craftsmen occupied. In the middle of Having once begun this kind of the hall stood a table for the Regis. walk, we did not fail to betake ourtrar.

selves to the cathedral, and there to Once within the Roman-house, [Im visit the grave of that brave Gunther Römer,] we even mixed in the crowd so valued both by friend and foe. The at the audiences of the burgomasters. door close by, which leads into the But all which related to the election conclave, remained long shut against and crowning of the Emperor, had a us, until we at last managed, through greater charm. We contrived to gain the higher authorities, to gain access the favour of the keepers, so as to be also to this important place. But we allowed to mount the new, gay, fresco- should have done better had we conpainted imperial staircase, which was tinued as before to paint it in our generally closed with a grating. imagination; for we found this room, The election-chamber, with its pur- which is so remarkable in German ple hangings and wonderfully-fringed history, where the most powerful gold borders, filled us with reverence. princes used to meet for an act of The representations of animals, on such weightiness, by no means worthily which little children or genii, invested adorned, but disfigured, even within, with the imperial ornaments and siis- by beams, poles, scaffolding, and taining the insignia of the empire, similar lumber, which people had played a wondrous part, were observed wanted to put out of the way. So by us with great attention ; and we much the more was the imagination even hoped that we might live to excited, and the heart raised, when, see one day a coronation with our own soon after, we received permission to eyes. We could be moved only with be present in the Council-house, at the much trouble out of the great imperial exhibition of the Golden Bull to some hall when we had once succeeded in distinguished strangers. slipping in ; and we reckoned him our The boy heard afterwards, with truest friend, who, while we looked at much eagerness, what his family, as the half-lengths of all the emperorz: well as other older relations and acpainted around at a certain height, uaintan ces willingly told and repeated would tell us something of their deeds. qnamely, the histories of the two

We listened eagerly to many a le- last coronations which had followed gend of Charlemagne. But that which fast on one another. For there was was historically interesting for us, no Frankforter of a certain age who began first with Rudolph of Hapsburg, would not have reckoned these two who, by his manhood, put an end to events, and their accompaniments, as such prodigious confusions. Charles the pinnacle of his whole life. Splen

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did as had been the coronation of by strange solemnities, which appearCharles VII., at which the French ed the more dignified because they ambassador especially had displayed vividly brought before us, as present, both expense and taste in his mag- the ancient time, and what had denificent feasts, the more sorrowful scended from it to us. On escortwas the result for the good Emperor, day [Geleitstag] the whole people who could not preserve his capital, were on their legs, thronged to the Munich, and was obliged, in a sense, Fahrgass, to the bridge, and away to implore the hospitality of his impe- beyond Sachsenhausen, and all the rial towns.

windows were filled. Yet throughout If the coronation of Francis I. the day nothing particular took place. was not so strikingly splendid as the The crowd appeared to be there only former one, yet was it dignified by for the sake of the crush, and the specthe presence of the Empress Maria tators only that they might look at Theresa, whose beauty seemed to each other ; for the matter really in have made as great an impression on hand did not occur till night was clothe men, as the grave and dignified sing in, and was rather believed than form and the blue eyes of Charles VII. seen with eyes. on the women-at least, both sexes This was the affair : In those old rivaled each other in giving to the restless times, when every one did attentive boy a highly advantageous wrong at his own pleasure, or accordconception of those two persons. All ing to bis liking helped the right, the these descriptions and narrations oc- traffickers going to the fair were arcurred in the midst of easy and tran- bitrarily infested, and harassed by quilized feelings; for the peace of waylayers of noble or vulgar birth, so Aix-la-Chapelle had for the moment that princes and other great powers put an end to all contention; and, as had their people escorted to Frankfort if speaking only of those former so. with the armed hand. Now, the lemnities, people talked with satis- burghers of the imperial city would faction of the past warfare, and of the yield nothing of the privileges belongbattle of Dettingen, and the other ing to themselves and their district. chief events belonging to the bygone They went out to meet the comers ; year; and all of important and dan- and many a dispute arose how far the gerous seemed, as is usual after the escorts should advance, and even wheconclusion of a peace, to have hap- ther they had a right to claim entrance pened only for the amusement of the into the city. But as this occurred prosperous and unconcerned.

