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fion, or which they confidered as encroaching upon their privileges, Oct. 11th. Paris. In this act, the to be publicly burnt in heinoufness of the example to a turbulent and inflamed populace, kept pace with the wantonnefs of the infult.

The only public bufinefs of any confequence which was tranfacted during the remainder of the year 1788, was the fummoning a new convention of the Notables, who met in the beginning of November. The object of affembling them was to receive their opinion and advice, in answer to a number of written questions propofed to them, relative to the organization of the ftates general, the mode of election to be purfued, the qualifications of the electors, and of the elected, the -numbers to be returned by the refpective: districts, whether with refpect to their wealth or population, the general number of which the -ftates were to be compofed, the proportionate number of the three orders with refpect to each other, and other matters upon the fame fubject. The meeting of the ftates was fixed for the 1ft of May 1789.

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The unequalled feverity of the winter could not but produce the moft deplorable effects, in a country where the people were already fo much diftreffed for want of fubfiftence. It was in vain that bounties were offered for the importation of wheat, rye, and other grain, The Countries of Europe were in no con

dition, in any degree, to fupply the wants of fo prodigious a number of furnished, although far from fufpeople; the relief, however, thus ficient, undoubtedly preferved multitudes from perifhing. Paris probably fuffered more than the provinces; but the want in all was extreme. The turbulence and extraordinary ill temper of the people, induced them, inftead of looking to the general effect of bad harvests, or to the particular ruin occafioned by the late hurricane, to attribute the fcarcity and dearnefs of bread to the nefarious fchemes of the court, which they charged with the impoffible crime of exporting the corn by ftealth to foreign countries. Next to the court, their rage was directed against fuppofed monopolizers, so that in procefs of time, the property of thofe merchants and corn-dealers, who endeavoured to feed the markets regularly with fuch a proportion of grain, as the stock in the country could afford for a continuance, was not only fubjected to the rapine and deftruction of the lawless rabble, but their perfons to the most ignominious and cruel deaths. Thus every thing concurred to fofter and promote that lawless ungover. nable fpirit which now prevailed; and the common people proceeding fuccefsfully from one act of atrocity to the commiffion of another, became at length thoroughly hardened, and capable, as we fhall have occafion to relate, of unheard-of cruelties and barbarity.

СНАР.

С НА Р. II.

Retrofpect continued. Emperor's conduct in the Low Countries, renews those difcontents and apprehenfions, which feemed happily removed by the late accommodation. Count Trautmansdorff and General Dalton appointed to the conduct of civil and military affairs. Difpute about the new feminary at Louvain unexpectedly renewed. Count Trautmansdorff fends a peremptory order to the heads of the univerfity, to carry the emperor's propofed reform into immediate execution. They, pleading the laws and the conftitution, refuse to comply. Council of Brabant, refusing to give their fanction to the violent measures intended against the univerfity of Louvain, are threatened with compulfion. Military drawn up, and artillery brought forward to intimidate the council. Populace fired on by the troops, and feveral killed or wounded. Refractory heads of the university of Louvain expelled by force of arms. Kind declaration of the emperor respecting his fubjects in the Netherlands, fucceeded by a cruel flaughter of the people by the troops at Malines, Louvain, and Antwerp. General horror spread throughout the provinces. People of condition emigrate to Holland, Liege, and other neighbouring countries.-Germany.-Country of Lippe Schaumbourg feized, on the death of the prince, by the landgrave of Hefje. Diftrefjed fituation of the family. Interpofition of the king of Pruffia, procures the restoration of their poffefions to the infant prince and his mother. Difpute between the elector of Cologn and the pope's nuncio. Spirited conduct of the elector. Liberal grant of the magiftracy of Cologn to the proteftant inhabitants, allowing them to build a place of worship, a fchool, and a house for their minifter. Wife political conduct of the king of Pruffia. Leagues with England and Holland, to counteract the combination of the Eastern powers. Plays a high game in Poland. Diet comes thoroughly into his views. Augmentation of the army to 60,000 men decreed. New commiffion for the difpofition and government of the military force of the republic. King of Pruffia propofes a clofe alliance, and to guarantee all her dominions. Great debates in the diet. Philippic against the emperor. Ruffian party totally defeated. Growing importance of the republic already apparent. Turkey and Sweden feek alliances with her. Declaration by the Grand Signior. Minifters appointed by the republic to different European powers. Influence of Pruffia jeems thoroughly established in that country.