not only with regard to the traders When one had passed through and the fairs, but also when high perscarcely half a year in this patriotic sonages came, in times either of war narrowness of interest, the time of the

or peace, and especially at the elecfairs returned, which always produced tions of emperors; and as even yio

incredible fermentation in the lence was frequently resorted to when heads of all children. A new town any retinue, which the citizens would springing up suddenly within the town not permit to enter, tried to force its itself, by the erection of so many way along with its lord, many negobooths—the roll and crush, the unload. tiations, therefore, had long been caring and packing up of goodsconti. ried on, and many treaties had been nued to excite, even from the first concluded on the subject, though almoments of consciousness, an incon- ways with reservation of rights on querable busy curiosity, and a bounda both sides. Nay, the hope had not less longing for childish property, been abandoned of at last settling, once which the boy with increasing years for all, a quarrel which had lasted for endeavoured to satisfy, now in one centuries, when the whole institution, way, now in another, as the powers of on account of which it had been so his little purse permitted. But at the long and often very passionately carsame time, also, an image was formed ried on, might be regarded as nearly of all that the world produces, all it useless, and at all events superfluous. needs, and all that the inhabitants of Meanwhile, the city cavalry, in seits different regions exchange with veral parties, with the commanders at each other.

their heads, rode out on those days to These great epochs, happening in different gates, and found, at a certain spring and autumn, were announced place, some troopers or hussars of the



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powers entitled to send escorts, who, Hall, the councilmen sat on high, a together with their leaders, were well step higher the magistrate in the midst received and entertained. They wait- of them, and below, on the right hand, ed till towards evening, and then rode the lawyer, who represented the litiback into the city, hardly visible to gating parties. The registrar begins the expecting crowd, many a city to read aloud the important decisions trooper being by that time unable to which had been postponed until this hold his horse, or to hold himself upon day; the lawyers ask for copies, apit. The most important bands came peal, or do whatever they find requisite. in by the Bridge-gate, and so the Suddenly an extraordinary music throng was thickest there. Quite at seems to announce the entry of other the last, and when night was closing, ages. It is three pipers, one of whom arrived the Nuremberg post-coach, blows an ancient shawm, the next a similarly escorted, and people persua- bure, the third a pommer or hautboy. ded themselves that, according to cus- They wear blue mantles bordered tom, it must always contain an old with gold, and have the music-notes woman. For this reason, on the arri. fastened on their sleeves, and their val of the coach, the street boys used heads covered. In this guise they had to break out in a long-resounding left their inn, followed by the ambas. shont, although it was no longer at all sadors and their attendants, precisely possible to distinguish the passengers at ten o'clock, to the admiration of sitting within, Incredible, and really natives and foreigners, and so they enough to confuse the brain, was the come into the hall. The law busipress of people who at this moment ness stops, the pipers and their train crushed in after the coach through the stay before the railing, the ambassaBridge-gate. The nearest houses to dor steps within, and places him. it were therefore those the most fre- self in front of the chief magistrate. quented by spectators.

The symbolic gifts, which were reAnother, and even a far more pecu- quired to follow most accurately the liar solemnity, which occupied the ancient custom, consisted usually of public in broad daylight, was the those wares in which the city presenting piper's sitting, [Pfeifergericht.] This them was chiefly wont to deal. Pepceremony recalled those early times per passed in a manner for every thing when important trading cities sought, else, and thus even here, the ambas. if not to abolish entirely, yet at sador brought a handsomely turned least to diminish the tolls which in- wooden goblet filled with pepper. creased in the same degree as trade Upon it lay a pair of gloves strangely and industry. The Emperor, who slashed, stitched, and tasselled with had need of the towns, granted them silk, a token of a concession granted this immunity when it was in his and accepted, such as the emperor power, but commonly for only one year, himself employed in certain cases. and therefore it needed to be annually Along with this was a white rod, which renewed. This was done by symbolic formerly could not well be omitted in gifts, which were presented before the legal and judicial proceedings. Some opening of the St Bartholomew Fair, small pieces of silver money were to the imperial magistrate, who was added; and the city of Worms brought also, perhaps, sometimes the chief toll- an ancient felt hat, which was always master; and it was done, for the greater redeemed again, so that the same one dignity, when he was sitting in judg- had been for many years a witness of ment with the councilmen; as when these ceremonies. the chief magistrate was afterwards After the deputy had made his no longer appointed by the Emperor, address, delivered his present, and but was chosen by the city itself, received from the magistrate the ashe still preserved these privileges, and surance of continued favour, he left both the immunities of the cities, and the enclosed circle, the pipers blew, the ceremonies with which the depus the train departed as it had come, the ties of Worms, Nuremberg, and Old- court pursued its business, until the Bamberg acknowledged this primitive second, and at last the third deputy concession, had descended to had been introduced. For they came times. The day before Lady-day an the one some time after the other; open court was proclaimed. In an partly that thereby the pleasure of the enclosed space in the great Imperial public might last the longer, partly


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because they were always the same to make their own way through the antique virtuosos, whom on its own world, should early be brought into behalf and that of the other cities, connexion with it; instead of being Nuremberg had undertaken to main fostered with a melancholy kind of tain, and to produce them annually at care, ought rather to be trained from the appointed place.

the first to serve and suffer; and, for We children were particularly inte. the best reasons, should even from the rested in this festival, because it flat- cradle be both physically and morally tered us not a little to see my grand- strengthened. The nurses and maids, father in so honourable a post; and who were always glad of gaining thembecause commonly on the very same selves a walk, did not fail to take us day we used to visit him very modest- from our earliest days to such places; ly, that when my grandmother had 80 that these country festivals remain poured the pepper into her spice-box, among the first impressions which I we might make prize of a cup and small can now recall. rod, a pair of gloves, or an old silver In the meantime the house had been coin.* One could not have these finished, and that in a tolerably short symbolic ceremonies, which reprodu- time, because every thing had been ced antiquity as if by magic, explained well considered and prepared, and the to one, without being again carried requisite money provided. We now back into past ages, and seeking in- found ourselves all collected again, and formation about the manners, customs, felt comfortable. For å well.contrived and feelings of our remote ancestors, plan, when it stands completely exewho were made present to us by pipers cuted, makes us forget all the inconand deputies risen from the dead, and veniences of the means that have been even by gifts that we could handle and used in order to the end. The house, ourselves possess.

for a private residence, was spacious Such venerable solemnities were enough, throughout bright and cheerfollowed, in the fine season, by many a ful; the staircase easy, the sittingfestival most delightful to us children, rooms pleasant, and that view over the which took place outside the city, in gardens could be freely enjoyed from the open air. On the right bank of several windows. The inner complethe Maine, down the stream, about tion, and what relates to finish and half-an-hour's walk from the gate, rises ornament, was gradually done, and a sulphureous spring, neatly enclosed served at once for occupation and and surrounded with lime-trees of a amusement. great age. Not far from thence stands The first business of its kind was the Hof zu den guten Leuten, [house the arrangement of my father's colof good people,] formerly an hospital, lection of books, of which the best in built on account of this spring. On calf or half-calf binding were to furthe common pastures round about, the nish the walls of his business-andherds of cattle from the neighbour- study room. He possessed the handhood were assembled on a certain day some Dutch editions of the Latin auof the year, and the herdsmen, toge- thors, which, for the sake of outward ther with their young women, cele- uniformity, he had endeavoured to have brated a country festival with dance all in quarto. And there was also much and song, and with much enjoyment relating to Roman antiquities and the and clownishness. On the other side more elegant jurisprudence. The of the city lay a similar but larger most eminent Italian poets were not common green, adorned in the same wanting, and he showed a great preway by a spring, and still more beau- ference for Tasso. The best recent tiful lime-trees. Thither the flocks of travels were also there; and it was one sheep were driven at Whitsuntide, and of his pleasures to correct and comat the same time the poor sickly orphans plete from them the books of Keyssler were let escape out of their walls into and Nemeiz. Further, he had surfreedom. For the thought did not oc- rounded himself with the most neces. cur to people till later than this time, sary books of reference, with diction. that these deserted creatures, who have aries of different languages, and of