WE

E make no doubt but the public in general participated in the fatisfaction with which we announced, at the clofe of the year 1787, the apparently happy accommodation, which had then recently taken place, between the emperor and our ancient neighbours, his fubjects, the ftates and

inhabitants of the, Auftrian Ne-
therlands.
therlands. The joy in the Low
Countries was extreme upon this
occafion, and the public rejoicings
highly fplendid; for, notwithftand-
ing the turdinefs with which the
people refitted oppreffion, and their
determined refolution to expofe
themfelves to all the dangers and
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calamities

calamities of war in defence of their ancient rights, yet it was impoffible to confider, without terror, the inequality of the conteft into which they were entering with fo mighty a power; fo that their refiftance muft be attributed rather to the violence of defpair, than to a courage founded on any rational hope of fuccefs,

This joy was, however, damped with the more ferious and reflecting by the fore confideration, founded on repeated experience, that they could place no reliance on the faith of the fovereign, and were deftitute of all other fecurity. Some room for hope, however, ftill remained. It became now known that the emperor was fo deeply involved in fchemes of war and conqueft with Ruffia on the fide of Turkey, that it seemed probable his other neighbours, and the more remote of his own fubjects, might, at least for a time, efcape the effects of that reflefs ambition and incurable spirit of innovation, which had been fo continual a fource of alarm and trouble to both. Yet even this confideration could not remove the apprehenfions of thofe who knew the high refentment and lafting animofity which he bore against all oppofers of his authority; which he held paramount to all laws, conftitutions, and covenants; and who, regarding all refiftance to his will as a deep wound to his dignity, muft accordingly confider it as a crime of the firft magnitude. Thefe could not but fufpect the prefent calm; nor were they eafily induced to believe, that all the late violence was already buried in oblivion. They accordingly dreaded, that however deeply his

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generals were engaged on the Danube, he would find leisure himself to renew his defigns on the Netherlands, and means to punish the fuppofed affront he had received.

They faw too well that notwithftanding all the joy excited by the late accommodation, it had been too hastily concluded to afford any well-founded hopes of its permanence; that fome of the most critical fubjects in difpute, particularly with refpect to the new feminary at Louvain, were ftill undecided; and the confequence of leaving any point of difcuffion open with fuch a controvertist, was too much to be apprehended. Too much, they thought, had been trufted on their fide to promised and implied gracious and good intentions; and they imagined they knew from experience at what rate to estimate the value of these. Even the emperor's de claration (which had with fuch difficulty been drawn forth, after every guard had been furrendered on truft to it) was too loosely framed and worded not to be eafily fet afide by the forced conftruction which it might receive. To increase their apprehenfions they had the mortification to obferve, that while no fecurity, that could properly be confidered as fuch, was afforded on the other fide, they had themselves given up the only one they poffeffed, They had difbanded their young, bold and fpirited militia; annihilated all their badges and bands of military diftinction and union; and taken the arms out of their hands, to place them in those which might poffibly use them to their deftruction, So that, with respect to de

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fence, they were in an infinitely worfe ftate than they had been before the accommodation.

The event too foon fhewed how well these apprehenfions were founded. The fpirit difplayed by the people in the tumult of the zoth of September, and particularly the fignal courage fhewn by the militia in braving the regular forces, although thefe very circumftances, through the excellent temper and conduct of count Murray, led the way to the enfuing happy reconciliation, yet could not but be confidered as unforgiveable infuls to his authority, by fo haughty and arbitrary a spirit as the emperor's. He accordingly, who never confidered the multipli. city of troublesome affairs as any embarraffment in his proceedings, or any bar to his engaging in new adventures, now determined, without regard to the approaching Ottoman war, by no means to defift from the execution of his defigns on the Low Countries; but while he exterminated the Turks with one hand on his eastern frontier, to astonish the world by the immeasurable extent of that power, which could with the other break and fubjugate the ftubborn spirit of the Netherlanders at the extremity of his western borders. This would nearly if not entirely complete the defign, which many confidered as his great favourite, of eftablishing one fimple, uniform, military fyftem of government, through all the parts of his vaft dominions; whereby all diftinctions

in government, religion, laws, and rights being annihilated, and the people formed into one common mafs, the whole empire might be governed with the fame regular facility as a single garrison town.