* Bäder-Albus, a small silver coin stamped with a wheel--a name like our RoseNoble, &c.


arts and sciences, [Reallexikon,] which grations, that he was once asked to could thus at pleasure be consulted, as paint a companion to a picture of that well as with much else for use and en- master. Besides these, Schutz, who, tertainment.

in the manner of Sachtleven, painted The other half of this collection of laboriously subjects from the Rhine books in clean vellum bindings, with country ; and also Junker, who exevery fairly written letterings, was cuted with great purity, in the manner placed in a particular attic room. of the Dutch flower and fruit pieces, The acquisition of new books, as well still life and persons quietly employas the binding and arrangement of ed. But now, by the new arrangethese, was carried on by him with ment, by the more convenient space, great composure and orderliness. In and still more by the acquaintance this, the critical notices which attri- with a skilful artist, the taste for pic. buted particular merit to this or that tures was again freshened and enwork had great influence upon him. livened. This man was Seckaz, a His collection of juridical dissertations pupil of Brinkmann, the Darmstadt was increased annually by some vo- court painter, whose talent and chalumes.

racter will hereafter unfold themselves Next the pictures, which had before before us more minutely: been hung promiscuously about the In this way, the finishing of the old house, were now symmetrically other rooms, according to their several placed together on the walls of a destinations, was carried forward. favourable room near the study, all Cleanliness and order prevailed in black frames, ornamented with throughout ; large panes of fine glass gilt mouldings. My father had a especially contributed their aid to a perprinciple, which he often and even fect lightness, which had been wanting vehemently expressed, that it was in the old house from many causes, right to employ the living masters, but principally from the roundness of and to spend less upon the dead, in the most of the window-panes. My father value for whom, moreover, much pre- showed himself cheerful, because all judice was mingled. He had the had succeeded with him : and, if the notion that the case is exactly the good-humour had not often been in. same with pictures as with Rhenish

terrupted by the inferiority of the wines, which, although age gives workmen in industry and accuracy to them a superior value, yet may in any what he required, no happier life succeeding year be produced of as could have been imagined, particularly excellent quality as in those gone by. as much good had partly arisen in the After the lapse of some time, the new family itself, and partly had been wine also becomes old, quite as pre- added to it from without. cious, and perhaps even more deli- But an extraordinary public event cious. Heconfirmed himself in this opi- deeply shook the boy's peace of mind. nion, particularly by the remark, that On the first of November 1755, hapmany old pictures seem to gain their pened the earthquake of Lisbon, and chief value for lovers of art from be.

spread a prodigious alarm over the coming darker and browner; and that world which had already accustomed the harmonious tone of such a picture itself to quiet and repose,

A great is often celebrated. My father assert- and splendid capital, which is also a ed, on the other hand, that he had no trading port, is suddenly struck with fear that the new pictures would not the most dreadful calamity. The also become black. But that they earth quakes and wavers, the sea roars would actually gain by this he would up, the ships dash together, the houses not acknowledge.

fall, and over them the churches and On these principles, he continued towers ; the royal palace is in part for many years to employ all the devoured by the sea, the gaping earth Frankfort artists-the painter Hirt, appears to spit out flames, for smoke who was skilful in animating with and fire show themselves every where cattle his oak and beech forests, and in the ruins. Sixty thousand men, a other so-called landscape scenes; like- moment before quiet and in comfort, wise Trautmann, who had taken are destroyed together; and he must Rembrandt as his model, and had so be called the happiest for whom nei. well succeeded in enclosed and reflect- ther feeling nor thought of the calaed lights, and also in striking confia. mity is possible. The flames rage


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