For this purpofe new men were neceffarily employed, as well as new measures purfued in the Netherlands. The lenient conciliating difpofition of the count de Murray, notwithstanding the happy effects which it had fo recently produced, and that degree of apparent approbation, which it would not have been prudent to withhold, and which it had accordingly fince received, was not at all fuited to the objects now in profpect. He was of courfe laid by, and General Dalton, a veteran of great experience, and standing high in military reputation, was appointed commander in chief of the forces. in the Low Countries. This officer being a foldier of fortune and a foreigner, deftitute of all local connections in the countries where he ferved, and weaned by long abfence from all ties with his own *, naturally looked up to the fovereign, from whom he received employment and promotion, as the only object of his attachment. Thus circumftanced and fituated, holding the fword as the only arbiter of laws and rights, and owning himself accountable to no fuperior but his fovereign, it could fcarcely be expected that he fhould hefitate at the execution of his commands, or enter into any ferupulous enquiries as to their legality, juftice, or humanity.

* General Dalton, or D'Alton, as the emperor conftantly calls him in his corre fpondence, was a native of Ireland, He was raised to the dignity of a count by the emperor, Another general of the fame name, but faid to be of a different family, and totally different in character, is now living in the Austrian service.

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But exclufive of these circumftances, he was a man of a harsh, fevere, and perhaps by nature cruel temper; difpofitions not likely to be foftened by a life not only spent in camps and armies, but, as it happened to be, for feveral years in the conftant fellowship of fome of the roughest and fierceft nations in the world, which inhabit the Austrian eastern frontiers, and of courfe compose a principal part of their armies in that quarter. In that fervice Dalton had been highly distinguished by his activity and conduct in the fuppreffion of the rebellion which broke out in the mountainous borders of Tranfylvania and Walachia; where, he, however, rendered himself more confpicuous by the ample execution which he made of these unfortunate and barbarous people, and the unrelenting feverity, if not cruelty, which he was faid to have exercifed on the prifoners. Such a man was ill calculated for a military command in fuch a government as the Netherlands, and in fuch a ftate of jealousy and fufpicion as now prevailed among the people; but thefe particularities in his character were poffibly what rendered him at this time an object of choice, and foon placed him in the most enviable point of view, as a first-rate favourite.

Count Trautmansdorff was at the fame time appointed to the civil government of the country, in the character of minifter plenipotentiary; the governors general upon their arrival, which was promifed to be fpeedily, being only, on the new fyftem, to enjoy the fplendour, and toil through the pageantries of the court, without their holding any fhare in the

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public bufinefs; for their formerlenience was fo far from being pleafing, that it is faid to have been a standing fubject of comment and reproof, at leaft to one of them, during her continuance at Vienna. Trautmanfdorff's appointment afforded great fatisfaction to the people, as he was reckoned a humane reasonable man, of excellent character and difpofitions: but it was foon discovered that good difpofitions were of no avail, under the direction of a fuperintending power which forbade their operation.

Both the civil and military mi, nifters, full fraught with inftructions, and the principal lines of the fyftem which they were to purfue fairly traced out, arrived at Bruffels fome time before the close of the year 1787. They were not, however, immediately to disturb the prefent peaceable and happy order of things. The ftates of Brabant were fuffered to proceed quietly, previously to their breaking up as ufual at Chriftmas, in voting the cuflomary fubfidies, and in making all thofe condefcenfions to the fovereign, which were either required by the late fettlement, or which fpontaneously flowed from their own difpofition, in that interval of joy and good-humour.

The affair of the new feminary at Louvain was ftill unfortunately left open; although if it had not exifted, fome other apt fubject would have been undoubtedly found out for lighting up the flames of contention. But though the emperor did not in terms give up that point, it feemed in fome fort included in his declaration of reftoring the people to all their civil and ecclefiaftical rights; and fill more fully by his repeated affurances

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